Gene Action for Various Grain and Fodder Quality Traits in Zea Mays

Qurban Ali, Arfan Ali, Muhammad Tariq, Malik Adil abbas, Bilal Sarwar, Mukhtar Ahmad, Mudassar Fareed Awaan, Shafique Ahmed, Zaheer Ahmad Nazar, Faheem Akram, Atif Shahzad, Tahir R...

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Gene Action for Various Grain and Fodder Quality Traits in Zea Mays

Qurban Ali1, 2, Arfan Ali2,, Muhammad Tariq2, Malik Adil abbas2, Bilal Sarwar2, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Mudassar Fareed Awaan2, Shafique Ahmed2, Zaheer Ahmad Nazar2, Faheem Akram2, Atif Shahzad2, Tahir Rehman Samiullah2, Idrees Ahmad Nasir2, Tayyab Husnain2

1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

2Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore Pakistan

Abstract

A Zea may is an important cereal crop. To nourish human and livestock, it is very important that the quality of maize grain and fodder must be higher. A study was conducted to evaluate maize accessions for grain and fodder quality traits. Results indicated that higher heritability was found for nutrient detergent fiber, fodder cellulose, fodder crude fiber, fodder crude and fodder moisture percentage while genetic advance was higher for fodder cellulose, fodder crude protein and fodder ash percentage. High significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation was found among grain protein, oil and starch percentage, nutrient detergent fiber, fodder cellulose, fodder crude fiber & protein and fodder moisture percentage. The higher cumulative additive effect was recorded for acid detergent fiber, fodder crude fiber; nutrient detergent fiber and fodder cellulose suggested that selections may be made to develop synthetic varieties for better quality. Higher dominance effect and degree of dominance indicated that selection may be useful for the development of good quality maize hybrids through heterosis breeding programme. Principle component bi-plot analysis indicated that B-11×EV-347, B-11, Sh-139, EV-1097×E-322, Sh-139×B-316, B-327×E-322, B-316, Raka-poshi, B-11×Pop/209, B-336×EV-340, B-327×E-322, B-327×F-96, EV-1097×E-322, Raka-poshi×EV-347, EV-1097×Pop/209 and EV-1097×EV-340 performed better for grain and fodder quality and may be used for improvement of grain and fodder quality of maize.

Cite this article:

  • Ali, Qurban, et al. "Gene Action for Various Grain and Fodder Quality Traits in Zea Mays." Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 2.10 (2014): 704-717.
  • Ali, Q. , Ali, A. , Tariq, M. , abbas, M. A. , Sarwar, B. , Ahmad, M. , Awaan, M. F. , Ahmed, S. , Nazar, Z. A. , Akram, F. , Shahzad, A. , Samiullah, T. R. , Nasir, I. A. , & Husnain, T. (2014). Gene Action for Various Grain and Fodder Quality Traits in Zea Mays. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2(10), 704-717.
  • Ali, Qurban, Arfan Ali, Muhammad Tariq, Malik Adil abbas, Bilal Sarwar, Mukhtar Ahmad, Mudassar Fareed Awaan, Shafique Ahmed, Zaheer Ahmad Nazar, Faheem Akram, Atif Shahzad, Tahir Rehman Samiullah, Idrees Ahmad Nasir, and Tayyab Husnain. "Gene Action for Various Grain and Fodder Quality Traits in Zea Mays." Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 2, no. 10 (2014): 704-717.

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1. Introduction

Maize (Zea mays L.) plant has a remarkable productive potential and world’s leading cereal food crop with added importance for countries like Pakistan where quickly increasing population has already facing less availability of food supplies. Maize is the third important cereal crop in Pakistan than wheat and rice. Maize accounts for 5.67% of the value of agriculture output. It accounts for 1083 thousands hectares of total cropped area in Pakistan with annual production of 4271 thousand tons. Maize is the dual purpose cereal crop as used in human food, livestock feed and industrial raw material for the manufacturing of various by-products. It has highest crude protein 9.9% at early and at full bloom stages which decreases to 7% at milk stage and to 6% at maturity. Maize has highly nutritive value as it contains 72% starch, 10% protein, 4.80% oil, 9.50% fiber, 3.0% sugar, 1.70% ash, 82% endosperm, 12% embryo, 5% bran testa and 1% tip cap [1].

Pakistan have livestock population of 154.7 million heads which produce about 43.562 million tons of milk, 1.601 million tons of beef and 0.590 million tons of mutton. The livestock sector of Pakistan contributes about 53.2% of the agriculture outputs and 11.4% to national GDP of Pakistan. Green fodder is the most cheapest and precious source for livestock food. It is rich an important source of 35-40% cellulose, 25.28% hemicelluloses, 0.30% fat, 28.70% crude fiber, 37.22% acid detergent fiber, 70.85% neutral detergent fiber, 40.6% dry matter, 4% ash, 48.86% carbohydrates, 9.22% moisture, 2.84% ether extract and 11% crude proteins [1]. The milk production of livestock animals may be increased up to 100% by using good quality and highly nutritive fodder [1, 2]. Around 80-90 % of nutrient requirements of livestock are met from the fodder crops but the present fodder supply is 1/3 times less than the actual needs and the majority of the animals remain under fed especially during June-July (extremely hot season) and December-January (extremely cold season).

In Pakistan out of total cropped area of 23.51 million ha only 2.46 million ha was under fodder crops with total fodder production of 55.06 million tons [3] that is not sufficient enough to fulfill the requirements of nutrition for the existing livestock. The livestock feed pool in Pakistan is deficient by 21 % of total dry matter (DM), and by 33 % of crude protein requirements [2]. The poor yield is due to growing pressure of human population, less and irregular rainfalls, scarcity of irrigation water, less priorities for fodder crop production and imbalance use of fertilizers [4, 5, 6]. Present study was conducted to evaluate maize inbred lines and F1 hybrids for various grain and fodder quality traits. Gene action provides plant breeder a plate form to select genotypes with better grain yield and quality [1,7-15].

2. Materials and methods

The present study was carried out in the research area of the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad Pakistan to evaluate the selected maize parents and F1 hybrids for grain and fodder quality traits at maturity during crop growing season 2012. The samples were collected from the field at anthesis stage and various quality traits were recorded (AOAC, 1996) in the Animal Nutrition Laboratory, Institute of Animal Nutrition University of Agriculture Faisalabad.

Parents and F1 crosses used in evaluation experiment

The seed of F1 hybrids along with their parents were sown in field following a triplicated randomized complete block design. The plant to plant and row to row distances were maintained as 25 and 75 cm, respectively.

2.1. Quality Parameters

The grain and plant samples containing leaves and stem will be collected and grounded into fine powder and the following quality traits including grain protein percentage, grain oil percentage, grain starch percentage, grain crude fibre percentage, nutrient detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, fodder cellulose, carbohydrates, fodder crude fibre, fodder crude protein and fodder moisture percentage were estimated using (Proximate analysis, AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) 1996).

The percentage of the embryo was recorded by using following formula:

Embryo % = [Embryo weight/Seed weight] × 100

The fresh weight of the sample was recorded with the help of electronic balance (OHAUS-GT4000, USA). The sample was dried out in oven at 106C for 24hours. The dried sample was again weighed with the help of electronic balance. The difference in the weight was recorded that was the estimation of dry matter in the sample.

Dry matter % = [Fresh sample weight – dry sample weight] × 100

The moisture percentage was calculated was using following formula.

Moisture % = [Sample amount of water (FW-DW)/Sample weight (FW)] × 100

FW = Fresh sample weight, DW = Dry sample weight

2.2. Statistical Analysis

The data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance technique (Steel et al. 1997) and Duncan Multiple Range (DMR) test at 5 % significance probability level and it was used to compare the treatments means. Significantly varying genotypes were subjected to North Carolina Design II matting scheme (Comstock and Robinson, 1948, 1952) to estimate their gene action. Phenotypic (rp) and genotypic (rg) correlation coefficient was calculated as outlined by Kwon and Torrie (1964).

3. Results and Discussion

It was suggested that significant differences were recorded for grain protein percentage. The mean performance of parents and F1 hybrids indicated that average grain protein percentage was recorded as 9.7396±0.0712% (Table 1). It was also persuaded from Table 1 that higher heritability (96.70%) and lower genetic advance (3.619%) was recorded for grain protein percentage. It was suggested from Table 4 that higher grain protein percentage was recorded for EV-1097×EV-347 (10.77%), EV-1097×F-96 (10.67%), B-327×Pop/209 (10.33%) and EV-1097×EV-340 (10.33%) while lower grain protein percentage was recorded for Sh-139×B-316 (9.267%), Sh-139×E-322 (9.200%), Sh-139×EV-340 (9.200%) and Raka-posh×Pop/209 (9.167%). The higher values of grain protein percentage for F1 hybrids EV-1097×EV-347, EV-1097×F-96, B-327×Pop/209 and EV-1097×EV-340 indicated that selection of EV-1097, B-327, EV-347, F-96 and EV-340 may be used for developing higher grain protein percentage hybrids. It was found from Table 1 that significant differences were recorded for grain oil percentage. The mean performance of parents and F1 hybrids indicated that average grain oil percentage was recorded as 4.85±0.0619%.

Table 1. Genetic components for various grain and fodder quality traits in maize

It was also persuaded from Table 1 that higher heritability (96.30%) and lower genetic advance (8.98%) was recorded for grain oil percentage. It was indicated from Table 4 that higher grain oil percentage was recorded for B-327×B-316 (5.27%), Raka-poshi×B-316 (5.37%), E-336×Pop/209 (5.40%) and Raka-poshi×EV-340 (5.33%) while lower grain oil percentage was recorded for Sh-139 (4.13%), E-322 (4.20%), B-11×EV-340 (4.27%) and F-96 (4.03%). The higher values of grain oil percentage for F1 hybrids B-327×B-316, Raka-poshi×B-316, E-336×Pop/209 and Raka-poshi×EV-340 indicated that selection of Raka-poshi, B-327, Pop/209, B-316 and EV-340 may be used for developing higher grain oil percentage hybrids. Findings were reported similar to Yousaf and Saleem, 2001. It was indicated from Table 1 that significant differences were recorded for grain crude fiber percentage. The mean performance of parents and F1 hybrids indicated that average grain crude fiber percentage was recorded as 9.4392±0.0579%. It was also persuaded from Table 1 that higher heritability (91.30%) and lower genetic advance (2.66%) was recorded for grain crude fiber percentage. It was suggested from Table 4 that higher grain crude fiber percentage was recorded for E-336 × B-316 (9.87%), E-336 × E-322 (9.80%), EV-1097 (9.80%) and E-336×EV-340 (9.77%) while lower grain crude fiber percentage was recorded for Sh-139 (9.13%), B-316 (9.12%), E-336×EV-347 (9.10%) and B-11 (9.10%). The higher values of grain crude fiber percentage for F1 hybrids E-336 × B-316, E-336 × E-322 and E-336×EV-340 indicated that selection of EV-1097, E-336, B-316, E-322 and EV-340 may be used for developing higher grain crude fiber percentage hybrids[4, 17, 18, 19, 20].

It was shown from Table 1 that significant differences were recorded for grain starch percentage. The mean performance of parents and F1 hybrids indicated that average grain starch percentage was recorded as 71.966±0.1313%. It was also persuaded from Table 1 that higher heritability (91.10%) and lower genetic advance (1.25%) was recorded for grain starch percentage. It was suggested from Table 4 that higher grain starch percentage was recorded for B-11×B-316 (74.20%), B-11×Pop/209 (73.17%), Sh-139 (73.63%) and Raka-poshi (73.20%) while lower grain starch percentage was recorded for Raka-poshi×EV-347 (71.17%), E-336 (71.20%), Raka-poshi×E-322 (71.20%) and B-11×F-96 (71.17%). The higher values of grain starch percentage for F1 hybrids B-11×B-316 and B-11×Pop/209 indicated that selection of B-11, B-316, Raka-poshi and Sh-139 may be used for developing higher grain starch percentage hybrids. Findings were reported similar to [6, 18, 20].

It was found from Table 1 that significant differences were recorded for grain embryo percentage. The mean performance of parents and F1 hybrids indicated that average grain embryo percentage was recorded as 11.77±0.1120%. It was also indicated from Table 1 that higher heritability (77.30%) and lower genetic advance (2.16%) was recorded for grain embryo percentage. It was suggested from Table 4 that higher grain embryo percentage was recorded for B-11×EV-347 (12.60%), E-336×Pop/209 (12.20%), E-336 (12.13%) and EV-1097 (12.20%) while lower grain embryo percentage was recorded for Raka-poshi×F-96 (11.50%), Sh-139×EV-347 (11.20%), Raka-poshi×E-322 (11.57%) and Sh-139×F-96 (11.37%). The higher values of grain embryo percentage for F1 hybrids B-11×EV-347 and E-336×Pop/209 indicated that selection of B-11, E-336, EV-347 and EV-1097 may be used for developing higher grain embryo percentage hybrids with greater hybrid vigor. Greater embryo percentage indicated the health of the seed and seedlings. Similar results were reported by [4, 11, 17, 18, 19, 21]. It was indicated from Table 1 that significant differences were recorded for fodder acid detergent fiber percentage.

The mean performance of parents and F1 hybrids indicated that average fodder acid detergent fiber percentage was recorded as 22.899±0.2528%. It was also persuaded from Table 1 that higher heritability (96.50%) and lower genetic advance (8.01%) was recorded for fodder acid detergent fiber percentage. It was suggested from Table 4a that higher fodder acid detergent fiber percentage was recorded for E-336×EV-347 (26.10%), B-11×EV-340 (25.03%), B-11 (25.03%) and E-336 (24.87%) while lower fodder acid detergent fiber percentage was recorded for Raka-poshi×F-96 (19.97%), E-336 (20.80%), Raka-poshi×Pop/209 (20.37%) and B-327×F-96 (20.63%). The higher values of fodder acid detergent fiber percentage for F1 hybrids E-336×EV-347 and B-11×EV-340 indicated that selection of E-336, B-11, EV-347 and EV-340 may be used for developing good quality fodder acid detergent fiber percentage hybrids. Higher fodder acid detergent fiber indicated better quality of maize fodder [1, 4, 11, 18, 21, 22].

It was suggested from Table 1 that significant differences were recorded for fodder nutrient detergent fiber percentage. The mean performance of parents and F1 hybrids indicated that average fodder nutrient detergent fiber percentage was recorded as 51.696±0.3078%. It was also persuaded from Table 1 that higher heritability (99.30%) and lower genetic advance (9.66%) was recorded for fodder nutrient detergent fiber percentage. It was indicated from Table 4a that higher fodder nutrient detergent fiber percentage was recorded for EV-1097×EV-340 (56.83%), EV-1097×E-322 (58.87%), EV-1097×F-96 (57.97%), Sh-139×EV-340 (55.76%) and B-327×EV-340 (55.67%) while lower fodder nutrient detergent fiber percentage was recorded for B-327×E-322 (40.10%), B-327×F-96 (43.60%), Raka-poshi×Pop/209 (45.03%) and B-327×EV-347 (45.40%). The lower values of fodder nutrient detergent fiber percentage for F1 hybrids B-327×E-322, B-327×F-96, Raka-poshi×Pop/209 and B-327×EV-347 indicated that selection of B-327, E-322, EV-347, Raka-poshi and F-96 may be used for developing good quality fodder nutrient detergent fiber percentage hybrids. Lower fodder nutrient detergent fiber percentage indicated better quality of maize fodder [23-27][23].

It was shown from Table 1 that significant differences were recorded for fodder cellulose percentage. The mean performance of parents and F1 hybrids indicated that average fodder cellulose percentage was recorded as 28.797±0.2755%. It was also persuaded from Table 1 that higher heritability (99.40%) and moderate genetic advance (16.79%) was recorded for fodder cellulose percentage. It was suggested from Table 4a that higher fodder cellulose percentage was recorded for EV-1097×EV-340 (33.97%), EV-1097×E-322 (36.43%), EV-1097×F-96 (34.33%) and B-327×EV-340 (33.53%) while lower fodder cellulose percentage was recorded for B-327×E-322 (17.20%), B-327×F-96 (22.97%), EV-1097 (24.47%) and B-327×EV-347 (24.40%). The lower values of fodder cellulose percentage for F1 hybrids B-327×E-322, B-327×F-96 and B-327×EV-347 indicated that selection of B-327, E-322, EV-347, EV-1097 and F-96 may be used for developing good quality fodder cellulose percentage hybrids. Lower fodder cellulose percentage indicated better quality of maize fodder [26, 28, 29].

It was indicated from Table 1 that significant differences were recorded for fodder dry matter percentage. The mean performance of parents and F1 hybrids indicated that average fodder dry matter percentage was recorded as 40.178±0.2442%. It was also persuaded from Table 1 that higher heritability (91.30%) and lower genetic advance (2.64%) was recorded for fodder dry matter percentage. It was suggested from Table 4a that higher fodder dry matter percentage was recorded for EV-1097×Pop/209 (41.67%), EV-1097×EV-347 (41.33%), EV-1097×E-322 (41.40%), E-336×F-96 (41.57%) and Sh-139×Pop/209 (41.40%) while lower fodder dry matter percentage was recorded for Raka-poshi×B-316 (39.10%), EV-340 (38.93%), EV-347 (38.13%) and E-322 (38.03%). The higher values of fodder dry matter percentage for F1 hybrids EV-1097×Pop/209, EV-1097×EV-347, EV-1097×E-322, E-336×F-96 and Sh-139×Pop/209 indicated that selection of E-336, E-322, Sh-139, EV-1097 and F-96 may be used for developing good quality fodder dry matter percentage hybrids.

Higher fodder dry matter percentage indicated better quality of maize fodder. Findings were reported similar to [30, 31, 32] . It was found from Table 1 that significant differences were recorded for fodder crude fiber percentage. The mean performance of parents and F1 hybrids indicated that average fodder crude fiber percentage was recorded as 26.845±0.1080%. It was also persuaded from Table 1 that higher heritability (99.40%) and lower genetic advance (7.02%) was recorded for fodder crude fiber percentage. It was suggested from Table 4a that higher fodder crude fiber percentage was recorded for EV-1097 (28.50%), B-327 (29.31%), Raka-poshi (28.99%), EV-1097×F-96 (28.40%) and Sh-139×EV-347 (28.50%) while lower fodder crude fiber percentage was recorded for E-336 × EV-340 (24.30%), B-11 (24.31%) and E-336 (24.10%). The higher values of fodder crude fiber percentage for F1 hybrids EV-1097 × F-96 and Sh-139 × EV-347 indicated that selection of B-327, EV-347, Raka-poshi, Sh-139, EV-1097 and F-96 may be used for developing good quality fodder crude fiber percentage hybrids. Higher fodder crude fiber percentage indicated better quality of maize fodder [29, 33, 34].

It was suggested from Table 1 that significant differences were recorded for fodder crude protein percentage. The mean performance of parents and F1 hybrids indicated that average fodder crude protein percentage was recorded as 10.353±0.1072%. It was also persuaded from Table 1b that higher heritability (99.30%) and moderate genetic advance (17.30%) was recorded for fodder crude protein percentage. It was suggested from Table 4b that higher fodder crude protein percentage was recorded for Sh-139 (12.69%), Raka-poshi (13.20%), E-336×Pop/209 (12.69%), B-11×B-316 (11.81%) and E-336×E-322 (11.96%) while lower fodder crude protein percentage was recorded for B-11×Pop/209 (8.82%), B-327×EV-340 (8.53%), B-327×F-96 (7.81%) and EV-1097×EV-347 (7.73%). The higher values of fodder crude protein percentage for F1 hybrids E-336×Pop/209, B-11×B-316, and E-336×E-322 indicated that selection of E-336, Raka-poshi, Sh-139, EV-1097 and Pop/209 may be used for developing good quality fodder crude protein percentage hybrids. Higher fodder crude protein percentage indicated better quality of maize fodder [20]. It was found from Table 1 that significant differences were recorded for fodder moisture percentage.

The mean performance of parents and F1 hybrids indicated that average fodder moisture percentage was recorded as 9.0951±0.0142%. It was also persuaded from Table 1 that higher heritability (99.30%) and lower genetic advance (2.55%) was recorded for fodder moisture percentage. It was suggested from Table 4b that higher fodder moisture percentage was recorded for B-327 (9.24%), E-336 (9.24%), E-336 × E-322 (9.22%), E-336×F-96 (9.24%) and B-327×EV-340 (9.21%) while lower fodder moisture percentage was recorded for B-11×Pop/209 (8.79%), B-11×B-316 (8.92%), B-316 (8.15%) and EV-1097×Pop/209 (8.91%). The higher values of fodder moisture percentage for F1 hybrids E-336×E-322, E-336×F-96 and B-327×EV-340 indicated that selection of E-336 and B-327 may be used for developing good quality fodder moisture percentage hybrids. Higher fodder moisture percentage indicated better quality of maize fodder (Khalil et al., 2000; Awan et al. 2001; Yousaf and Saleem. 2001; Mazur et al. 2001; Dubey et al., 2001; Rai et al. 2004 and Xiang et al. 2010).

It was revealed from Table 1 that significant differences were recorded for fodder ether extractable fat percentage. The mean performance of parents and F1 hybrids indicated that average fodder ether extractable fat percentage was recorded as 2.9055±0.0262%. It was also persuaded from Table 1 that higher heritability (92.00%) and lower genetic advance (9.09%) was recorded for fodder ether extractable fat percentage. It was suggested from Table 4b that higher fodder ether extractable fat percentage was recorded for F-96 (3.103%), B-327×EV-347 (3.027%), B-327×F-96 (3.017%) and Sh-139×B-316 (3.007%) while lower fodder ether extractable fat percentage was recorded for B-11×F-96 (2.727%), Raka-poshi (2.753%), B-327 (2.710%) and EV-1097 (2.747%). The higher values of fodder ether extractable fat percentage for F1 hybrids B-327×EV-347, B-327×F-96 and Sh-139×B-316 indicated that selection of E-336, F-96, B-316 and B-327 may be used for developing good quality fodder ether extractable fat percentage hybrids. Higher fodder ether extractable fat percentage indicated better quality of maize fodder. Findings were found similar to [11, 25].

It was shown from Table 1 that significant differences were recorded for fodder nitrogen free extract percentage. The mean performance of parents and F1 hybrids indicated that average fodder nitrogen free extract percentage was recorded as 41.861±0.3720%. It was also persuaded from Table 1 that higher heritability (91.75%) and lower genetic advance (9.143%) was recorded for fodder nitrogen free extract percentage. It was suggested from Table 4b that higher fodder ether extractable fat percentage was recorded for E-336 (46.11%), B-11×Pop/209 (46.28%), B-327×F-96 (46.28%) and E-336×E-322 (46.18%) while lower fodder nitrogen free extract percentage was recorded for B-327 × Pop/209 (39.11%), Raka-poshi (37.84%), EV-347 (39.56%) and Sh-139 (38.84%). The higher values of fodder nitrogen free extract percentage for F1 hybrids B-11×Pop/209, B-327×F-96 and E-336×E-322 indicated that selection of E-336, F-96, B-11 and B-327 may be used for developing good quality fodder nitrogen free extract percentage hybrids. Higher fodder nitrogen free extract percentage indicated better quality of maize fodder [20, 24, 25].

It was indicated from Table 1 that significant differences were recorded for fodder ash percentage. The mean performance of parents and F1 hybrids indicated that average fodder ash percentage was recorded as 8.9026±0.100%. It was also persuaded from Table 1 that higher heritability (94.91%) and moderate genetic advance (14.362%) was recorded for fodder ash percentage. It was suggested from Table 4b that higher fodder ash percentage was recorded for EV-1097×F-96 (9.69%), EV-1097×E-322 (9.80%), B-11×EV-340 (9.91%) and B-11×E-322 (11.17%) while lower fodder ash percentage was recorded for B-11 × F-96 (8.14%), Raka-poshi (8.06%), B-11×EV-347 (8.05%) and Sh-139 (8.11%). The higher values of fodder ash percentage for F1 hybrids EV-1097×F-96, EV-1097×E-322, B-11×EV-340 and B-11×E-322 indicated that selection of EV-1097, F-96, B-11 and EV-340 may be used for developing good quality fodder ash percentage hybrids. Higher fodder ash percentage indicated better quality of maize fodder [20, 35].

3.1. Correlation Analysis

It was found that a positive significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation was found between grain protein percentage and grain oil percentage, embryo percentage, nutrient detergent fiber, cellulose percentage and dry matter percentage while a significant and negative correlation was found for fodder crude protein and ether extractable fat percentage at both genotypic and phenotypic levels (Table 2 and 2a). Significant correlations indicated that selection of good grain and fodder quality may be helpful for improving maize germplasm (Xiang et al. 2010; Ali et al. 2011b and Ali et al. 2012a). It was suggested that a positive significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation was found between grain oil percentage and grain protein percentage, embryo percentage and nitrogen free extract percentage while a significant and negative correlation was found for grain starch percentage, fodder crude protein and ether extractable fat percentage at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. Significant correlations indicated that selection of good grain and fodder quality may be helpful for improving maize breeding material (Table 2 and 2a). Findings were found similar to Ali et al [7].

It was revealed from Table 2 and 2a that a positive significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation was found between grain crude fiber percentage and embryo percentage and fodder moisture percentage. It was suggested that a negative significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation was found between grain starch percentage and grain oil percentage, nutrient detergent fiber, cellulose percentage, fodder moisture percentage and nitrogen free extract percentage (Table 2 and 2a). The quality of fodder may be enhanced by selecting genotypes on the basis of nutrient detergent fiber percentage [15, 36]. It was persuaded from Table 2 and 2a that a positive significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation was found between embryo percentage and grain oil and protein percentage, grain crude fiber percentage, acid detergent fiber and fodder moisture percentage while a significant and negative correlation was found for nutrient detergent fiber, cellulose percentage, fodder ash percentage and ether extractable fat percentage at both genotypic and phenotypic levels.

Table 2. Genotypic correlations of various grain and fodder quality traits in maize

It was found that a positive significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation was found between acid detergent fiber and embryo percentage, nutrient detergent fiber, fodder crude protein percentage and fodder moisture percentage while a significant and negative correlation was found for nitrogen free extract percentage at both genotypic and phenotypic levels (Table 2 and 2a). It was revealed that a positive significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation was found between nutrient detergent fiber and grain protein percentage, acid detergent fiber, fodder crude fiber percentage, cellulose percentage and fodder dry matter percentage while a significant and negative correlation was found for embryo percentage, grain starch percentage and nitrogen free extract percentage at both genotypic and phenotypic levels (Table 2 and 2a). Positive and significant correlations suggested that grain and fodder quality may be improved by selecting genotypes on the basis of grain protein and starch maize germplasm [37, 38]. It was suggested that a positive significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation was found between cellulose percentage and nutrient detergent fiber, grain protein percentage, fodder crude fiber percentage and fodder dry matter percentage while a significant and negative correlation was found for embryo percentage, grain starch percentage and fodder moisture percentage at both genotypic and phenotypic levels (Table 2 and 2a). It was revealed that a positive significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation was found between fodder dry matter percentage and cellulose percentage, nutrient detergent fiber, grain protein percentage and fodder ash percentage while a significant and negative correlation was found for nitrogen free extract percentage at both genotypic and phenotypic levels (Table 2 and 2a). Good grain and fodder quality may be improved for maize germplasm [7, 15, 31, 38]. It was suggested from Table 2 and 2a that a positive significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation was found between fodder crude fiber percentage and cellulose percentage and nutrient detergent fiber while a significant and negative correlation was found for ether extractable fat percentage and nitrogen free extract percentage at both genotypic and phenotypic levels.

Table 2a. Phenotypic correlations among various grain and fodder quality traits in maize

It was shown from results that a positive significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation was found between fodder crude protein percentage and acid detergent fiber while a significant and negative correlation was found for grain protein and oil percentage and nitrogen free extract percentage at both genotypic and phenotypic levels (Table 2 and 2a). It was indicated from results that a positive significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation was found between fodder moisture percentage and grain crude fiber percentage, embryo percentage and acid detergent fiber while a significant and negative correlation was found for grain starch percentage, cellulose percentage and fodder ash percentage at both genotypic and phenotypic levels (Table 2 and 2a). Significant correlations higher grain and fodder quality maize germplasm may be developed [18, 24, 28, 38, 39].

It was persuaded from Table 2 and 2a that a negative significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation was found between fodder ether extractable fat percentage and fodder moisture percentage and grain protein, oil, starch, embryo percentage, fodder dry matter percentage and fodder crude fithat a positive significant genotypic and phenotypic correber percentage. It was suggested from Table 2 and 2a lation was found between fodder nitrogen free extract percentage and grain oil percentage while a significant and negative correlation was found for acid detergent fiber, nutrient detergent fiber, fodder crude fiber percentage and fodder crude protein percentage at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. It was suggested from Table 2 and 2a that a positive significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation was found between fodder ash percentage and fodder dry matter percentage while a significant and negative correlation was found for embryo percentage and fodder moisture percentage [3, 7, 15, 21, 36].

3.2. North Carolina Mating Design-II

Table 3(a). Analysis of variance for grain and fodder quality traits in maize (North Carolina matting design-II)

(b). various genetic components for grain and fodder quality traits in maize (North Carolina matting design-II)

Table 3a. (a). Analysis of variance for fodder quality traits of maize (North Carolina matting design-II)

(b). various genetic components for fodder quality traits of maize (North Carolina matting design-II)

Table 4. Statistical significance of parents and F1 hybrids of maize for various grain quality traits

Table 4a. Statistical significance of parents and F1 hybrids of maize for various fodder quality traits

Table 4b.Statistical significance of parents and F1 hybrids of maize for various fodder quality traits

It was suggested from results given in Table 3 that significant differences were found for grain protein percentage. The results also indicated that higher additive variance for male × female interaction was found for fodder crude fiber, fodder nitrogen free extract (carbohydrates), acid detergent fiber, nutrient detergent fiber and fodder cellulose while lowest for fodder moisture percentage and ether extractable fat. Higher female additive variance as reported for acid detergent fiber, fodder crude fiber, nutrient detergent fiber and fodder cellulose while lowest for grain crude fiber, fodder moisture percentage and ether extractable fat. Higher male additive variance was found for acid detergent fiber, nutrient detergent fiber and fodder ash percentage. The higher cumulative additive effect was recorded for acid detergent fiber, fodder crude fiber, nutrient detergent fiber and fodder cellulose while lowest for grain crude fiber, fodder moisture percentage and ether extractable fat but higher dominance effect was recorded for grain starch percentage, acid detergent fiber, fodder crude fiber, nutrient detergent fiber, fodder dry matter, fodder ash, fodder crude fiber and fodder cellulose while lowest was recorded for fodder moisture percentage and ether extractable fat. The highest degree of dominance was recorded for grain crude fiber, fodder crude fiber and fodder ash percentage while lowest was for fodder nitrogen free extract. Higher values of dominance effect and degree of dominance indicated that over type of dominance gene action was shown for grain and fodder quality traits. The over dominance and higher degree of dominance indicated that selection on the basis of grain and fodder quality may be helpful for the development of hybrid seed with better grain and fodder quality [39-42][39].

3.3. Principle Component Bi-plot Analysis

It was suggested from principle component bi-plot 1 that the inbred lines B-11, B-336, Sh-139 and EV-1097 and F1 hybrids B-11×EV-347, B-336×Pop/209, B-336×B-316, B-336×E-322 and Sh-139×F-96 performed well for grain oil percentage, grain crude protein percentage, grain starch percentage and embryo percentage. The performance of B-11, B-11×EV-347, EV-1097×E-322, Sh-139×B-316, B-327×E-322 and Sh-139×F-96 was higher for ether extractable fat percentage, ash percentage, fodder cellulose percentage, fodder crude fiber percentage and acid detergent percentage (principle component bi-plot 2) while B-316, Raka-poshi, B-11×Pop/209, B-336×EV-340, B-327×E-322, B-327×F-96, EV-1097×E-322, Raka-poshi×EV-347, EV-1097×Pop/209 and EV-1097×EV-340 performed better for fodder moisture percentage, nitrogen free extract percentage (carbohydrates %), nutrient detergent fiber percentage, fodder crude protein percentage and fodder dry matter percentage (principle component bi-plot 3). It was concluded from principle component bi-plot analysis that the accessions that performed better for all grain and fodder quality traits may be used for the development of good quality maize hybrids and synthetic varieties to improve maize yield and production. Results were in favor of the finds reported by [11, 20, 21, 43].

4. Conclusions

From prescribed study, it was reported from results that higher heritability, genetic advance, significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation and cumulative additive effect for grain protein percentage, grain oil percentage, grain starch percentage, nutrient detergent fiber, fodder cellulose, fodder crude fiber, fodder crude protein and fodder moisture percentage suggested that selections may be made to develop synthetic varieties for better quality but higher dominance effect and degree of dominance indicated that selection may be useful for the development of good quality maize hybrids through heterosis breeding program. Principle component bi-plot analysis indicated that B-11×EV-347, B-11, Sh-139, EV-1097×E-322, Sh-139×B-316, B-327×E-322, B-316, Raka-poshi, B-11×Pop/209, B-336×EV-340, B-327×E-322, B-327×F-96, EV-1097×E-322, Raka-poshi×EV-347, EV-1097×Pop/209 and EV-1097×EV-340 performed better for grain and fodder quality and may be used for improvement of grain and fodder quality of maize.

Acknowledgment

We are thankful to Higher Education Commission of Pakistan supporting us for this research.

Conflict of Interest

Authors have shown no conflict of interest.

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