Open Access Peer-reviewed

Effectiveness of Crowberry on Plasma Total Antioxidant Status, Lipid Profile and Homocysteine

Shin Young Park1, Sang Pyung Lee2,

1Department of Clinical Pathology, Cheju Halla University, South Korea

2Neuroscience Center, Cheju Halla Hospital, South Korea

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013, 1(4), 37-41. DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-1-4-1
Published online: August 25, 2017

Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess whether the consumption of crowberry could affect serum lipid profile, homocysteine (Hcy) level, and antioxidant status of healthy subjects. Out of 55 healthy volunteered subjects, 51 completed this investigation to final analysis. Each subject consumed 2 grams of powdered crowberries everyday for four weeks. Crowberry consumption led to significant increase in total antioxidant status (TAS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), while it resulted in significant decrease in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The differences in the levels of antioxidant markers and lipid profiles taken before and after crowberry intake were most significant. The levels of Hcy, catalase, T-cho, triglyceride, and LDL in the higher T-cho group decreased significantly after crowberry intake. Furthermore, this study revealed a significant positive correlation between Hcy level and body weight index (BMI). Crowberry intake improved lipid profile as demonstrated by having decreased T-cho, TG and LDL; increased antioxidative reactions (such as TAS or SOD enzymatic activities) and decreased Hcy levels in healthy subjects.

Keywords:

crowberry, antioxidative activity, homocysteine, lipid profile
[1]  Basu, A., Rhone, M. and Lyons, T.J, “Berries: emerging impact on cardiovascular health,” Nutrition Reviews, 68(3). 168-177. Mar. 2010.View Article  PubMed
 
[2]  Nagao, T., Hase, T. and Tokimitsu, I, “A green tea extract high in catechins reduces body fat and cardiovascular risks in humans,” Obesity, 15(6). 1473-1483. Jun. 2007.View Article  PubMed
 
[3]  Zaveri, N.T, “Green tea and its polyphenolic catechins: medicinal uses in cancer and noncancer applications,” Life Sciences, 78(18). 2073-2080. Mar. 2006.View Article  PubMed
 
[4]  Bosetti, C., Spertini, L., Parpinel, M., Gnagnarella, P., Lagiou, P., Negri, E., Franceschi, S., Montella, M., Peterson, J., Dwyer, J., Giacosa, A. and La Vecchia, C, “Flavonoids and breast cancer risk in Italy,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers&Prevention, 14(4). 805-808. Apr. 2005.View Article  PubMed
 
[5]  Riboli, E. and Norat, T, “Epidemiologic evidence of the protective effect of fruit and vegetables on cancer risk,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78(3 suppl.). 559S-569S. Sep. 2003. PubMed
 
[6]  Rietveld, A. and Wiseman, S, “Antioxidant effects of tea: evidence from human clinical trials,” The Journal of Nutrition, 133(10). 3285S-3292S. Oct. 2003. PubMed
 
[7]  Moselhy, S.S. and Demerdash, S.H, “Plasma homocysteine and oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease,” Disease Markers, 19(1). 27-31. Dec. 2003.View Article  PubMed
 
[8]  Tyagi, N., Sedoris, K.C., Steed, M., Ovechkin, A.V., Moshal, K.S. and Tyagi, S.C, “Mechanisms of homocysteine-induced oxidative stress,” American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 289(6). H2649-2656. Dec. 2005.View Article  PubMed
 
[9]  Park, S.Y., Lee, E.S., Han, S.H., Lee, H.Y. and Lee, S.J, "Antioxidative effects of two native berry species, Empetrum nigrum Var. Japonicum K. Koch and Rubus buergeri Miq., from the Jeju Island of Korea", Journal of Food Biochemistry, 36(6). 675-682. Dec. 2012.View Article
 
[10]  Mezesova, L., Bartekova, M., Javorkova, V., Vlkovicova, J., Breier, A. and Vrbjar, N, “Effect of quercetin on kinetic properties of renal Na,K-ATPase in normotensive and hypertensive rats,” Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 61(5). 593-598. Oct. 2010. PubMed
 
[11]  Ogawa, K., Sakakibara, H., Iwata, R., Ishii, T., Sato, T., Goda, T., Shimoi, K. and Kumazawa, S, “Anthocyanin composition and antioxidant activity of the Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) and other berries,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(12). 4457-4462. Jun. 2008.View Article  PubMed
 
[12]  Cao, G. and Prior, R.L, “Comparison of different analytical methods for assessing total antioxidant capacity of human serum,” Clinical Chemistry, 44(6). 1309-1315. Jun. 1998. PubMed
 
[13]  Defuria, J., Bennett, G., Strissel, K.J., Perfield, J.W., 2nd, Milbury, P.E., Greenberg, A.S. and Obin, M.S, “Dietary blueberry attenuates whole-body insulin resistance in high fat-fed mice by reducing adipocyte death and its inflammatory sequelae,” The Journal of Nutrition, 139(8). 1510-1516. Aug. 2009.View Article  PubMed
 
[14]  Prior, R.L., Wu, X., Gu, L., Hager, T.J., Hager, A. and Howard, L.R, “Whole berries versus berry anthocyanins: interactions with dietary fat levels in the C57BL/6J mouse model of obesity,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(3). 647-653. Feb. 2008.View Article  PubMed
 
[15]  Noda, Y., Kaneyuki, T., Mori, A. and Packer, L, “Antioxidant activities of pomegranate fruit extract and its anthocyanidins: delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(1). 166-171. Jan. 2002.View Article  PubMed
 
[16]  Heinonen, M, “Antioxidant activity and antimicrobial effect of berry phenolics--a Finnish perspective,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 51(6). 684-691. Jun. 2007.View Article  PubMed
 
[17]  Wu, X., Kang, J., Xie, C., Burris, R., Ferguson, M.E., Badger, T.M. and Nagarajan, S, “Dietary blueberries attenuate atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice by upregulating antioxidant enzyme expression,” The Journal of Nutrition, 140(9). 1628-1632. Sep. 2010.View Article  PubMed
 
[18]  Chen, P., Chien, K., Su, T., Chang, C., Liu, T., Cheng, H. and Tsai, C, “Dietary sesame reduces serum cholesterol and enhances antioxidant capacity in hypercholesterolemia,” Nutrition Research, 25(6). 559-567. Jun. 2005.View Article
 
[19]  Mccully, K.S, 1969. “Vascular pathology of homocysteinemia: implications for the pathogenesis of homocysteinemia: implications for the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis,” The American Journal of Pathology, 56(1). 111-128. Jul. 1969. PubMed
 
[20]  Targher, G., Bertolini, L., Zenari, L., Cacciatori, V., Muggeo, M., Faccini, G. and Zoppini, G, “Cigarette smoking and plasma total homocysteine levels in young adults with type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, 23(4). 524-528. Apr. 2000.View Article  PubMed
 
[21]  Blom, H.J, “Determinants of plasma homocysteine,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67(2). 188-189. Feb. 1998. PubMed
 
[22]  Bergmark, C., Mansoor, M.A., Svardal, A. and De Faire, U, “Redox status of plasma homocysteine and related aminothiols in smoking and nonsmoking young adults,” Clinical Chemistry, 43(10). 1997-1999. Oct. 1997. PubMed
 
[23]  Prior, R.L., Wu, X., Gu, L., Hager, T.J., Hager, A. and Howard, L.R, “Whole berries versus berry anthocyanins: interactions with dietary fat levels in the C57BL/6J mouse model of obesity,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(3). 647-653. Feb. 2008.View Article  PubMed
 
[24]  Manach, C., Mazur, A. and Scalbert, A, “Polyphenols and prevention of cardiovascular diseases,” Current Opinion in Lipidology, 16(1). 77-84. Feb. 2005.View Article  PubMed
 
[25]  Aprikian, O., Duclos, V., Guyot, S., Besson, C., Manach, C., Bernalier, A., Morand, C., Remesy, C. and Demigne, C, “Apple pectin and a polyphenol-rich apple concentrate are more effective together than separately on cecal fermentations and plasma lipids in rats,” The Journal of Nutrition, 133(6). 1860-186. PubMed