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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Societal Future Sustainability and Early Marriages in Rural Peshawar of Pakistan

Muhammad Israr , Suleman Muquader, Humayun Khan, Nafees Ahmad, Munwar Jan, Urooba Pervaiz, M. Amir
Journal of Finance and Economics. 2018, 6(6), 228-236. DOI: 10.12691/jfe-6-6-4
Received October 20, 2018; Revised November 23, 2018; Accepted December 09, 2018

Abstract

Underage marriage is an issue tormenting the society for a considerable length of time and still exist in many part of the developing world and thus creating a great challenge to the future societal sustainability. The research study was conducted on the causes and consequences of early marriages having objective of study the socio cultural and economic cause of early marriages. Early marriages are cultural issues in Peshawar areas. People marry in a very young age due to different socio economic and cultural reasons. It’s a very problematic issue in Peshawar areas. These have great impact on youth of Peshawar. Marriage is the universal basic need of every human being, but at the age of maturity. People believe that the best way to satisfaction and happiness is to get married. Boys and Girls in Pathan family have no opportunity to make their own choice in the selection of their mate. Nowadays little importance is given to boy’s choice in mate selection but it is not asked from a girl, whether she like the boy, with whom they want to marry her. Among Pathan the parents start mate selection for their own, even after his birth, when they choose a girl of choice, they go to her house, and meet with the girl’s father, asking her hand for his son, as the parents of the girl have accepted the proposal of a candidate for their daughter. The respective bridegroom wants his grandfather house with his father.

1. Introduction

Underage marriage is an issue tormenting the society for a considerable length of time. Early marriage is hindering progress towards the significant of Sustainable Development Golas by 2030. For as long as the this situation exist will keeps on the problmes of poverty, insecurity, brutality against women and young ladies, high worldwide maternal death rates, and a regularly broadening instructive hole between the poorest and wealthiest countries. Marriage is a universally practiced pattern that is instilled through citizenly acts, and cultural and traditional ceremonies of the society. The choice of a marriage partner is one of the most serious decisions people face. In the contemporary world, this decision usually follows a long learning period during which people engage in more informal and often polygamous relationships . There is a specified age for young girls’ age for marriage in most of the societies while in some cases, age limit is overlooked by physiological promptness for childbearing. Alan Guttmacher Institute reflects that marriages in traditional structures are often practiced below the standardized pattern proclaimed age limit, which usually and legally accounts in the pattern of early marriage that is proceeded among children at the age of 18 or less 1.

Child marriage is one of common practices in South Asian region generally and in Pakistan particularly. Numerous young girls are married in this region in the pretext of social, cultural and religious traditions and they remain disadvantaged physically, educationally, psychologically, and economically thus keep on suffering for whole of their life. It is stated, “While attaining the age of maturityunder national law may give additional rights to the individual, itcannot take away the protection of the individuals below the age of 18 years”. Moreover, the Committee strongly recommended that “the minimum age for marriage with and without parental consent be set at 18 years, regardless of the sex of the individual involved 2.

Millions of young people suffer its negative consequence around the world as it diverts them from opportunities of personal growth and development thus it is a developmental challenge and a barrier to young girls as they drop-out from schools when they get married. Parents in most cases consider marriage of their young children as family building strategy and protection from hurtful practices outside of marriage but few numbers of them give consideration the importance of educational attainment so as young generation get skills required for them to secure and sustain wellbeing and quality of life 3.

Marriage is a social institution that unites people legally and forms the basis of family formation through sexual and reproductive union. It is a social, religious and traditional practice acknowledged by the society. In most of the developing societies, marriage is considered as a socially acceptable union of two people and main purpose of getting married is considered to have children. Marrying off girls in their childhood is considered as an early marriage. Although there is no clear definition of early age marriage, many studies define marriage before 18 years age as child marriage. In many regions of the world, especially in developing countries, marriage in a very early age is widely practiced and mostly females are married off at very young age without considering their physiological ability of bearing a married life as well as bearing a child. In 2010, there were over 67 million women between ages 20 and 24 who had been married before the age 18 in developing countries. Among these developing countries, Asian and African countries have the highest proportion of girls married in early periods of their life. Different factors have been found having strong association with the age of marriage of females. Among these factors, education, residential factors (rural urban) and economic status seem to have positive relationship with age at marriage. As education level increases the age at marriage also increases. Similarly, higher the socioeconomic status (education level, wealth, employment) of a household, lower will be the risk of marrying their girls at younger age 4.

1.2. Theoretical Background

Early marriage a root of current physiological and psychosocial health burdens south asia. In relation to unmarried girls the married females were also not in favor of getting married early as they are equally invaded by health problems. Mental distress and depressive symptoms are more common in married females and girls prefer doctors for concerning their reproductive health problems. Marriages below the age of 18 is not helping the females infract its demolishing their self esteem 5. The association between early marriage and other socio-medical characteristics with the cervical pap smear results in iraqi women. Mean age of studied women was 39.9 ± 11.4 years and mean age of marriage was 19 ± 5 years. Abnormal Pap results were reported in 63.5% of them and significant association was observed between abnormal Pap smear and each of age 20-30 years, ≤18 years age at marriage, marriage duration>10 years, irregular menstrual cycle, tubal ligation and abnormal medical history 6. The socio-economic factors on early marriage practices in garowing. Household income plays significant role in early marriage practices, girls from poor income families are the most affected and exposed to early marriage practices. Increased level of education of parents play significant role in reducing early marriage practices but research finding shows that there is evidence showing that girls from educated families face early marriage practices as well, this is because positive attitude of community towards early marriage is major contributor. Educated parents to accept early marriage practices for their young girls because of cultural norms and values related to marriage importance than anything else 3. The issue of early marriages is completely preventable, but its roots are deep down. Social, cultural, economical, and religious factors encouraging rural and semi-urban population of Pakistan for many decades. Educating girls becoming self-reliant to resolve its burden of the country and to achieve millennium developmental goals 7.

1.2. Objectives of the Research

1. To identify the socio-cultural and economic causes of early marriages.

2. To measure the psychological and physical consequences of early marriages

3. To find out the relationship between socio-cultural and economic causes and consequences of early marriages.

4. To suggest policy recommendations in light of the study.

2. Report Methodology

The study focus on the knowledge about early marriage and also focus on the different types of aspects of early marriage like socio-cultural aspect, economic aspects, educational aspects, religion aspect, family aspects, and effects of early marriages. Three purposively selected villages of district Peshawar i.e. Babu Ghari, Shagi Hindikiyan and Hassan Ghari d where the research area for this report.Babu Ghaeri situated on Warsak road while Shagi Hindkiyan in new Northern by Pass and Hassan Ghari along with Shami road. For this study a total of 150 (75 male and 75 female) respondnets were intervived by taking 50 respondent from each village including 25 male and 25 female. In order to simplify the procedure of research, researcher used the interview schedule technique as well as a questionnaire for uneducated people. After data collection it was analysed by simple frequency distribution and determination of percentages.

3. Results and Discussions

3.1. Family Type

The data in Table 1, family types of the sample respondnets. Family types of the responedents were nuclear, joint and extended, each having their own characteristics.The data pointed that 35% of the sample respondets were living in the joint and extended family each. Further more 30% of the respodnets were living in the nuclear. Thus it is clear that in the area the respondnets were living in all family types in almost equal percentages. This implies that there were a max family system of living in the area.

3.2. Education Level

The data in Table 2 shows that out of 100% respondents, 43% educated up to primary level, 20% are matriculate, 20% educated up to F.A/F. Such level, 10% are on B. A/B. Sc level and 7% are illiterate up to master level.

3.3. Occupations

The data in Table 3, explores that out of total 100% respondents, 27% were doing government jobs, 24% were in private jobs, 26% had their own business while 23% were engaged in other business like agriculture or labor work etc.

3.4. Monthly Income of the Respondents

The data in Table 4, shown that 50% earned up to 7000 rupees per month, 20% earns 8000-10000 per month, and 16% earned 11000-20000 per month while the rest 14% had income more than 20000 rupees per month.

3.5. UNI-Variate Analysis

According to the nature of questions incorporated in the questionnaire every respondent was interviewed in the form of a series of statements within each variable, categorized of three responses (Yes, No and Don’t Know). The respondents were asked, according to the nature of the format of questions and places as per their response to each question accordingly. The major variables being traded with, while asking questions from the respondents were (Causes and Consequences of Early Marriage) as dependent variable while Socio-Cultural Aspect, Economic Aspect, Educational Aspect, Religious Aspect and Family Aspect as Independent Variable.

3.6. Knowledge about Early Marriages

Some questions pertaining this vital and component of the research were asked and was found that out of 100%, 52 % respondents have knowledge about early marriages, 43% had no knowledge about early marriages and 5% had no opinion of it. It is evident here that early marriage is practiced in this study area as cultural norms. They are in lines to the findings and according to 8, stated that early marriage is considered as custom and traditions by people in Pakistan especially by Pakhtun in Khyber PakhtunKhwa Province.

Similarly, 44% respondents had knowledge about the ratio of early marriages in the area, 50% had no knowledge and 6% opined that they have no idea about it. These findings are in support of the earlier findings, which indicates about the prevalence of early marriage in the study area. According to 9 pointed that in the India ratio of early marriages is very high as it was reported that in Rajasthan 5,000 women stated that 56 % had married before 15 years of age, in this figure mostly, 17% were married before reaching to 10 years of age. Furthermore, it was estimated that In Madhya Pradesh that 14% of girls were married between 10 to 14 years of age.

Furthermore, 64% said that they know the minimum age of marriage in there are, 29% said that they did not have any idea about it, and 7% said that they don’t know about this. These findings are supported by result The researcher like 10 found that in central Africa the practice of early marriages is very common as it affects 40% and in West Africa 49% respectively of girls under 19 years of age.

Mostly, 83% answered that the people of the area are in favour of early marriages, 13% negated this statement and 4% said that they don’t know either if the people of the area are in favor of early marriage or not. It could be detected from the data that the fate of existence of early marriage having to balance and supposed the condition unabated.

Followed by 85% respondents said that ratio of early marriage in the area is high, 9% said that the ratio of early marriage is not high. While 6% stated that they don’t know about this. People admit the practice of early marriage, and negate into it is negligible. Researcher 11 found that same results that the ratio of early marriages is very high in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia countries. While, in the Middle East and North Africa, mostly marriage is taken place shortly after puberty. In Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia majority of marriages between the age of 16 and 18. Not with standing, 89% respondents opined that parents make the decision of marriages in the family, 9% negated the former statement, and 2% answered that they had no knowledge about this. It could be due to the misconception pertaining to girls as liabilities for their families and an important threat to sexual violence as reported by 12 that most early marriages are practiced due to economic problems in rural areas. Girls are considered as an economic burden on parents. And many parents ban their daughter’s education due to fear of the high level of sexual violence and street crimes in routine and they married their daughters in early ages.

Similarly, 82% respondents agreed that they have seen cases of early marriages in the area , 6% were not agreed and 12% said that they didn’t know either if there is any case of early marriage in the area or not. Similar findings are reported in daily newspaper the findings of 13 revealed that early marriages have a very strong relationship with poverty. It was mentioned that in rural Sindh bride price ranges from one lac to three lacs. Girls who had married in early ages are escaped from groom family and they are commonly found in government shelters. It was reported that three of five sisters, one married in ‘vani’, ‘swara’, and sang chatti’.

3.7. Socio-Cultural Aspects of Early Marriages

The socio-cultural aspect of early marriages indicates that mostly, 62% respondents held culture responsible for early marriage, 19% opined that it is not true and 19% did not know whether culture is responsible for early marriage or not. These findings are supported by 14 stated that the practice of early marriages varies from culture to culture which due to compensation marriages as common in parts of KP and Baluchistan where it is called Swara and also in Punjab, where as in Mianwali, it is called Vani. 40% marked that conservatism is responsible for early marriage, 14% answered in negative and 46% answered that they had no idea about it. Furthermore, 61% respondents answered that ignorance is responsible for early marriage, 17% disagreed and 22% did not know about the relationship between early marriage and ignorance. Similarly, according to 15 that early marriages had a strong association with illiteracy and ignorance. Population Council found that in rural areas in Pakistan 58% female are married before 20 years of age because of no proper educational facilities for girls. While, in urban areas the ratio of early marriages is 27% because of availability of educational facilities. Similarly, 64% said that strict norms and values are responsible for early marriage, 21% answered in negative, and the rest i-e 15% opined that they had no knowledge about it. It was estimated by 16 that globally, societies having a rigid culture are mostly having a high rate of early marriages. As the rigid people not allowed their female to get an education and hence its result in the early marriage of the female in such kind of families. 58% said that early marriage can prevent children from deviation, 19% said that early marriage cannot prevent children from deviation while the rest 23% did not know about early marriage and deviation. It is ex that other cultural obligation is responsible for early marriage in the study area. It is eminent that other cultural obligation than social deviation is responsible for early marriages in the study area. In addition, 65% respondents said that poverty is a cause of early marriage, 25% said that poverty is not responsible for early marriage and 10% marked they don’t know about it. The 17 highlighted that early marriages mostly happen to poor families as compared to the rich. Also the religion of Islam plays a supportive role in early marriages that girls should be married as soon as reach puberty.

Moreover, 46% respondents opined that swara marriage is responsible for early marriages, 26% negated the former statement and 28% respond that they don’t know about it. It is because women have been considered property to be used in setting the family disputes. These findings are supported by 14 that the practice of early marriage from culture to culture majority of early marriages is due to compensation marriages which is most common in parts of KP and Baluchistan where it is called Swara and also in Punjab, where as in Mianwali, it is called Vani. 73% respondents answered that early marriage is a custom in Pakhtun society, 19% said that it is not a custom in Pakistan society, while the answer of the rest 8% respondents is don’t know. A strong root in culture indicates towards its strength, which’s denial is almost impossible through social mean. Almost, 66% emphasis that the fear and stigma of premarital sex and the associated family honor is a cause of early marriage, while 12% opined that it is not so and 22% said that they have no idea. Similarly, according to 18 when a girl reached to adolescent attained sexual maturity early. This is the main reason of the stigma of premarital sex that leads to a lot of psychological and social problems.

3.8. Economic Aspects of Early Marriages

The data in Table 7 presents information about the economic aspect with its effect of early marriages. The table shows that out of 100% respondent’s 48% emphasis that girls are regarded as economics burden, while the answer of 48% respondents was negative in this regard and 4% were having no idea. It is evident here from the data that girls are considered a liability for the household in social and economic terms as pointed out by 12 that mostly early marriage are practiced due to economic problem in rural areas. Girls are considered as an economic burden on parents. And many parents ban their daughter’s education due to fear of the high level of sexual violence and street crimes in routine and they married their daughters in early ages. Similarly, 39% respondents agreed that economic instability of the parents leads to early marriage, 47% of the respondent were not agreed and 14% were having no idea in this regard. It could be detected from the findings that early marriage could be a resultant factor of poverty as poor cannot extend all possible rights to its young family members. According to the 17 that early marriages mostly happen to poor families as compared to rich families. As mostly in the poor family's female are considered as a burden on the family so they are married very early. People prefer taking bride price in Pakhtun culture. Majority i.e. 35% respondent opined that bride price is a cause of early marriage, 40% negated this phenomenon and the rest 25% said that they have no idea. It was reported by 17 that in Baluchistan and KP provinces and some parts of Punjab and Sindh young girls is giving away in marriage for compensation of murder. It was found that in some parts of the country younger girls are sold into marriage through a custom known as “bride price” usually family received the bride price in the shape of cattle from the groom, or in cash form. Mostly, 49% respondent’s emphasis that the economic status of the family is a cause for early marriage, 25% negated this idea while 26% were having no knowledge in this regard as poor prefer going for early marriages. These findings are supported by 12 that mostly early marriages are practiced due to economic problems in rural areas. Girls are considered as an economic burden on parents. Also 81% respondents were in the opinion that the desire to increase manpower in earning is the cause of early marriage, 12% were disagreed with this idea and the rest 7% were having no idea as reported by the 17 that mostly bride price is asked by the bride's family from the groom’s family to get some economic benefits.

Furthermore, 52% respondents emphasized that girls are valued as capital for exchange of goods and money, 38% respondents negated this idea and 10% were having no idea. These findings are supported by 12 that in poor families’ girls remains as an economic burden due to which they married their females to someone to get rid of this burden and also they get some money or material things in exchange from the groom family. Out of the total 100% respondents 57% emphasized that lack of economic opportunities for girls is a cause of early marriages, 32% did not agree to this idea and 11% said that they have no knowledge. It is obvious that the low economic profile family prefers getting the girls married at early ages as of inabilities to provide the basic to them.

In addition, 52% respondents were in the opinion that debt on the poor families is, also a cause of early marriages, 27% respondents were not agreed to this idea and 21% respondents were having no knowledge in this regard. Similarly, 19 pointed out it is very difficult for poor parents to marry their daughters, as dowry arrangement leads to debt problems for the family.

3.9. Educational Aspects of Early Marriages

This data disclose the information about the educational aspects of early marriages. Tabulated data in Table 8, shows that out of 100% respondents, 70% agreed that illiteracy is a cause of early marriages 8% were disagreeing with this statement and 22% had no knowledge in this regard. The findings of 20 support the results obtained and globally everywhere in rural areas poor women and tend to marry younger as compared to women in urban areas. The majority of the women are married before reaching to 20 years of age completing hardly at least seven years of schooling that affects their education because in rural areas most of people no allowed women to get an education after marriage. Similarly, 65% respondents provided the information that ignorance leads to early marriages, 12% opined that ignorance is not a cause of early marriages and 23% had no idea. Research findings of 21 are in support of the previous results that early marriages and ignorance had a direct relationship with each other. It was estimated by population Council that in rural areas in Pakistan 58% females are married before 20 years of age. Illiteracy rate is high in rural areas because of no proper educational facilities available. While, in urban areas the ratio of early marriages is 27% because of availability of educational facilities. Furthermore, out of the total 100% respondents 89% agreed that dropout from school is a cause of early marriages 7% disagreed to this statement and 4% had no idea in this regard. A cause of low literacy probably could be detected in a comprehensive way by working on this issue across the country. Similarly, according to 22 indicated that lower education and drop out from school is responsible for early marriages as after drop out from schools children had no work to do and remains in homes. Parents considered them as a burden on family and decided to marry them to make the responsible.

Mostly, 71% pointed out that low literacy is a cause of early marriage, 12% negated the former statement and 17% had no knowledge about this. These findings are close in meaning to the culture findings. Furthermore, it is also supported by 21 that loweducation ratio and ignorance of people caused early marriages.

Out of 100% respondents 81% disclosed that illiterate people are mostly bound in early marriage, 8% negated this statement while 11% said that they had no idea. Education has a strong association with early marriages, as 24 reported that in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia the practice of early marriages is very high because of the low education rate. However, in the developed countries like the Middle East and North Africa early marriage is not too high because of the high education ratio.

Furthermore, 84% respondents opined that early marriage is a barrier to higher education, 11% were disagreeing with this statement and 5% disclosed that they had no knowledge. The findings of 21 support the results obtained for this study that globally everywhere in rural areas poor women tend to marry younger as compared to women of urban areas. The majority of the women are married before reaching to 20 years of age completing hardly at least seven years of schooling that affects their education because in rural areas most of people not allowed women to get an education after marriage.

Mostly 72% said that early marriage is responsible for low literacy ratio in female 7% negated this statement and the rest 21% had no idea as was disclosed by 23 reported that globally the practice of early marriages is most common in rural areas as compared to urban areas as compared to urban areas. The majority of the women are married before reaching to 20 years of age completing hardly at least seven years of schooling that affects their education because in rural areas most of people not allowed women to get an education after marriage.

In addition, out of total 100% respondents, 86% were agreed that higher education can restrict early marriage, 7% opined that it cannot restrict early marriage and the rest 7% said that they have no idea in this regard. Bride to the bride and early marriage could be controlled on education is provided to young female as was found in 25 supported these findings by reporting that in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia the practice of early marriages Is very high because of the low education rate. However, in the developed countries like the Middle East and North Africa early marriages is not too high because of the high education ratio.

3.10. Family Aspects of Early Marriages

The data in Table 9 showed the family aspect with its relation to early marriages. It has been discovered that out of 100% respondents 56% agreed that small family size is a cause of early marriage, 17% disagree to this statement and the rest 27% had no idea. These findings are supported by 23 that because of the “official tolerance of cultural, societal and customary norms that shape and govern the institution of marriage and family life and sometime small family size is a cause of early marriage. In continuation to the above statement out of 100% respondents 51% respondent were of the opinion that joint family system is a cause of early marriage, 22% negated the statement and the rest 27% respondents marked that they have no idea about this relationship. These results are in consonance of 21 that the joint family system in the rural areas is also a dominant cause of early marriage.

Majority i-e 79% respondents stressed for family tradition as a cause of early marriage, 8% did not agreed to this statement and the rest 13% were having no idea. These findings further enclose 21 findings that marriage is taken as a social and religious obligation in Pakistan. Early marriages are far more prevalent in rural areas. A study by the Population Council found that 58 percent rural female are married before 20 due to their family tradition.

In addition, 60% respondents pointed out that endogamous families are cause of early marriage, 9% respondents were disagree to this statement while 31% had no idea regarding this statement. It could be concluded that early marriage usually stems out of endogamy. The norms of endogamy are common in Pakhtun. These findings are also supported by that reason for early marriage in Sindh is strongly linked to poverty. Bride price in rural Sindh generally ranges from 30,000 to one lac. Under age, married girl from Singh, who have escaped from their matrimonial homes are commonly found in government shelters. The recent case of three under five sisters from Sindh given in marriage as compensation is a prevalent form of child marriage as most girls given in ‘Vani’, ‘Swara’ and ‘Sang chatti’ are children. Endogamous families in rural areas are one of the most common causes of early marriage.

Also, out of 100% respondent, 79% emphasized that the authoritarian attitude of the parents is a cause of early marriage, 12% negated this statement and the rest 9% pointed out that they have no idea. It is detected from this result that marriage is mostly arranged and the bride is seldom asked about their choice of mate selection. These findings are further supported by 17 that early marriage is practiced as a custom in some families. Poverty, tradition, the authoritarian attitude of the parents and low status of women are cited as obvious reasons for the grave violation of child rights.

Moreover, 63% respondents mentioned that the early marriage of the parents leads to the early marriage of the children, 21% opined that early marriage of the parents did not lead to early marriage of the children and the rest 16% said that they have no idea regarding the statement. Early marriage is taking a circle shape, where any practiced in a family in relation to marriage is upheld in the shape of its continuity.

Furthermore, 89% respondents were agreed that early marriage is a custom in some families, 6% disagree with this statement and 5% were having no idea. Strong traditional norms of early marriages are prevalent in most of the traditional families, especially in the rural areas.

3.11. Effects of Early Marriage

The following table gives the information about various effects of early marriages. It has been found that out of 100% respondents 75% respondents were agreed that early marriage affects the social roles and responsibilities of the respondents, 9% were not in the favour of the statement and 16% were having no idea. These findings are further supported by 22 that the lack of other opportunities and the powerless that often accompanies early marriage combine to perpetuate the gender roles of girls and women and reinforces cultural traditions that support early marriage as a desirable practice. Similarly, 65% said that early marriage creates social seclusion from family and peers, 15% negated the statement and the 20% were had no idea.

Moreover, 81% respondents were of the opinion that early marriage creates lack of participation in community, 14% negated the statement and the rest 5% were having no idea. These findings are in line with the findings of 24 that early marriage leads to lack of participation in the community due to the extra burden of family responsibilities and children especially for females. Furthermore, 65% respondents were agreed that early marriage creates lack of socialization in married couples, 18% were not agrees to the statement and the rest 17% were having no idea. According to 20 those girls who are forced to marry early, often face social isolation and have no one with whom to discuss their unhappy lot, so further it leads to lack of participation in the community.

Out of 100% respondents 76% disclosed that early marriage increase man power for financial support, 16% negated the statement and 8% were having no knowledge in this regard. According to the 23 usually, however the girls and women are left with the responsibility of raising children without the husband or family’s support, thus making them more likely to live in poverty. Same, 83% respondents said that early marriage has psychological on individuals, 16% were not agreed to the statement and 1% were had no idea. Moreover, 73% respondents stressed that early marriage creates stress and strain in the individuals, 17% negated the statement and 10% respondents have no idea. These findings are further supported by 21 that research had shown that early marriage creates stress and strain in the married couples which further leads to frustration and abnormal behavior.

In addition 89% respondents were agreed that early marriage has bad effects on the physical health of both male and female, 6% respondents were not in the favor of the statement and 5% respondents were having no knowledge in this regard. As discovered by 25 that child marriage remains a widely ignored violation of the health and development rights of girls and young women. Governments are often either unable to enforce existing laws, or rectify discrepancies between national laws on marriage age and entrenched customary and religious laws. It was further found that 94 respondents were agreed that early marriage leads to large family size, 2% were against the statement and 4% were having no idea.77 respondents were of the opinion that early marriage decreases the literacy ratio, 20% negated the statement and 3% were having no knowledge in this regard.

Respondents expressed over that early marriages cause school dropouts (91%), 6% were did not support this statement and the rest i-e 3% respondents were having no knowledge. These findings are in line to 24 that virtually everywhere, poor women in rural areas tend to marry younger than those in urban areas, and educational levels also play a critical role. An examination of the timing of marriage and the level of education, illustrated in the table above, shows consistently higher percentages of women with at least seven years of schooling marrying at age 20 or above.

4. Conclusions and Recommendations

Main findings concluds that the custom of early marriage is due to various socio-cultural, economic, educational, religious and family causes. The main causes found in this research activity are lack of education, especially, female education and unawareness; the people were unaware from the value and importance of education of female education. Misinterpretation of religion was also encouraging early marriage, as where early marriages were considered as tradition with desire support just to prevent the emergence of social evils. Cultural conservatism was also surfaced up as catalyst social factor. In Pakhtun culture there are disputes having various reasons, for the resolution of these disputes the custom of Swara, Vani and Watta Satta is practiced where girls are married in a very early age as compensation to their elder’s deeds. Rise family size and increase generation were identified some other push factors to the phenomenon at hand. The study recommends the provision of safe, non-exploitative employment opportunities outside the home would mitigate the sufferings of women once got economically liable and self reliant and thus the early marriages should be eliminated from the society.

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[20]  Memon, Z. A., Khan, G. N., Soofi, S. B., Baig, I. Y., & Bhutta, Z. A. (2015). Impact of a community-based perinatal and newborn preventive care package on perinatal and neonatal mortality in a remote mountainous district in Northern Pakistan. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 15(1), 106.
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[24]  World Health Organization. (2015). World report on ageing and health. World Health Organization.
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[25]  Jones, N., Tefera, B., Stephenson, J., Gupta, T., & Pereznieto, P. (2014). Early marriage and education: the complex role of social norms in shaping Ethiopian adolescent girls’ lives. Country Report: Shaping policy for development, 1-103.
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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Muhammad Israr, Suleman Muquader, Humayun Khan, Nafees Ahmad, Munwar Jan, Urooba Pervaiz and M. Amir

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Normal Style
Muhammad Israr, Suleman Muquader, Humayun Khan, Nafees Ahmad, Munwar Jan, Urooba Pervaiz, M. Amir. Societal Future Sustainability and Early Marriages in Rural Peshawar of Pakistan. Journal of Finance and Economics. Vol. 6, No. 6, 2018, pp 228-236. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jfe/6/6/4
MLA Style
Israr, Muhammad, et al. "Societal Future Sustainability and Early Marriages in Rural Peshawar of Pakistan." Journal of Finance and Economics 6.6 (2018): 228-236.
APA Style
Israr, M. , Muquader, S. , Khan, H. , Ahmad, N. , Jan, M. , Pervaiz, U. , & Amir, M. (2018). Societal Future Sustainability and Early Marriages in Rural Peshawar of Pakistan. Journal of Finance and Economics, 6(6), 228-236.
Chicago Style
Israr, Muhammad, Suleman Muquader, Humayun Khan, Nafees Ahmad, Munwar Jan, Urooba Pervaiz, and M. Amir. "Societal Future Sustainability and Early Marriages in Rural Peshawar of Pakistan." Journal of Finance and Economics 6, no. 6 (2018): 228-236.
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[13]  Perveen, R. (2010). Violence against women in Pakistan: A qualitative review of statistics for 2009. Islamabad: Aurat Publication and Information Service Foundation.
In article      
 
[14]  Khowaja, N. (2015). Addressing Depression among Women through Action on the Social Determinants of Health in Pakistan: A Literature Review.
In article      
 
[15]  Jensen, R., & Thornton, R. (2003). Early female marriage in the developing world. Gender & Development, 11(2), 9-19.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Middlemiss, L. (2017). Marriage, love, caste and kinship support: Lived experiences of the urban poor in India. Routledge.
In article      
 
[17]  Ballan, M. S. (2012). Parental perspectives of communication about sexuality in families of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(5), 676-684.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[18]  Rew, M., Gangoli, G., & Gill, A. K. (2013). Violence between female in-laws in India. Journal of International Women's Studies, 14(1), 147-160.
In article      
 
[19]  Singh, L., Rai, R. K., & Singh, P. K. (2012). Assessing the utilization of maternal and child health care among married adolescent women: evidence from India. Journal of biosocial science, 44(1), 1-26.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[20]  Memon, Z. A., Khan, G. N., Soofi, S. B., Baig, I. Y., & Bhutta, Z. A. (2015). Impact of a community-based perinatal and newborn preventive care package on perinatal and neonatal mortality in a remote mountainous district in Northern Pakistan. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 15(1), 106.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[21]  Stewart, R., van Rooyen, C., Dickson, K., Majoro, M., & de Wet, T. (2010). What is the impact of microfinance on poor people? A systematic review of evidence from sub-Saharan Africa.
In article      
 
[22]  De Moor, T., & Van Zanden, J. L. (2010). Girl power: The European marriage pattern and labour markets in the north sea region in the late medieval and early modern period 1. The Economic History Review, 63(1), 1-33.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Patton, G. C., Coffey, C., Cappa, C., Currie, D., Riley, L., Gore, F., & Mokdad, A. (2012). Health of the world's adolescents: a synthesis of internationally comparable data. The Lancet, 379(9826), 1665-1675.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  World Health Organization. (2015). World report on ageing and health. World Health Organization.
In article      
 
[25]  Jones, N., Tefera, B., Stephenson, J., Gupta, T., & Pereznieto, P. (2014). Early marriage and education: the complex role of social norms in shaping Ethiopian adolescent girls’ lives. Country Report: Shaping policy for development, 1-103.
In article