Ambient Air and Noise Pollution Study at Bhopal Vigyan Mela 2016, Madhya Pradesh, India

A.A. Mishra, Reeta Kori, Nisha Upadhyay, Alok Saxena, P.K. Shrivastava, Ankita Kulshreshtha, Saket Mishra

Ambient Air and Noise Pollution Study at Bhopal Vigyan Mela 2016, Madhya Pradesh, India

A.A. Mishra1, Reeta Kori1, Nisha Upadhyay1, Alok Saxena1, P.K. Shrivastava1, Ankita Kulshreshtha1,, Saket Mishra1

1Central Laboratory, Madhya Pradesh Pollution Control Board, Paryavaran Parisar, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Abstract

This study reported ambient air and noise quality of three days Vigyan Mela 2016 which held at Bhopal city of Madhya Pradesh, India by measuring the concentration of particulate matter, Heavy metals, Poly aromatic hydrocarbon, Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx), in ambient air and noise level using standard methods. People’s activity, vehicle emission, transport and anthropogenic activity are responsible for a considerable amount of air pollution and noise pollution. For present study, one ambient air and noise monitoring site was selected during the Bhopal Vigyan Mela. The results concluded that the concentration of the gaseous pollutants are within the standard values of National Ambient Air quality Standards, India but particulate matter in ambient air was found to be at high level at the monitoring site. Noise levels recorded in three days of Mela under commercial zone exceeded the prescribed standard level of 65 dB.

Cite this article:

  • A.A. Mishra, Reeta Kori, Nisha Upadhyay, Alok Saxena, P.K. Shrivastava, Ankita Kulshreshtha, Saket Mishra. Ambient Air and Noise Pollution Study at Bhopal Vigyan Mela 2016, Madhya Pradesh, India. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2017, pp 1-4. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jephh/5/1/1
  • Mishra, A.A., et al. "Ambient Air and Noise Pollution Study at Bhopal Vigyan Mela 2016, Madhya Pradesh, India." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health 5.1 (2017): 1-4.
  • Mishra, A. , Kori, R. , Upadhyay, N. , Saxena, A. , Shrivastava, P. , Kulshreshtha, A. , & Mishra, S. (2017). Ambient Air and Noise Pollution Study at Bhopal Vigyan Mela 2016, Madhya Pradesh, India. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health, 5(1), 1-4.
  • Mishra, A.A., Reeta Kori, Nisha Upadhyay, Alok Saxena, P.K. Shrivastava, Ankita Kulshreshtha, and Saket Mishra. "Ambient Air and Noise Pollution Study at Bhopal Vigyan Mela 2016, Madhya Pradesh, India." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health 5, no. 1 (2017): 1-4.

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1. Introduction

Ambient air and noise quality is a major concern throughout the world. Air and noise pollution in urban areas comes from a wide variety of sources. The sources responsible for high emission loads are grouped into several sectors such as transport, domestic commercial and industrial activities for anthropogenic sources. The quality of the ambient air we breathe is fundamental to the quality of life for the growing millions of people living in the world's burgeoning cities and deteriorating urban air quality threatens the public health [3]. Furthermore, airborne emissions from major urban and industrial areas influence both air quality and climate change. Particulate matter (PM), especially PM2.5 (particle with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) is the most ubiquitous and most complicated ambient air pollutant in urban area [5]. Coarse and Fine particles are a mixture of a variety of different compounds and pollutants that originate primarily from combustion sources. Fine dust particles are either emitted directly from these combustion sources or are formed in the atmosphere through complex oxidation reactions involving gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides [4].

Madhya Pradesh Council of Science & Technology has started the scheme of Vigyan Mela as per directions of Hon’ble Chief Minister, Government of Madhya Pradesh, India, in order to create scientific awareness and science popularization amongst the rural, tribal and urban people of the State of Madhya Pradesh, India. This is a special scheme under science popularization which organized by Madhya Pradesh Council of Science & Technology and Vigyan Bharti jointly every year in different cities of Madhya Pradesh, India. The Vigyan Mela provides platform to researchers, scientists and students of the State. Many scientific activities such as demonstration of research for new innovators, demonstration of research and development activities, face to face interaction with senior and eminent scientists of the country, patent awareness programme, demonstration of traditional techniques, workshops for skill development, kisan sammelans etc. has been carried out under this Mela.

In the Year 2016 Madhya Pradesh Council of Science & Technology and Vigyan Bharti jointly organized Vigyan Mela at Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India from 20th to 22 nd February 2016. In present study ambient air and noise quality at Bhopal Vigyan Mela 2016 were monitored by Madhya Pradesh Pollution Control Board, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

2. Methodology

2.1. Study Area

Present study place was stall of Madhya Pradesh Pollution Control Board at Barkheda Deshhera Maidan, near Career College, Bhopal during Vigyan Mela 2016, Monitoring work was done on three days of Vigyan Mela from 20- 22 February 2016.

2.2. Analysis of Ambient Air Pollutants

In this study, especially particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10), air toxic gases such as NOx, SO2, poly aromatic hydrocarbon, and heavy metals were analyzed.

Ambient air is drawn through a size-selective inlet of the dust sampler Envirotech APM-460 BL and APM 540 equipments. The collected samples were analyzed for various parameters using standard methods prescribed by Central Pollution Control Board, India and originally described by American Public Health Association (1977). Particulate matter that is PM10 and PM2.5 were analyzed by gravimetric method. Particulate matter is drawn through preweighed glass fibre filter paper at a flow rate of 0.5 m3/min on 8-hourly basis for 24 hours. Gaseous pollutant NOx was analyzed by Jacob & Hochheiser method. SO2 were analyzed by West & Geake method. Poly aromatic hydrocarbon, heavy metals were analyzed by gas chromatography and atomic absorption spectroscopy respectively.

2.3. Noise Level Monitoring

Noise measurements were carried out in “A” weight age using the cirrus sound level meter. The instrument was placed at selected site on a height of about 1.2 meter above the ground. Care was also taken to ensure that no reflections took place near the instrument.

3. Result and Discussion

The ambient air pollution level at Bhopal, Vigyan Mela 2016 is depicted in Table 1. The results concluded that the concentration of the gaseous pollutants is within the standard limits of National Ambient Air Quality Standards as notified by Central Pollution Control Board, India in 2009 but particulate matter is in slightly high level at the Mela monitoring site. In Figure 1, the average value of PM2.5 and PM10 was found 65 and 110 µg/m3 respectively. The maximum value of particulate matter was found on second day as compare to first and third day of Mela. NOx and SO2 gases concentration in ambient air is almost negligible. Poly aromatic hydrocarbon was not found in ambient air around Mela. Airborn toxic metals are found mainly in particulate matter dispersed in ambient air. While they can be present in almost all sizes of atmospheric particulate, in general, fine particulate carries higher concentrations of toxic metals than coarse particulate. The comparative study of metals concentration at selected monitoring site is depicted in Table 2. In Figure 2, the observed order of the analyzed metals in the ambient air are as Zn>Fe>Cu>Mn>Pb and Cr, Cd, Co, Ni are not found at Mela site. Noise level study at selected monitoring site is shown in Table 3. In Figure 3, noise levels recorded in three days of Mela under commercial zone were exceeded the prescribed standard level of 65 Db.

Table 1. Ambient air pollution level at Bhopal Vigyan Mela 2016

Table 2. Metal concentration in ambient air at Bhopal Vigyan Mela 2016

Table 3. Noise level at Bhopal Vigyan Mela 2016

4. Conclusion

During the study it has been observed that the particulate matter is present in measurable quantities in ambient air. The medium winds during month of February create turbulent conditions and local disturbances in the environment which causes dust conditions. These dust conditions build up high particulate matter levels in the ambient air. People’s activity, vehicle emission, transport and anthropogenic activity are responsible for a considerable amount of ambient air pollution. The flow of ill maintained vehicles, honking of air horns, instruments, encroachments and people’s activity were the reasons for high noise levels at Bhopal Vigyan Mela 2016.

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge to Chairman, Madhya Pradesh Pollution Control Board, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India for encouragement of the study work and kind permission to publish this paper.

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