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Case Report
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Development of Tourism Industry and National Economic Security

Kusubakti Andajani , Ruminiati, Yuni Pratiwi, Sri Yati, Sri Indrawati
Journal of Business and Management Sciences. 2018, 6(1), 1-5. DOI: 10.12691/JBMS-6-1-1
Published online: January 05, 2018

Abstract

Tourism is an economic or income generating engine for economic development in a country, without exception in Indonesia. However, in fact the development of tourism industry has not been optimally done. The tourism industry should be developed by every country for eight main reasons: (1) Tourism as a trigger factor for national and international economic development. (2) The trigger of prosperity through the development of communication, transportation, accommodation, other services. (3) Special attention to cultural preservation, social values for economic value. (4) Equity of welfare caused by the consumption of tourists in a destination. (5) Foreign exchange earner. (6) The trigger of international trade. (7) Triggers the growth and development of professional education institutions and special institutions that form the soul of hospitality that is reliable and polite, and (8) market share for local products so that the variety of products continues to grow, along with the socio-economic dynamics in the area of a destination. Kabupaten Ngawi has huge tourism potential, one of which is in Ngrambe Sub-district. Potential tours include: Waterfall Bride, Waterfall Suwono, Omah Watu, rambutan garden, durian garden, rambutan garden, guava garden, salak garden, owl breeding, pagupon-pagupon. Nevertheless the great tourism potential has not been developed and managed optimally. The problems related to the tourism industry in Ngawi Regency are as follows. (1) There are many potential natural tourism objects, but not yet managed properly. (2) No well developed tourism program (3) Productivity and community welfare is relatively low. The above problems can be solved by the following methods. (1) Revitalization Program of Nature Tourism Object. (2) Natural Tourism Development Program. (3) Community Empowerment Program Around Object Nature Tourism.

1. Introduction

Tourism is often perceived as an economic driving machine or an income generator for economic development in a country, without exception in Indonesia. In fact, however, tourism has a broader spectrum of development for a country.

Along with the above, according to IUOTO (International Union of Official Travel Organization) cited by Spillane (1993), tourism should be developed by each country for eight main reasons as follows: (1) Tourism as a trigger factor for the national economic development as well international. (2) The trigger of prosperity through the development of communication, transportation, accommodation, other services. (3) Special attention to cultural preservation, social values for economic value. (4) Equity of welfare caused by the consumption of tourists in a destination. (5) Foreign exchange earner. (6) The trigger of international trade. (7) Triggers the growth and development of professional education institutions and special institutions that form the soul of hospitality that is reliable and polite, and (8) market share for local products so that the variety of products continues to grow, along with the socio-economic dynamics in the area of a destination.

From the side of national interest, According to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of RI (2005) in Sapta (2011) explains that the development of tourism is basically intended for several main purposes which can be explained as follows:

1. Unity and Unity of Nations: Tourism is considered capable of giving a sense of pride and love of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia through tourism activities conducted by residents throughout the country. The expected impact, with the number of citizens who make tours in areas other than their homes will create a sense of brotherhood and understanding of the system and philosophy of life of the people visited so as to increase the sense of national unity and unity.

2. Poverty Alleviation: The development of tourism is expected to provide opportunities for all Indonesians to work and to work. Visits of tourists to a region diharpkan able to provide the greatest benefit for improving the welfare of the community. The hope is that tourism should be able to contribute greatly to the eradication of poverty in areas with other economic potential other than natural and cultural potential for tourism interests.

3. Sustainable Development: The nature of tourism activities that offer natural beauty, cultural richness and hospitality and service, few resources are used up to support this activity. This means that the use of consumable resources tends to be very small so that when viewed from the aspect of sustainability of development will be easy to manage in a relatively long time.

4. Culture Preservation: The development of tourism is expected to contribute significantly to the efforts to preserve the culture of a country or region that includes the protection, development and utilization of a country's culture or region. UNESCO and UN-WTO in their joint resolution in 2002 have stated that tourism activities are the main tool of cultural preservation. In that context, it is appropriate for Indonesia to make tourism development as a driving force for the preservation of culture in various regions.

5. Fulfillment of Human Needs and Human Rights: Tourism in the present has become the basic necessity of modern society. In certain community groups, travel activities have even been linked to human rights, especially through the granting of longer holiday and paid holidays.

6 schemes. Economic and Industrial Improvement: Good and sustainable tourism management is expected to provide opportunities for economic growth in a tourism destination. The use of local materials and products in the process of service in the field of tourism will also provide opportunities for local industries to play a role in the provision of goods and services.

7. Technology Development: With increasingly complex and high levels of competition in bringing tourists to a destination, the need for high technology, especially industrial technology will encourage tourism destinations to develop their latest technology application capabilities. In these areas there will be the development of advanced and appropriate technology that will be able to provide support for other economic activities. Thus the development of tourism will provide benefits to the community and government in a broader range of areas and are fundamental. Tourism is an integral part of the development of a region and integrated within the framework of improving the welfare of local communities.

In terms of international interests, International tourism in 2004 reached the highest historical condition with 763 million people and generated expenses of US $ 623 billion. The condition increased by 11% from 2003's total of 690 million people with spending of US $ 524 billion. Along with this, it is estimated that the number of world travel tours in 2020 will exceed 1.6 billion people per year (UN-WTO, 2005).

On the different side, although tourism has been recognized as an important factor stimulator of the economy in several countries in the world , but tourism also hides some things that are rarely revealed and counted so it is difficult to trace its role or its loss. Some hidden costs include: the tourism industry grows in the free market mechanism so often the destination in developing countries is only an object, other things tourism development has been able to improve the quality of development in a destination but other consequences such as increasing prices on a the destination sometimes gets less attention and the victim is a local resident, and many things will be revealed in this paper.

The district of Ngawi has many potential tourist attractions. One of them is in District Ngrambe. District Ngrambe covering 14 villages with an area of 4333.89 hectares. The south side of the district is adjacent to Jogorogo Subdistrict, Sine Regency in the west, Widodaren Subdistrict in the north and Regency of Lawu in the south. One of the 14 villages in Ngrambe Sub-district is directly adjacent to the forest in Mount Lawu, Hargomulyo Village. Geographically, Hargomulyo Village is located at 701 meters above sea level and becomes part of Mount Lawu's main mountain system. Potential tours Hargomulyo Village include Waterfall Bride, Waterfall Suwono, Omah Watu, and rambutan gardens. One other village is Wakah Village located at 506 meters above sea level. Potential tourism in the village of Wakah include durian gardens, rambutan gardens, guava gardens, salak gardens, owl breeding, pagupon-pagupon.Namun large tourism potential in the District Ngrambe is not developed and managed optimally. Whereas Ngawi District is located on the main route between Central Java and East Java. Tourists from Central Java do not know good attractions in the District Ngrambe and just past the district of Ngawi to get to the tourist attractions in the city of Batu (East Java).

On the contrary, many tourists from East Java area are not familiar with the natural beauty of Hargomulyo Village and Wakah Village so it is only passing through Ngawi regency just to take a vacation to Yogyakarta.

The problems faced by Ngawi regency are:

1) tourism object potential has not been well managed Problems related to tourism development in Hargomulyo Village and Wakah Village are (1) information related to natural resources and geology in both villages not yet widely known, (2) tourism management strategy has not been done collaboratively, (3) lack of facilities and infrastructure as regional attraction, (4) the potential of agriculture, plantation, forestry, and UMKM has not been optimally synergized with tourism development, (5) website utilization has not been made to offer unity of tourism value: natural beauty, culinary, souvenir, attraction and inn

2) the main actors in the development of tourism are: tourist destinations, tourists, and local communities. The three main actors have not been fully integrated in Wakah and Hargomulyo villages. So there is no attraction done by local people to support tourist destinations as tourist attraction.

3) Low Productivity and Public Welfare Ngrambe Kecamatan is one of the districts in Ngawi District with low productivity level. This is triggered by the low creativity and entrepreneurial spirit of society.

The quality of creativity and entrepreneurial spirit of society in an area will greatly determine the productivity and competitiveness of the area. The realization of human resources that are competitive, independent, noble and cultured must be done by applying character-based entrepreneurial education to the community.

2. Literature Review

Tourism in Indonesia is an important economic sector in Indonesia. In 2009, tourism ranked third in terms of foreign exchange earnings after oil and gas commodities and palm oil. Based on data of 2014, the number of foreign tourists who came to Indonesia amounted to 9.4 million more or grew by 7.05% compared to the previous year. Natural and cultural riches are an important component of tourism in Indonesia.

Alam Indonesia has a tropical combination of tropical, 17,508 islands of which 6,000 are uninhabited, as well as the third longest coastline in the world after Canada and the EU. Indonesia is also the largest and most populous island nation in the world. The beaches of Bali, diving sites in Bunaken, Mount Rinjani in Lombok, and various national parks in Sumater are examples of natural tourist destinations in Indonesia. The attractions are supported by a rich cultural heritage that reflects the dynamic history and diversity of Indonesian ethnics with 719 regional languages spoken throughout the islands. Prambanan and Borobudur, Toraja, Yogyakarta, Minangkabau, and Bali are examples of cultural tourism destinations in Indonesia. Until 2010, there are 7 locations in Indonesia that have been determined by UNESCO which is included in the list of World Heritage Sites. Meanwhile, four other representatives also set UNESCO in the List of Culture Representatif not objects of human heritage of puppets, keris, batik and angklung.

Based on data from the Central Bureau of Statistics, eleven provinces most visited by tourists are Balisekitar more than 3.7 million followed, DKI Jakarta, Special Region of Yogyakarta, East Java, West Java, North Sumatra, Lampung, South Sulawesi, South Sumatra, Banten and West Sumatra. About 59% of tourists visit Indonesia for holiday destinations, while 38% are for business purposes. Singapore and Malaysia are the two countries with the highest number of tourists coming to Indonesia from the ASEAN region. While the Asia region (excluding ASEAN) China tourists are in first place followed by Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and India. The largest number of migrants from Europe came from the United Kingdom followed by the Netherlands, Germany and France. The management of tourism, national policy, government affairs in the field of culture and tourism in Indonesia is governed by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Indonesia.

The field of services related to tourism may have developed since ancient Indonesian times, especially the ancient Java of the 8th century; some relief panels on Borobudur illustrate the scene of a beverage seller, a kind of shop, a diner, or a restaurant, and there are buildings in which there are people drinking and having fun, presumably describing a drink house or lodging. Indonesia has a historical record of tourism culture since the century since the 14th century.

Travel Notes Bujangga Manik, a traveler of Hindu travelers Pakuan Pajajaran written in the 15th century tells the journey around the island of Java and Bali. Although the journey is a pilgrimage, but sometimes he spends time like a modern traveler: sitting, fanning his body and enjoying the scenery in the Peak, especially Mount Gede which he calls the highest point of the Pakuan area.

After the entry of the Dutch to Indonesia in the early 19th century, the Dutch East Indies began to develop into an attraction for the immigrants who come from the Netherlands. The governor-general at the time decided on the establishment of a tourist bureau called Vereeeging Toeristen Verkeer whose office building was also used for the airline Koninklijke Nederlansch Indische Luchtfahrt Maatschapijj (now called KLM). Hotels start to emerge like Hotel des Indes in Batavia, Hotel Oranje in Surabaya and Hotel De Boer in Medan.

In 1913, Vereeneging Touristen Verkeer created a guidebook on tourism objects in Indonesia. Since that time, Bali became known by foreign tourists and the number of foreign tourists arrivals increased by more than 100% in 1927. On July 1, 1947, the Indonesian government tried to revive the Indonesian tourism sector by establishing a body called HONET (Hotel National & Tourism) by R. Tjitpo Ruslan. The agency immediately took over hotels - hotels located in the area around Java and entirely renamed Hotel Merdeka. After the Round Table Conference, the agency was renamed NV HORNET. In 1952 in accordance with the decision of the President of the Republic of Indonesia, an Inter Depart- ment Committee of Tourism Affairs was established to explore the possibility of reopening Indonesia as a tourist destination.

During the New Order period, the number of foreign tourists visiting Indonesia grew slowly. The Government once held a program to increase the number of foreign tourist arrivals to Indonesia called the Year of Visit Indonesia. The program increases international tourist arrivals by up to 400,000 people. [1-5] In addition, in 1992, the government declared the Visit Indonesia Decade, the annual theme of tourism until the year 2000.

International confidence in Indonesian tourism began to decline in the Bali bombing incident in 2002 which led to a decrease of tourists coming to Bali by 32%. Other terror acts such as the 2003 JW Marriott Bomb, Australian Embassy Bombing, Bali Bombing 2005 and the 2009 Jakarta Bombings also affected the number of foreign tourists arriving in Indonesia. This terrorist act in Indonesia resulted in the issuance of travel warnings by some countries such as Australia and Great Britain in 2006.

In 2008, the Indonesian government held the Year of Visit Indonesia 2008 program to increase the number of domestic tourists and foreign tourists to Indonesia, in addition to this program as well as for commemorating the 100th anniversary of Indonesia's national awakening. Funds issued for this program amounted to 15 million US dollars, mostly used for advertising programs at home and abroad. The result of this program is an increase in the number of foreign tourists reaching 6.2 million tourists compared to the previous year of 5.5 million tourists.

In an effort to increase the number of tourists to Indonesia, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Indonesia continued the "Year of Visit Indonesia" program in 2009 with a target of 6.4 million tourists and foreign exchange earnings of 6.4 billion US dollars, while the movement of domestic tourists is targeted 229, 95 million trips with total expenditure of more than 128.77 trillion rupiah. The program is focused on "meetings, incentives, conventions and performances as well as sea tourism". In 2010, the Indonesian government re-launched the "Visit Indonesia Year and Year Visit Museum 2010". This program is conducted to encourage public awareness of the museum and increase the number of visitors to the museum. In 2011, the Indonesian government established Wonderful Indonesia as the new brand management of Indonesian tourism, while for the theme of tourism selected "Eco, Culture, and MICE". Tourism logo still use logo "Year of Visit Indonesia" which was used since 2008.

3. Method

Method Approach Method approach of Tourism Industry Development And National Economic Resilience:

Method of Implementation of Tourism Industry Development and National Economic Resilience is as follows.

4. Result

There is increased revenue of Waterfall the Bride in 2015 – 2016

5. Discussion

Revitalization Program of Tourism Objects Development Facilities and Infrastructure Supporting Tourism Tour Before After Development Gazebo Before After Revitalization that has been done on the tourist attractions Waterfall Bride can increase tourist visits to 40%. This revitalization continues to be done, so it is targeted in the year 2017 tourist visits can be increased up to 80% Repair Bridge And Talut In Village Wakah Road Repairs Inside Fruit Drawing Area Development of facilities and infrastructure carried out in the Village Wakah is a step preparation Fruit Pete Tour Program in Wakah Village. Wakah Village is the center of Rambutan and Durian plants.

Development Program Tourist Attraction Development of Arts Tourism Development Education To optimize tourist visit, then developed tourist attraction. Through tourist attractions, the tourists not only can enjoy the beauty of nature but also can enjoy the attractions wisata.Atraksi attractions developed in the form of art attractions and educational tours. The educational tour developed has received positive responses from the community as well as contributing to the increase of domestic tourist visits.

The Community Empowerment Program of the Mountain Community Empowerment Program includes:

1) Entrepreneurship education for local potential based communities

2) Education and training Making fruit chips

3) Education and training cassava chips flavor gadung, banana chips, and purple telo chips

4) Making web tourism

6. Conclusion

1. Tourism Revitalization Program is able to increase the attraction of tourism object.

2. Tourism Tour Development Program is able to increase the attractiveness of the tourists.

3. Community Empowerment Program Mountains, able to increase people's income around the object of tourism through the production and sales souvenirs typical Ngawi.

References

[1]  Central Bureau of Statistics of Ngawi Regency, 2013, Ngawi in Figures 2013, BPS Catalog No: 1102001. 35212.
In article      
 
[2]  "Ethnologue - Languages of the World - Languages of Indonesia". Lewis, M. Paul (ed.). Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 16th ed. Dallas, Tex .: SIL International. Online version. 2009
In article      
 
[3]  Tourist Developments By Country of Residence 2004-2009. Ministry of Culture and Tourism RI.
In article      
 
[4]  Government of Ngawi Regency, 2011, Medium Term Development Plan of the Year 2010 - 2015. Regional Regulation of Ngawi Regency no. 11 Year 2010.
In article      
 
[5]  Ranking Foreign Exchange Tourism Against Other Export Commodities in 2004-2009. Ministry of Culture and Tourism RI.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Kusubakti Andajani, Ruminiati, Yuni Pratiwi, Sri Yati and Sri Indrawati

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Kusubakti Andajani, Ruminiati, Yuni Pratiwi, Sri Yati, Sri Indrawati. Development of Tourism Industry and National Economic Security. Journal of Business and Management Sciences. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2018, pp 1-5. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jbms/6/1/1
MLA Style
Andajani, Kusubakti, et al. "Development of Tourism Industry and National Economic Security." Journal of Business and Management Sciences 6.1 (2018): 1-5.
APA Style
Andajani, K. , A, R. , Pratiwi, Y. , Yati, S. , & Indrawati, S. (2018). Development of Tourism Industry and National Economic Security. Journal of Business and Management Sciences, 6(1), 1-5.
Chicago Style
Andajani, Kusubakti, Ruminiati, Yuni Pratiwi, Sri Yati, and Sri Indrawati. "Development of Tourism Industry and National Economic Security." Journal of Business and Management Sciences 6, no. 1 (2018): 1-5.
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[1]  Central Bureau of Statistics of Ngawi Regency, 2013, Ngawi in Figures 2013, BPS Catalog No: 1102001. 35212.
In article      
 
[2]  "Ethnologue - Languages of the World - Languages of Indonesia". Lewis, M. Paul (ed.). Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 16th ed. Dallas, Tex .: SIL International. Online version. 2009
In article      
 
[3]  Tourist Developments By Country of Residence 2004-2009. Ministry of Culture and Tourism RI.
In article      
 
[4]  Government of Ngawi Regency, 2011, Medium Term Development Plan of the Year 2010 - 2015. Regional Regulation of Ngawi Regency no. 11 Year 2010.
In article      
 
[5]  Ranking Foreign Exchange Tourism Against Other Export Commodities in 2004-2009. Ministry of Culture and Tourism RI.
In article