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Original Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

The Impact of Leadership Style on Middle Managers’ Motivation: A Study of the Ministry of Civil Aviation in Egypt

Safaa Shaaban
Journal of Business and Management Sciences. 2017, 5(3), 100-107. DOI: 10.12691/jbms-5-3-5
Published online: October 28, 2017

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between leadership styles, used by top management, to motivate middle management managers, which drives them in accomplishing their organisational goals. Leadership use two techniques to motivate employee that are extrinsic and intrinsic (Self-determination Theory (SDT)) in Civil Aviation Ministry in Egypt. The objective of this study is to search which leadership style is currently used, from the perspective of middle management, as subordinates for top management and which leadership style motivated managers, extrinsically and intrinsically. A survey-based descriptive research design was used. The study was conducted using middle managers working in the Civil Aviation Ministry in Egypt. Of 150 survey questionnaires distributed, only 100 were completed in a useful manner. The questions on the survey instrument were grouped into two sections (part for leadership and the other for motivation). The questions were close-ended and using a Likert-type scale with five degrees (1-5) intensity. The research results of the study leading to the conclusion that the top managers’ leadership style currently used in MOCA is transactional style and that it reacts far the intrinsic more than extrinsic managers’ motivation.

1. Introduction

Leadership is the primary method that managers can use to help the organization achieve the organisational goals. Most of studies presented before focused on leadership style from the perspective of leaders themselves, which is limited literature regarding leadership from the perspective of subordinates and lower level managers. This study will focus on the leadership prospective from subordinates’ point of view (middle managers). Currently, organisations face challenging fierce competition, Therefore, the need for endless improvement is needed of the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization. For organisation to survive this will be throughout generating reasonable advantage. Every organisation requirement utilize the maximize its workers potential, Leadership has a essential role in these procedure. Apparently, in the Egyptian civil aviation sector, these area of leadership never been examined by researchers. In all working environment leadership is the concept take place and introduced with its relation in different dimensions, it also defined in Leadership is a concept that is clearly present in all working environments and is defined in a broader diversity of means because of to its huge influence in the organisation’s achievements. Saleem, 1 and Northouse 2 stated that there are certien process influence leadership, which people have a power that control a unit/group of employees to accomplish shared goals. Bass 3 labeled leadership as ''The focus of group processes as a personality attribute, as the art of inducing compliance, as an exercise of influence, as a particular kind of activity, as a form of persuasion, as a power relation, as an instrument in the attainment of goals, as an effect of interaction, as a differentiated role, and as the initiation of structure.” ( 4, p35), the two definitions agree that, if the leadership have a proper role, this is need a powerful leader, a follower present or involved, communication and situation. Leadership not be exist without those three features. Moreover, leaders, followers, communication and a situation are the main crucial roots or foundation of the variable leadership 5.

For any organisation to survival, it should has its ability to be more effectiveness and in its preparation to achieve its vison, mission and objectives 2, which will be achieved in the present of effective leadership. Nevertheless, to be in play an effective leadership, it is very important the leadership style is well-matched with the followers needs for motivation 6, 7.

The research study purpose is to explore and examine the link between the leadership style and its impact on manager motivation in one specific public sector (civil aviation) in Egypt and included the follower subordinate companies such as (Egypt Air, Holding Company for airports, Civil Aviation authorities).

Numerous research studies of relationship between leadership style and motivation, have revealed that motivation is affected by leadership style influences motivation 8, 9, 10. Although many and different research studies looking at leadership and motivation have been undertaken, a few of these studies have concentrated on motivation of middle management managers’ and the style of leadership within the organisations. Therefore, a pair of questions are being raised: Does the top managers’ leadership style motivate middle managers to accomplish organization goals? If the answer is yes, which factor of motivational, extrinsic or intrinsic, the most important? The drive of this research study is to answer these questions in relation to the public sector in Egypt, with a focus on the civil aviation sector. Also, and the key purpose of conducting this research is to identify which motivation fits with each leadership style.

The literature reveals that the style of leadership targeted participative, supporti which in return resulted in higher level of performance. The Avolio 11 study recognized a correlation between motivation and transactional/transformational style of leadership. Storseth 12 indicate that the key for motivation at work is people-oriented leadership style. Many research studies results confirmed that, there is linkages between peoples’ motivation (Intrinsic and extrinsic) and leadership styles (transformational transactional).

2. Theoretical Background

2.1. The Leadership Scopes (Independed Variable)

Leadership has been defined by different authors in different ways, so it has been assumed by Stogdill, that “there are almost as many definitions of leadership as there are authors who have attempted to define the concept” ( 8, p. 259). From the period when Stogdill first noticed this until today, the number of those definitions has increased. All these definitions lead to the conclusion “that leadership has been defined in terms of traits, behavior, influence, interaction patterns, role relationship, and occupation of an administrative position” ( 9, p. 2).

Different definitions proposed in the second half of the 20th century, such as Leadership is “the process of influencing the activities of an organized group toward goal achievement” ( 13, p. 46). From all these definitions, Yukl summaries that leadership is the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how it can be done effectively, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish the shared objectives ( 8, p. 7).

A proof of the increasing interest regarding to the leadership concepts and approaches introduced by Higgs and Rowland ( 14: p273) who states that, “In more recent times the area of leadership has been studied more extensively than almost any other aspect of human behaviour”.

Burns defined leadership as, “The reciprocal process of mobilizing by persons with certain motives and values, various economic, political and other resources in a context of competition and conflict, in order to realise goals”. ( 15: p150).

2.2. Leadership Theories and Style in This Study

In this study will uses the two basic concepts and that are contemporary theory and style of Leadership that will be covered from the literature point of view according to Lewin et al. 16 as follows:


2.2.1. Transformational leadership

This style of leadership is having its own techniques, approaches and strategy that dependable on leaders’ vision and at the same time focuses on empower, change values, norms and attitudes, also this style enhance self–efficacy of their followers. The transformation leader is concerned with developing a vision which, match with their organisation’s mission and sets based on the institution for the organization’s techniques, policy and strategies. The leaders of transformational style are explained to be creative and passionate to motivate their employees with the approach of intrinsic motivation ability 17. Transformation leadership is distinguishing from another type of leadership which is charismatic leadership as cited by 18. “ 19. believes that the individual characteristics of charismatic leaders include a high degree of self-confidence, strong moral convictions, and the ability to influence others. This also is involved in management behaviors, with the purpose of affecting others to increase the trust of the leader”.

According to Tichy & Devanna 20 literature explained of transformational leader’s style characteristic are proactive, help follower or employees to achieve extraordinary goals by raising their awareness for transcendent collective benefits. The style of transformational leadership is argued to include five first-order factors as follow:

A. Idealized influence (attributed) this reflect on the characteristics of the leader if he have the socialization charisma, he/she is viewing as being powerful and self-confident, or he/she is perceived as concentrating on ideals and ethics;

B. Idealized influence (behavior) this discusses the issues of the charismatic leader and its focuses on mission, vision, beliefs;

C. Inspirational motivation, that related to how leaders empower their followers by perceiving the optimistic future, setting the ambitious and motivated goals and objectives, projecting dreaming and approach and convincing their followers that this vision and objective is reachable;

D. Intellectual stimulation related to leader who challenging his/her followers to the sense of logic and challenging of the creativity in fin solution to the hard problems and obstacles; and

E. Individualized consideration, that refers to behavior of leader, which add to the satisfaction of follower throughout paying attention, supporting, coaching and advising. Therefore, this will allow followers to self-actualize, self stems and to be develop.


2.2.2. Transactional Leadership

This style of leadership is focuses on self-discipline Amburgey 21 cited by Avolio 11 who stating that, “transactional leadership occurs when the leader rewards or disciplines the follower, depending on the adequacy of the follower’s behavior or performance”. Additionally, this study presenting that, positive or negative effect on the follower performance and satisfaction return to the rewards and reinforcements they gained from their leaders. The leaders of transactional style interact with their employees to explain the task and it should be done and let the employees aware with the reward and benefits that will be pricing for the “job well be done” as a result of achieving the task 22 Style of transactional leaders are assumed to be supportive and often emphasis on exchange relationship with their employees 23.

The style of transactional leadership is based on exchange process build based on self-actualization and satisfaction

Transactional leadership is an exchange process built on the satisfaction and self-actualization of employees as result of achieving their goals, this type of leadership is exactly represented as setting objectives and monitoring and controlling results. According to Antonakis, transactional leadership as a theory, it is involve the following three factors: there factors are (a) Contingent reward which refer to the fulfillment of contractual obligations benefits that, they employee gained based on material or psychological rewards; (b) management-by-exception active (i.e., active corrective transactions) refers to the leaders as an active alerted to reach goals with specific criteria are met; and (c) management-by-exception passive (i.e., passive corrective transactions) the role of leader is to involve when the goal not completed or any mistakes happened 24.


2.2.3. Transactional and Transformational Leadership Styles in Egypt

Hafez 25, in his study pointed out that, the of transformational leadership style applications its dimensions and concept in Egypt has been taken from United States and applied directly to Egypt with a design to fit with Egyptian culture (i.e., constructive transactions) that belong to leader behaviors, which concentrated on clear duties and task needs and providing followers the Egyptian culture and concept. Also, Hafez 25 pointed out referred that the leaders have to be able to use official and unofficial approaches to be able to accomplish an effective communication channels with their followers 25.

Shalin and Wright 26 examined the f transactional and transformational leadership style theory in Egypt through a questionnaire conducted with employees in several organisations in Egypt and the Middle East. The study indicated that only three (indicate for these factors) of the eight factors mentioned above (transformational and transactional style of leadership) that were found in the ideal and fit with leadership style in Egypt community, comparing with the US factors as many literatures mentioned the closer of the circumstance between the two countries. The majority of the above researchers settled on the point of that the best suited to the cross cultural context is the style of transformational leadership with respect to the personality factors. Many studies mentioned that the best leadership style is transformational style because it is flexible enough to adjust to different cultures, and it is the best to suit in Egypt and the Arab world. However, there are other factors can affect the behavior of the followers, such as country’s social-cultural factors, that affect the. Also these studies also highlight how the leadership behaviors subjective tote factors of the personality of the leader. These factors can affect the relationship between motivation of the individuals and leadership style persuading if this leadership is transformational or transactional 26.

2.3. The Concept of Motivation (Depended Variable)
2.3.1. Motivation Concept

The definition of motivation has been raised and developed by many researchers and authors, Society for Human Resource Management (2010) defined as the psychological impetus which control the level of effort of the person, as well as the persistence of person'' in obstacles facing in the workplace.

Bratton ( 27: p248) defined it as “a cognitive decision making process that influences the persistence and direction of goal directed behaviour”. “Work motivation can also be defining as the psychological forces within a person that determines the direction of that person’s behaviour in an organisation” ( 28: p183). Which is adapted by this research study. The last definition is raised by 29 stated that motivation sort of power energizing the behaviour of people, route the behaviour and generates the tendency to continue.

The main component in the above definitions are behaviour, effort, power to direct and rout behaviour, direction all these words which translated the concept of the way of people reached to achieve and persistent to reach to high level of performance which will benefits their organisations.

The ability to examine the energies factors t, channel, and work behaviour sustainability over time 30 Deci and Ryan, 31 pointed that to have the desire to achieve the concept of motivation. Thus, if a person is “moved to do something to achieve an end, this is considered a form of motivation, while if someone should do something and s/he is not moved or inspired to do it this is called demotivation or un-motivation 31. Human being attitude has a huge complexity regarding its conscious, human is very conscious with their needs while other people’s needs are unconscious, that’s why the human driven of their desires and needs is by the motives of their unconscious 32.

Perry 33 highlighting the need for more empirical study on motivation include broader view for understand the context of employee and behaviour in the workplace on the level of institutional context in the privet and public sector. Literature reveals that there is a great variance between motivation among employees and its management in privet sector rather than government sector 34.

A deeper understanding of motivation requires a clear look into the different types, namely intrinsic and extrinsic motivation concepts. According to 35, the basic need for motivation that required to engagement of any employee in workplace are divided into two groups are intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, these two categories motivated people to be engagement in doing the task or achieving goal 22. The concept of intrinsic motivation, it came from the person internal values to accomplish or achieve task or duties, while the concept of extrinsic motivation developed from the person want to achieve a certain result (money or rewards for instance) which liked with the same task or duties 35. Intrinsic concept of motivation could be related to as the persons’ pleasure of himself and herself. Deci and Ryan mentioned that the concept of extrinsic motivation referred to behaviour causes by behaviour need that differs from the behaviour of doing the duties or task 36. The fact is both intrinsic and extrinsic approaches together, for example having job security, interesting work atmosphere, job satisfaction and job appreciation, also need promotions, monetary and rewards 37.

To summaries, the intrinsic motivation approach is connected with the inner needs, while the extrinsic motivation approach is connected with the exterior needs which translated to the external surroundings. Either concepts or approaches of motivation are needed both in the organisation to reached to good work environment, consequently the employees the both concept of motivation intrinsic and extrinsic 32.

2.4. Relationship between Managers’ Leadership Style and Motivation

The fact of motivation and leadership are in a mutual interaction, this prove based on experience has motivate many studies, that have studied to give an answer for the most appropriate leadership style. The answer of this question produced a significant leadership theories presented to the literature, starting form trait theory, through the behavioral and contingency theory, reached to the leadership contemporary styles, such as servant, interactive, transactional and transformational leadership. There are several writers such as Mayo and Lewin, McGregor, Argyris and Likert, to Fiedler, Yetton, Vroom, Handy, Bennis, Yammarino, Greenleaf, those who have contributed to create and add to these theories, approaches and styles.

It is very important to develop an adequate diagnostic model, to be able to examine the relationship between leadership style and managers’ motivation. Starting with the Likert’s 38. 39 model was the first step to design this module, as the most suitable model for study on motivation of leaders 40, 41.

Different theories lie on the two categories of motivational factors: intrinsic and extrinsic as the main component of Self-determination theory. Intrinsic are: recognition, achievement, responsibility, advancement and work itself, and extrinsic are: supervision, salary, security, company policy and work conditions. A Module of leadership design based on diagnostic of both Likert’s and self-determination model, this model to test the relationship between motivation and of leadership styles.

Transformational leaders have a power comes from their capability to inspire and stimulate followers to achieve the work expected. While, transactional leadership related to more working relationship, which based on “give and take”. That explained the exchange thought between follower and leader, such as a rewards system based on meet specific objectives and purposes 42. This was based on a study was conducted by 43 on a sample of meta-analysis from 87 sources of 626 correlations to transformational, and transactional,

After researching the transformational leadership style 44 concluded that it may be good as a universal leadership style as this style is very flexible and can be applied in different cultures and is also good in a cross cultural context with regards to the personality traits and factors. They also indicated that the factors of the social culture affected followers' behavior and preferences 45.

2.5. Theoretical Framework

A literature review has been conducted to reach to present the relationship between leadership style and motivation approaches for Middle managers in the Ministry of civil aviation Egypt. The analyses are applying by numerous features which provide a sufficient clear understanding of the context of leadership style and motivation approaches. A clear framework is providing in the discussion of this study, the framework build on variables will be used during this study. Figure 1 illustrates study theoretical framework.

3. Methodology

3.1. Objectives

The main objective of attempt study is to explore the relationship between leadership style and employee motivation in the public-sector Egypt. The research is carried out in the civil aviation ministry in Egypt.

The sub- objectives stated of this research can be stated as follows:

•  To study the relationship between managers’ motivation concept and his/her intrinsic or extrinsic motivation.

• To study the relationship between the Transformational Leadership style and managers’ Motivation

•  To study the relationship between the Transactional Leadership approach and managers’ motivation.

3.2. Research Hypothesis

The hypotheses in this research study were developed to explore the relationships and connections between middle managers ‘motivation and top management leadership styles, and the impact of effective leadership factors on employee motivation, four hypotheses were presented below:

H1: The relationship between top managers’ Transformational leadership styles and intrinsic middle managers’ motivation is positive and stronger than extrinsic.

H2: The relationship between top managers’ Transactional leadership styles and extrinsic middle managers’ motivation is positive and stronger than intrinsic.

H3: The relationship between the transactional leadership styles of top managers and middle managers extrinsic motivation is stronger than the relationship between the top managers’ transformational leadership styles and middle manager intrinsic motivation.

3.3. Sample

The research conducted in the late of 2016 by a widespread survey submit by hand to randomly group of central and middle managers (central department managers, general managers and department managers) on different hierarchical levels in all ministry and holding subordinates companies.

From a population of 400 mangers the questionnaire was delivered to 150 mangers, 100 of these surveys were answered in a usable manner and returned (this sample equivalent to 25% of the population). The sample were from middle managers (General Managers), were scheduled in (Table 2) in the companies in this research project.

3.4. Measures

A special questionnaire containing of 58 questions to measure this study, a special questionnaire grouped into three sections was designed following the Likert-type scale with five degrees, all the questions were close-ended questions.

The first part was linked to the respondents’ characteristics, and contained of 3 questions. Part two, was linked to the leadership styles including 45 questions, it was adapted from Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) by 46. The third section covered motivation with self-determination theory in motivation, and contained of extrinsic factors are 10 questions and 5 questions related to intrinsic factors. This survey was adapted from the Kovach 47 factors of motivating scale from Mowday, Steers, & Porter 48.

3.5. Reliability and Validity Analysis

Checking and assessing all the variables reliability, and to confirm of internal consistency was carried out. A record of Cronbach alpha scored 0.847 for motivation, a record, 0.956 for leadership, and 0.943 for all. The cut-off line is suggested by 49. The pre-tested stage to assess the validity by consulting the opinions of five expert and professors who specialize in quantitative methodology and organizational behavior discipline. This scale has been used previously in different research 50. The factor analysis was also made for this research. Factor extraction was carried out and it is less than (1). The factor loading recoding 0.040 which considered as healthy and adopted factor that recommended by Hair et al. 49, the test show significant relationship.

4. Data Analysis

Demographic characteristics the demographic characteristics are: 50% were male, and 50% female, including gender, academic, and age.

Two type of leadership targeted and discussed in this study are: Transformational style and Transactional style. The statistic shows that, the current leadership style is Transactional style rather than Transformational style.

Descriptive analysis of the data was generated including mean values calculation of data, such as the mean, standard deviation; bivariate analysis which determined the existence and characteristics of associations, from 2 level, first is between individual elements of independent and dependent variables. Second collectively between independent and dependent variables in the study.

Apparently, the analysis of these data shown that the extrinsic motivation scoring higher than intrinsic while leadership style the transactional style scoring higher that transformational style. In simple words this can conclude that, the current leadership style which transactional support the extrinsic motivation in the ministry of civil aviation.

To conclude, the assessment of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in this study shows that intrinsic motivation (3.81) is slightly lower than extrinsic motivation (4.06), which is not good. Obviously, it is unlikely that the middle managers’ intrinsic motivation higher than extrinsic motivation because it is expected that managers will be loyal and dedicated to their work, which is a necessary condition for the success of the Ministry as government body, which is the place all the policy regarding reward and promotion clear and not only related to the performance but related to years of experiences and structure ladder

To ensure the success of the MOCA, it is necessary, that the organization create a HRD system of development of managers based on their skills, as well as an adequate system of different forms of recognition of the managers for a job well done. Consideration of the models developed in theory and practice, it should be possible to increase the intrinsic motivation factors.

5. Discussion

In respond to the objective of this paper title “impact of current leadership style on the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of Middle managers “, the answer is yes When first looking at the primary category data analysis. There are two sort of positive relationship, first is the Transactional leadership style and extrinsic motivation approach of motivation relationship. Second is the Transactional leadership style and extrinsic approach of motivation relationship.

As been pointed by Antonakis and House 24, the approach of transformational leadership style was active and many research studies and scholars have been conducted on this approach. Burns 14, Transformational leadership related with positive optimistic results on individual level and organizational levels. Followers are encourage by transformational leaders to reach higher-order needs alike self-actualization, self-esteem and achievement of organizational goals 51.

Both of Bass and Avolio introduced and explored the idea that leadership style can be examined as transactional and transformational 4, 23. These scholars attempt to examine these two different styles of leadership. Both have examined these two approaches as motivator, and they establish that, there is a positive relationship between motivation and transactional and transformational leadership styles 3. In addition to these researchers many researchers’ experiential transformational leadership style records more motivation than transactional leadership style 52, 53, 54, 55, 56.

The proposed hypotheses in this study were:

H1 – There is a relationship between managers’ Transactional leadership styles and extrinsic managers’ motivation is positive.

As Table 3 shows that extrinsic motivation factors are rated higher than intrinsic motivation in the ministry of aviation, which significantly translated two extrinsic factors are, - working conditions and salary, these factors are the concept that motivate the majority of mangers. While the factor of job security for manger the least motivated factor in the public sector.

Apparently, the statistical analysis shown that the extrinsic motivation scoring higher than intrinsic while leadership style the transactional style scoring higher that transformational style. In simple words this can conclude that, the current leadership style which transactional support the extrinsic motivation in the ministry of civil aviation. As been mentioned by Burns that, there is type power of transformational leaders come from their capability of inspire other to achieve or complete the desire duties and tasks, while, transactional leadership working toward “give and take” relationship, establishing the exchange technique this is the key such as recognition, reward, reach to specific objectives 42.

Both Jung 57 and Amabile 22 concluded that the style of transformational leadership generates a vision and inspires employees to endeavor outside their expected purposes, while transactional leadership emphases more on extrinsic motivation for job duties performance. This study recommended that, the current leadership need for more orientation and training towered transformational leadership style to be able to support and create the intrinsic motivation.

H2: There is a relationship between managers’ Transformational leadership styles and managers’ intrinsic motivation is positive.

As mentioned in the previous H1, as the result of “transactional leadership focuses more on extrinsic motivation” pointed out be 57 and 22, the second face of the coins which has been examined in this study that show a positive correlation between transformational leadership and intrinsic motivation. The style of transformational leadership which focusing on empowering the individual and intrinsic motivation has been supported previously by 58.

As Table 3 shows that the relationship between transformational leadership style in significant.

And as been discuses above that, the statistical analysis shown that the extrinsic motivation percentage is h higher than intrinsic while leadership style the transactional style scoring higher that transformational style that’s mean, the current leadership style which transactional follow the approach of extrinsic motivation in the ministry, this positive relationship have been supported by different authors and researcher such people mentioned above and by Burns as well as his explanation mentioned above.

H3: The relationship between managers’ leadership styles and his/her extrinsic motivation is stronger than the relationship between managers’ leadership styles and his/her intrinsic motivation in public sector.

Apparently, as Table 3 shows that, it is very clear that, the relationship between transactional leadership and extrinsic motivation in the civil aviation nowadays is more the relationship of transformational style and intrinsic motivation

This results of the study shows that, there are interesting understandings into motivational and leadership styles of the middle managers in the Civil Aviation Ministry. The Ministry of Civil Aviation is a still quite a conservative society and very tradition Egyptian seeking for managerial post in the government body as a culture of these government origination.

Generally speaking men still leading the managerial positions, particularly those at the top management level. Another fact that to have a good high hierarchy position of management, you need at least 15 years experiences in this sector. And if it come to the side of age and formal education, middle-aged managers with a university degree completely lead the situation, however still there are manager who hold master’s and doctorate degrees in the group of managers under 40 which is shown a good result in government sector nowadays.

The middle manager leadership styles this study shown that, a transactional leadership style leads in this study sample, particularly at the middle levels of managers, same as to the lower levels, of management have almost pure authoritarian style of leadership leads the environment of the work. we should to considered that the fact of Civil Aviation society is a traditional society, which is not encouraging its employees or people, while today's business styles that involve counselling and participative leadership styles to help in to achieve the purpose of efficient and effective achievement of the desire goals and objectives for individual, departments and for organisation such as the civil society sector as a whole.

Regarding to the types of motivation, extrinsic factors are existing more than intrinsic ones in the ministry of civil aviation. Both type of motivation factors are existing in the higher level of management levels. It is interesting that the upper we climb up the management level, the importance of extrinsic motivation factors increases more than the importance of intrinsic ones. In simple words, extrinsic motivation factors such as satisfaction with salary, job security, etc., are more significant for mangers at higher levels of management, it was clear that, extrinsic motivation factors influence the lower levels of management and higher levels of management which is normal in the government organisations in Egypt.

This study has confirmed that there is a relationship between top management leadership style and middle management approach of motivation, this study has confirmed both of the hypothesis that, there is a relationship between managers’ leadership styles and managers’ motivation, and that relationship is stronger between extrinsic motivation factors and leadership style (Transactional leadership style) than intrinsic motivation factors and leadership style (transformational). In other words, managers develop their leadership style more in line with extrinsic than with intrinsic rewards.

6. Conclusion

To conclude, this study recommends some a study to investigate the personality to be able to design the intrinsic reward that fit with individual personality and needs. An effective motivation is critical for achieving organizational objectives. Therefore, recognizing managers’ needs and understanding their personality are two essential steps to planning and motivating managers. Hence, every action taken by a leader stimulates a reaction in the manager which will have a great effect on employees as a whole. More so, the achievement of the objectives of most business organisations, such as civil aviation, has international services business rather free services are typically borne out of the fact that leadership recognizes the needs of the middle managers and workers that fit with the strategy and vision of the ministry to satisfy the international recognition they follow.

In addition, a suitable working environment tied with a suitable leadership style. This leadership will encourage a free flow of clear communication channels among leaders, tier managers and their employee which will lead to good teamwork spirit and organisation and employee performance will be considered as a high priority as an intrinsic motivation.

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[25]  Hafez, M. (2004) “Roles of leadership in organizational change: The case of Egypt.” DBA dissertation, Maastricht School of Management (MSM), Netherlands.
In article      
 
[26]  Shalin, A.I. and P.L. Wright, (2004). Leadership in context of culture: An egyptian perspective. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 25(6): 499-511.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Bratton, J., Callinan, M., Forshaw, C. and Sawchuk, P. (2007) Work and Organisational Behaviour, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstroke.
In article      
 
[28]  George, J. M. and Jones, G. R. (2008) Understanding and Managing Organisational Behaviour, (5 th Ed), Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
In article      View Article
 
[29]  Bartol, K. M. and Martin, D. C. (1998), Management, 3rd ed., McGraw Hill, New York, NY, 268-279.
In article      
 
[30]  Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Shapiro, D. L. (2004). The future of work motivation theory, Academy of management Review, (29) 3, 379-387.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivations: classic definition and new directions. Contemporary educational psychology.
In article      PubMed
 
[32]  Kamal, S., Khan, B., Khan, M. B., & Khan, A. B. (2006). Motivation and its impact on the performance of employee's. Journal of reserch.
In article      
 
[33]  Perry, J. L. (2000). Bringing society in: Towards a theory of public-service motivation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 10(2), 471-488.
In article      View Article
 
[34]  Wright, B. E. (2001). Public-sector work motivation: A review of the current literature and a revised conceptual model. Public Administration Review, 11(4), 559-586.
In article      View Article
 
[35]  Amabile, T. M., DeJong, W., & Lepper, M. R. (1976). Effects of externally imposed deadlines on subsequent intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 92-98.
In article      View Article
 
[36]  Deci, E.L., Connell, J.P. & Ryan, R.M. (1989). Self-determination in a work organization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 580-590.
In article      View Article
 
[37]  Palaniammal, G (2013). “Motivating Factors of Employees Are Instigated To Improve Organization Productivity” Indian Stream Research Journal, 3 (7), 1-4.
In article      
 
[38]  Likert, R. (1961). New Patterns of Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
In article      View Article
 
[39]  Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. B. (1959). The Motivation to Work (2nd ed.). NewYork: John Wiley & Sons.
In article      
 
[40]  Malhorta, N. K. (2014). Essentials of Marketing Research: A Hands-On Orientation, 1st ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International, Inc.
In article      View Article
 
[41]  Arnold, J.A., Arad, S., Rhoades, J.A. & Drasgow, F. (2000). The Empowering Leadership Questionnaire: The construction and validation of a new scale for measuring leaders’ behaviours. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 249-269.
In article      View Article
 
[42]  Burns, J.M. (2010). Leadership. New York City, NY: Harper Perennial.
In article      
 
[43]  Judge TA, Piccolo RF. (2004) Transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2004; 89: 755-768.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[44]  Stephanie, K. J. and Bekhet, K. E. (2015) Leadership style and personal Demographic Profile: An Empirical Study on Private Business Organizations in Egypt. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) (2015) Volume 20, No 2, pp 127-147.
In article      View Article
 
[45]  Bekhet, K. (2015). “The relationship between adversity quotient and leadership styles of business leaders in Egypt.” DBA dissertation, Maastricht School of Management (MSM), Maastricht.
In article      
 
[46]  Van Knippenberg, D., & Sitkin, S. B. (2013). A critical assessment of charismatictransformational leadership research: Back to the drawing board? The Academy of Management Annals, 7(1), 1-60.
In article      View Article
 
[47]  Kovach, K.A. (1995). Employee motivation: Addressing a crucial factor in your organization’s performance. Employment Relations Today. 93-107.
In article      View Article
 
[48]  Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14, 224-247.
In article      View Article
 
[49]  Hair, J.E., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E., & dan Tatham, R.L. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis (6th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International Inc.
In article      
 
[50]  Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2010). Research methods for business: A skill building approach (5th ed.). West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
In article      View Article
 
[51]  Nawaz, A. and Zeb, S. (2016). ‘Impacts of Self-Efficacy on Organizational Commitment of Academicians.
In article      
 
[52]  Sparks, J.R. and Schenk, J.A. (2001). Explaining the effects of transformational leadership: an investigation of the effects of higherorders motives in multilevel marketing organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22, 849-69.
In article      View Article
 
[53]  Deluga, R.J. (1992). The relationship of leader-member exchanges with laissez-faire, transactional, and transformational leadership in naval environments. In Clark, K.E., Clark, M.B. & Campbell, D.P. (Eds.), Impact of Leadership. Center for Creative Leadership, Greensboro, NC.
In article      
 
[54]  Medley, F., & Larochelle, D.R. (1995). Transformational leadership and job satisfaction. Nursing Management, 26, 64-5.
In article      View Article
 
[55]  Clover, W. H. (1990). Transformational leaders: team performance, leadership ratings, and firsthand impressions. In K.E. Clark & M.B. Clark (Eds.), Measures of leadership (pp. 171-183). NJ: Leadership Library of America West Orange.
In article      View Article
 
[56]  Cooke, R.A. (2000). Effects of transformational leadership on subordinate motivation, empowering norms, and organizational productivity. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 8, 16-47.
In article      View Article
 
[57]  Jung, D.I. (2000). “Transformational and transactional leadership and their effects on creativity in groups”, Creativity Research Journal, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 185-195.
In article      View Article
 
[58]  Thomsen, P.; Andersen, L. (2014). ‘Only if we agree? How value conflicts moderate the relationship between transformational leadership and public service motivation. ‘International Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 37, No. 12, 2014, p. 895-907.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2017 Safaa Shaaban

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Safaa Shaaban. The Impact of Leadership Style on Middle Managers’ Motivation: A Study of the Ministry of Civil Aviation in Egypt. Journal of Business and Management Sciences. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2017, pp 100-107. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jbms/5/3/5
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Shaaban, Safaa. "The Impact of Leadership Style on Middle Managers’ Motivation: A Study of the Ministry of Civil Aviation in Egypt." Journal of Business and Management Sciences 5.3 (2017): 100-107.
APA Style
Shaaban, S. (2017). The Impact of Leadership Style on Middle Managers’ Motivation: A Study of the Ministry of Civil Aviation in Egypt. Journal of Business and Management Sciences, 5(3), 100-107.
Chicago Style
Shaaban, Safaa. "The Impact of Leadership Style on Middle Managers’ Motivation: A Study of the Ministry of Civil Aviation in Egypt." Journal of Business and Management Sciences 5, no. 3 (2017): 100-107.
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[22]  Amabile, T.M. (1993). Motivational synergy: Toward new conceptualizations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in the workplace. Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 3, No. 3, 185-201.
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[23]  Avolio BJ, Bass BM, Jung DI. (1994) Re-examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology.; 72: 441-462.
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[24]  Antonakis, J. & House, R. J. (2002). The full-range leadership theory: The way forward. In B.J.Avolio & F. J. Yammarino (Eds.), Transformational and charismatic leadership: the road ahead (pp. 3-34). Amsterdam: JAI.
In article      View Article
 
[25]  Hafez, M. (2004) “Roles of leadership in organizational change: The case of Egypt.” DBA dissertation, Maastricht School of Management (MSM), Netherlands.
In article      
 
[26]  Shalin, A.I. and P.L. Wright, (2004). Leadership in context of culture: An egyptian perspective. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 25(6): 499-511.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Bratton, J., Callinan, M., Forshaw, C. and Sawchuk, P. (2007) Work and Organisational Behaviour, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstroke.
In article      
 
[28]  George, J. M. and Jones, G. R. (2008) Understanding and Managing Organisational Behaviour, (5 th Ed), Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
In article      View Article
 
[29]  Bartol, K. M. and Martin, D. C. (1998), Management, 3rd ed., McGraw Hill, New York, NY, 268-279.
In article      
 
[30]  Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Shapiro, D. L. (2004). The future of work motivation theory, Academy of management Review, (29) 3, 379-387.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivations: classic definition and new directions. Contemporary educational psychology.
In article      PubMed
 
[32]  Kamal, S., Khan, B., Khan, M. B., & Khan, A. B. (2006). Motivation and its impact on the performance of employee's. Journal of reserch.
In article      
 
[33]  Perry, J. L. (2000). Bringing society in: Towards a theory of public-service motivation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 10(2), 471-488.
In article      View Article
 
[34]  Wright, B. E. (2001). Public-sector work motivation: A review of the current literature and a revised conceptual model. Public Administration Review, 11(4), 559-586.
In article      View Article
 
[35]  Amabile, T. M., DeJong, W., & Lepper, M. R. (1976). Effects of externally imposed deadlines on subsequent intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 92-98.
In article      View Article
 
[36]  Deci, E.L., Connell, J.P. & Ryan, R.M. (1989). Self-determination in a work organization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 580-590.
In article      View Article
 
[37]  Palaniammal, G (2013). “Motivating Factors of Employees Are Instigated To Improve Organization Productivity” Indian Stream Research Journal, 3 (7), 1-4.
In article      
 
[38]  Likert, R. (1961). New Patterns of Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
In article      View Article
 
[39]  Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. B. (1959). The Motivation to Work (2nd ed.). NewYork: John Wiley & Sons.
In article      
 
[40]  Malhorta, N. K. (2014). Essentials of Marketing Research: A Hands-On Orientation, 1st ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International, Inc.
In article      View Article
 
[41]  Arnold, J.A., Arad, S., Rhoades, J.A. & Drasgow, F. (2000). The Empowering Leadership Questionnaire: The construction and validation of a new scale for measuring leaders’ behaviours. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 249-269.
In article      View Article
 
[42]  Burns, J.M. (2010). Leadership. New York City, NY: Harper Perennial.
In article      
 
[43]  Judge TA, Piccolo RF. (2004) Transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2004; 89: 755-768.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[44]  Stephanie, K. J. and Bekhet, K. E. (2015) Leadership style and personal Demographic Profile: An Empirical Study on Private Business Organizations in Egypt. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) (2015) Volume 20, No 2, pp 127-147.
In article      View Article
 
[45]  Bekhet, K. (2015). “The relationship between adversity quotient and leadership styles of business leaders in Egypt.” DBA dissertation, Maastricht School of Management (MSM), Maastricht.
In article      
 
[46]  Van Knippenberg, D., & Sitkin, S. B. (2013). A critical assessment of charismatictransformational leadership research: Back to the drawing board? The Academy of Management Annals, 7(1), 1-60.
In article      View Article
 
[47]  Kovach, K.A. (1995). Employee motivation: Addressing a crucial factor in your organization’s performance. Employment Relations Today. 93-107.
In article      View Article
 
[48]  Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14, 224-247.
In article      View Article
 
[49]  Hair, J.E., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E., & dan Tatham, R.L. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis (6th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International Inc.
In article      
 
[50]  Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2010). Research methods for business: A skill building approach (5th ed.). West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
In article      View Article
 
[51]  Nawaz, A. and Zeb, S. (2016). ‘Impacts of Self-Efficacy on Organizational Commitment of Academicians.
In article      
 
[52]  Sparks, J.R. and Schenk, J.A. (2001). Explaining the effects of transformational leadership: an investigation of the effects of higherorders motives in multilevel marketing organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22, 849-69.
In article      View Article
 
[53]  Deluga, R.J. (1992). The relationship of leader-member exchanges with laissez-faire, transactional, and transformational leadership in naval environments. In Clark, K.E., Clark, M.B. & Campbell, D.P. (Eds.), Impact of Leadership. Center for Creative Leadership, Greensboro, NC.
In article      
 
[54]  Medley, F., & Larochelle, D.R. (1995). Transformational leadership and job satisfaction. Nursing Management, 26, 64-5.
In article      View Article
 
[55]  Clover, W. H. (1990). Transformational leaders: team performance, leadership ratings, and firsthand impressions. In K.E. Clark & M.B. Clark (Eds.), Measures of leadership (pp. 171-183). NJ: Leadership Library of America West Orange.
In article      View Article
 
[56]  Cooke, R.A. (2000). Effects of transformational leadership on subordinate motivation, empowering norms, and organizational productivity. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 8, 16-47.
In article      View Article
 
[57]  Jung, D.I. (2000). “Transformational and transactional leadership and their effects on creativity in groups”, Creativity Research Journal, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 185-195.
In article      View Article
 
[58]  Thomsen, P.; Andersen, L. (2014). ‘Only if we agree? How value conflicts moderate the relationship between transformational leadership and public service motivation. ‘International Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 37, No. 12, 2014, p. 895-907.
In article      View Article