Study of Parameters Affecting Employee Satisfaction

Neeraj Kumari

Journal of Business and Management Sciences

Study of Parameters Affecting Employee Satisfaction

Neeraj Kumari

Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad, Haryana, India

Abstract

The aim of the study is to measure employee satisfaction at three different branches of Reliance Life Insurance viz. Karol Bagh, Jhandewalan and Connaught Place, and to analyze which branch needs to work upon which parameters. The study also analyzes whether Rewards and Recognition play an important role in determining overall employee satisfaction. It is a descriptive research. The sample size is 90. Non Comparative Scaling Technique has been used in the study. The study shows that rewards and recognition play a very significant role in determining employee satisfaction. The overall Employee Satisfaction can be said as relatively on the positive side for all the three branches. The employees of Jhandewalan branch show less inclination towards rewards and recognition programme as compared to other two branches. Rewards and recognition play a very significant role in determining employee satisfaction. This also proves that employees are extremely motivated when it comes to such recognition programmes.

Cite this article:

  • Neeraj Kumari. Study of Parameters Affecting Employee Satisfaction. Journal of Business and Management Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2016, pp 34-42. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jbms/4/2/2
  • Kumari, Neeraj. "Study of Parameters Affecting Employee Satisfaction." Journal of Business and Management Sciences 4.2 (2016): 34-42.
  • Kumari, N. (2016). Study of Parameters Affecting Employee Satisfaction. Journal of Business and Management Sciences, 4(2), 34-42.
  • Kumari, Neeraj. "Study of Parameters Affecting Employee Satisfaction." Journal of Business and Management Sciences 4, no. 2 (2016): 34-42.

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At a glance: Figures

1. Introduction

Employee satisfaction is of utmost importance for employees to remain happy and also deliver their level best. Satisfied employees are the ones who are extremely loyal towards their organization and stick to it even in the worst scenario. They do not work out of any compulsion but because they dream of taking their organization to a new level. Employees need to be passionate towards their work and passion comes only when employees are satisfied with their job and organization on the whole. Employee satisfaction leads to a positive ambience at the workplace. People seldom crib or complain and concentrate more on their work.

Employee attrition is one of the major problems faced by organizations. I don’t think an individual who is treated well at the workplace, has ample opportunities to grow, is appreciated by his superiors, gets his salary on time ever thinks of changing his job. Retaining talented employees definitely gives your organization an edge over your competitors as they contribute more effectively than new joinees. Moreover, no new individual likes to join an organization which has a high employee attrition rate. Employees who are not satisfied with their jobs often badmouth their organization and also warn friends and acquaintances to join the same.

Satisfied employees tend to adjust more and handle pressure with ease as compared to frustrated ones. Employees who are not satisfied with their jobs would find a problem in every small thing and be too rigid. They find it extremely difficult to compromise or cope up with the changing times. On the other hand, employees who are happy with their jobs willing participate in training programs and are eager to learn new technologies, softwares which would eventually help them in their professional career. Satisfied employees accept challenges with a big smile and deliver even in the worst of circumstances.

Factors Influencing Employee Satisfaction

• The brand name of the organization is of utmost importance to the employees and it is considered when employee satisfaction is considered.

• The aims and objectives of the organization where an employee works are likely to affect employee satisfaction.

• Salary and wage is one of the most important factors behind employee satisfaction. The salary should always be in accordance to the position of the employee in the company.

• Rewards and penalties are other important things that affect level of satisfaction of an employee in his job.

• The kind of treatment given by the supervisor to the employee largely determines his satisfaction level. It is always desired to treat employees in a good manner.

• Working methods of the organization determines the satisfactory level of an employee. It is true that every organization has its own working methods but some freedom should also be given to the employees.

• It is essential to check that the personality of the employee matches the type of job being allotted to him.

• Expectations of the employee should also be in accordance to the level of organization in which he or she is working.

2. Literature Review

Oluwatavo [7] The results show that contrary to popular beliefs, most of the respondents were satisfied with their jobs overall, although they were least satisfied with their pay. The factors that predict the satisfaction of the employee architects with various aspects of the job were identified.

Hur et al. [5] The results of the study found that employee’s emotional regulation strategies of deep acting and surface acting differentially affect customer satisfaction, and that employee’s job satisfaction mediates the relationship between employee’s emotional regulation strategies and customer satisfaction. More specifically, the relationship between surface acting and customer satisfaction is fully mediated by employee’s job satisfaction, whereas the relationship between deep acting and customer satisfaction is partially mediated by employee’s job satisfaction.

George & K.A. [4] Results indicated that employees of different sectors of bank had different level of job satisfaction and job-related stress. Further it was revealed that public sector banks have lower job-related stress when compared to private sector banks and new generation banks; and higher job satisfaction when compared to new generation banks.

Chen et al. [3] The study found a trickle-down effect of satisfaction with supervision, as predicted, and the effect was stronger for female than male middle managers. These findings open new avenues for addressing turnover issues for organizations and managers.

Chen et al. [2] Results show that integrating and compromising conflict management behaviors are positively related to job satisfaction; integrating conflict management behavior is positively related to innovation performance; and avoiding conflict management behavior is negatively related to innovation performance.

Chang & Lee [1] The study results indicate that the various operation extents of learning organization have significant difference under the dimensions of leadership, organizational culture and the operation of learning organization. Both leadership and organizational culture can positively and significantly affect the operation of learning organization. In addition, the operation of learning organizations has a significantly positive effect on employees' job satisfaction.

Morgan et al. [6] Reports the findings of recent empirical research into the job satisfaction of an original sample of 1,326 UK marketing managers. Provides data on the nature and sources of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction and on the assessment of the relative importance of various intrinsic (content) and extrinsic (context) occupational characteristics. Analyses the satisfaction criteria against a variety of variables such as age, gender, tenure and career development.

3. Research Methodology

Purpose of study: To measure employee satisfaction at the three different branches of Reliance Life Insurance viz. Karol Bagh, Jhandewalan and Connaught Place. Employee Satisfaction has become today a very important process in the organizations, especially during times when attrition rate is very high. Every organization needs to understand this process in order to retain best of the employees.

Objectives:

• To measure employee satisfaction at 3 different branches of Reliance Life Insurance

• To analyze which branch needs to work upon which parameters

• To analyze whether Rewards and Recognition play an important role in determining overall employee satisfaction

Type of Research: The type of research used is descriptive.

Sample Design

Sample Population: The sample population is 30 employees each from the three branches ie. Karol Bagh, Jhandewalan and Connaught Place

Sample Size: The sample size is 90 that include ll 30 employees from each branch.

Sample Selection: The employees have been selected randomly, irrespective of their age, experience or designation.

Design of the Questionnaire: The questionnaire has been divided into 8 parameters that have been selected randomly keeping in mind their importance in present text and also after getting inputs from the pilot study conducted for the same study. Following are the eight parameters that have been considered for the study of employee satisfaction: Work Culture, Training, Communication, Compensation, Rewards & Recognition, Performance Appraisal System, Work Relations and Work Environment.

Scaling Technique used: Non Comparative Scaling Technique has been used in the study.

Data collection:

• Primary Data: Through Questionnaire, Telephonic Conversation, and E-Mails

• Secondary Data: Through Websites, Journals, and Books

4. Data Analysis & Interpretations

Parameter 1: Work Culture

Figure 1. Showing responses for, Statement: My Manager provides me with regular development inputs

Figure 2. Showing responses for, Statement: I am Involved in Decision Making involving my Job

Parameter 2: Training

Figure 3. Showing responses for, Statement: My Company Provides as much ongoing training as I need
Figure 4. Showing responses for, Statement: The Training imparted to me is adequate to carry out my job effectively

Parameter 3: Communication

Figure 5. Showing responses for, Statement: My Supervisor clearly and timely communicates what is expected of me
Figure 6. Showing responses for, Statement: I have ready access to information I need to do my job well

Parameter 4: Compensation

Figure 7. Showing responses for, Statement: My compensation is in accordance with my Job Responsibilities
Figure 8. Showing responses for, Statement: I receive my salary on time

Parameter 5: Rewards and Recognition

Figure 9. Showing responses for, Statement: My Company gives me enough recognition for work that’s well done
Figure 10. Showing responses for, Statement: My Company’s Reward Programme is Motivating

Parameter 6: Performance Appraisal System

Figure 11. Showing responses for, Statement: The Appraisal System is fair
Figure 12. Showing responses for, Statement: I understand how my performance is evaluated

Parameter 7: Work Relations

Figure 13. Showing responses for, Statement: My colleagues are supportive
Figure 14. Showing responses for, Statement: Management understands when it comes to employees’ grievances

Parameter 8: Work Environment

Figure 15. Showing responses for, Statement: The Company treats me with fairness and respect
Figure 16. Showing responses for, Statement: “Office Politics” are kept to minimum

Interpretations: Based the data presentation, we arrive at following interpretations:

Parameter 1: In this parameter we have tried to generate favorable response from the employees with respect to two statements. The overall response that we received was similar in three branches. Even the response towards a particular statement didn’t have much variance. We can say that the “Work Culture” in Reliance Life Insurance is favorable for the three branches with Jhandewalan leading the way.

Parameter 2: This parameter is extremely important as it is directly related to employee satisfaction. The two statements that the employees were exposed to generated favorable results in favor of the employer. The employees of all three firms have more or less the same opinion when they were asked to comment on these statements.

Parameter 3: The Communication needs to be strengthened so as to make the employees know what exactly the company wants out of him. The three selected branches have scored low as compared to what they have scored in earlier parameters. The three branches need to improve their communication channel. The employees didn’t had a favorable opinion when we take into question the Jhandewalan and Karol Bagh branch but for Connaught Place branch the overall state was neutral.

Parameter 4: The employees were also not happy with the remuneration they receive. According to them it is low as compared to what their output and input is. However, the employees have a positive outlook when they were asked whether they receive salary on time. This positive outlook has made the final score to be near positive rather then below average score.

Parameter 5: When it comes to rewards and recognition, it seems that the contests that are floated every now and then are eagerly awaited and welcomed with open arms. The employees feel that whatever they achieve, they are given due credit and outstanding achievements are always recognized. The employees find such rewards programme highly motivating.

Parameter 6: Just like Communication this is yet another parameter that scores low as compared to other branches. The employees have a feeling that their performance is not properly evaluated. Neither do they have an understanding how their performance is evaluated. The Karol Bagh however is near positive.

Parameter 7: When it comes to work relations the, employees scores are near positives, and they share healthy relations with their colleagues. When it comes to grievance handling the employees score are also in positive zone. The Connaught Place branch scores above all.

Parameter 8: The Overall Work Environment has been given low marks by the employees of all the three branches. Being a sales office, the pressure is always on the employees to perform and be a step ahead of others in the market. If we look at the statements we notice that “Office Politics” has received poor marks. For Jhandewalan Branch it has gone to as low as 2.37 which are the lowest score as far as all statements in all parameters are concerned. The score for treating employees with respect is near positive but it is just on the margin.

t-test

To analyze our third objective “To analyze whether Rewards and Recognition play an important role in determining employee satisfaction”, we have used independent t-test.

Hypothesis to be tested:

Ho = There is no significant relationship between Rewards and Recognition and Employee Satisfaction.

Ha = There is significant relationship between Rewards and Recognition and Employee Satisfaction.

Jhandewalan Branch

Table 1. Showing t-value for Jhandewalan branch

Interpretations: The value of t-cal is greater than the t-table value of 1.669. Therefore we reject our Null Hypothesis and accept the alternate. Hence, there is significant relationship between Rewards and Recognition and Employee Satisfaction

Karol Bagh Branch

Interpretations: The value of t-cal is greater than the t-table value of 1.669. Therefore we reject our Null Hypothesis and accept the alternate. Hence, there is significant relationship between Rewards and Recognition and Employee Satisfaction

Connaught Place Branch

Table 3. Showing t-value for Connaught place branch

Interpretations: The value of t-cal is greater than the t-table value of 1.669. Therefore we reject our Null Hypothesis and accept the alternate. Hence, there is significant relationship between Rewards and Recognition and Employee Satisfaction

5. Findings and Suggestions

Findings for Objective 1: To measure employee satisfaction at 3 different branches of Reliance Life Insurance

Standard Deviation Chart

Interpretations:

• If we look at overall result of the three branches we notice that The Connaught Place branch scores over other two branches. (The mean result shows them at par, but standard deviation separates them).

• The three branches were neck to neck with regards to the eight parameters that were selected for the employees to express their opinion on.

• All the three branches had almost the same score when it comes to parameters and overall analysis.

• Connaught Place and Jhandewalan comes out to be more consistent when it comes to employees responses and the variation in responses is very low.

• There is scope of improvement for all the three branches especially when it comes to Performance Appraisal, Compensation and Work Environment.

• The Karol Bagh branch shows a high variation in responses and therefore can be said that the responses of the employees vary greatly.

• The overall Mean of each branch is satisfactory. Therefore, we can say that the employees are relatively satisfied.

Findings based on Objective 2: “To understand which branch needs to work on which parameters”.

Jhandewalan Branch:

Figure 18. Showing mean for different parameters for Jhandewalan branch

Interpretations:

• The branch is strong when it comes to Work Culture, Training and Rewards and Recognition. The employees feel highly motivated, especially when it comes to Rewards and Recognition.

• The branch in Work Culture scores over other two branches that have been considered. It also does well when it come to imparting training to the employees. When it comes to compensation, the result though looks above average but the result has only been stretched due to employees giving ‘thumbs-up’ to the timely payment of the salary.

• When it comes to expectation of salary, which is where the branch scores low. The employees need to be made aware of how their salary is calculated and what the fringe benefits are.

• The branch needs to work on improving the Work Environment and try to improve it. There are employees who feel that internal politics are a part of the environment, the results don’t agree, as it is on a lower side.

• The employer should make the employees understand the performance management system so as to make them aware on what basis their performance is evaluated.

• As far a Communication goes, it is weak as compared to other parameters in the questionnaire. It also happens, sometimes, that a supervisor is not available when a situation arises that demand desperate measures.

• The work relations with the supervisors and the employees at this branch remain healthy. The management needs to work on improving the employee grievance handling process. It should be simplified. As far as inter-colleague relations are concerned, the relations are excellent.

Karol Bagh:

Interpretations:

• Just like the Jhandewalan branch, the Karol Bagh branch also scores well when it is comes to Work Culture, Training of the employees and Rewards and Recognition programmes. It has high percentage when it comes to the motivation levels of the employees. They actually wait for the contests that are held every now and then.

• The branch score over the other two branches when it comes to rewards and recognition. The employee’s motivation levels are high.

• As far as compensation is concerned, the employees have a feeling that they are not compensated as per their expectations. They should be made more aware of the fact on what basis their salaries are calculated. The employees do have a better score as compare to Jhandewalan branch employees when it comes to salary given in accordance to their job responsibilities. However the employees are satisfied when it comes to timely payment of their salaries.

• The branch just like Jhandewalan needs to work a great deal on improving its communication channels. The employees need to understand what exactly the supervisor is expecting from them and what they are supposed to deliver. The employees should also have ready access to the important information they require in order to maintain consistent flow of business.

• The Rewards and Recognition programme is indeed highly motivating, and employees are satisfied when it come to the recognition they receive for the business they bring. The employees are highly motivated when it comes to rewards programme.

• The employees need to be educated when it comes to performance appraisal system that is being followed to evaluate the performance of the employees. The employees also have a feeling that their performance is not evaluated fairly.

Figure 19. Showing mean for different parameters for Karol Bagh branch

• The employees enjoy healthy work relations with one another. The colleagues are supportive and the team work is highly successful. The employees have scored well it comes to support given to them by their colleagues. For handling employee grievance the branch needs to device a methodology.

• The scores received for work environment is also very low. Being in a sales office has its own pressure and the sales manager needs to be on the move in order to achieve his/her target. The employees have also given thumbs down to the office politics. They have a feeling that the politics do exist in the system

Connaught Place

Figure 20. Showing mean for different parameters for Connaught Place branch

Interpretations:

• The Connaught Place branch might be at par with the Jhandewalan branch in overall analysis, but we see in the analysis that in certain individual issues Connaught Place branch has out scored Jhandewalan and Karol Bagh branch by clear margin.

• The branch like the other two branches has scored well when it comes to Work Culture, Training and Rewards & Recognition parameters.

• In Work Relations the branch also scores well, the score is better as compared to other two branches.

• When it comes to Training, like other two branches the Connaught Place Branch also scores well. The employees feel satisfied with the training they are imparted in order to perform their job responsibly. It scores highest when it comes to Training.

• The communication though not up to the mark, the branch has given a near positive result, when it comes to clarity in what the supervisor expects out of them. But the score is low when it comes to required information that is essential for carrying out their job.

• The branch again needs to work up a transparent salary structure as employees have the same feeling when it comes to remunerations. But the employees seem satisfied when asked about timely delivery of salaries.

• The employees seem satisfied when it comes to Rewards and Recognition; they feel highly motivated when it comes to participating in various contests every month. The employees are extremely enthusiastic when they are expose to such contests

• The branch needs to educate the employees when it comes to performance appraisal system. The employees seem to be uneducated about the system and feel that they should be made aware about how the system works.

• The work relations among the employees seem to be good and healthy but there is still scope of improvement.

• Regarding Work Environment, the branch is just a shade under “Neutral” and we can say that it has much more conducive work environment as compared to other two branches under study.

Findings based on Objective 3: “To analyze whether Rewards and Recognition play an important role in determining employee satisfaction”.

The independent t-test analysis has given us important results that we have used to mark our findings based on our mentioned objective.

• The results we have got are at 5% level of significance and for all the three branches we have rejected our Null Hypothesis and accepted our Alternate Hypothesis.

• This shows that rewards and recognition play a very significant role in determining employee satisfaction.

• This also proves that employees are extremely motivated when it comes to such recognition programmes.

• The employees perform better when exposed to such programmes and this in turn help the company realize sales and meet the targets.

• The company should be looking forward to improve on this part and it can make the rewards and recognition programme more innovative.

6. Conclusions

Employee Satisfaction is a multidimensional phenomenon with a number of factors operating simultaneously. The Overall Employee Satisfaction can be said as relatively on the positive side for all the three branches. The employees of Jhandewalan branch show less inclination towards rewards and recognition programme as compared to other two branches. Also, Karol Bagh branch needs to be more consistent. Rewards and Recognition acts as a strong motivator and company should work more on it. Compensation and understanding of the appraisal system is extremely important for the employees so is the communication process. All three branches need to work on these fronts.

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