Dialectical Model of Marketing versus Trends and Fashions{1}

Jorge Enrique Garcés Cano

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Dialectical Model of Marketing versus Trends and Fashions{1}

Jorge Enrique Garcés Cano

Independent Scientific Investigator, Several Institutions of Superior Education-ISE in Colombia, Bogotá, D.C, Colombia


Marketing is a completely developing paradigm. In spite of nearly metaphysical, esoteric, anti-scientifically approached trends and fashions are increasingly contributing to identify more elements bringing it closer to the science like a technology{2}. That is, an applied social science by establishing concepts and relations between Strategic and Tactic (operational) issues; its Identification, Creation, Communication and Value-Exchange and Usage-Delivery Processes, and its Functions; this elements, parts or components, and its instruments (tools). Marketing thought and strategic planning become highly outstanding in a world where the so-called services-simply, intangibles-are progressively weighing in the economical context, inside or outside the capitalist production mode. No matter tangibles or intangibles are merchandized: the dialectic relation between Strategy and Tactics does not change, though particularities in the operational usage of the different variables in the Marketing Mix do. This is another important aspect to keep in mind. It is evident that this work does not correspond to an empiric investigation, but to a theoretical-conceptual position of rupture; that is, a true theory; the exercises of empiric validation that can be undertaken starting from the well norm in the classic or traditional marketing literature, and it is not objective to the present written.

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Cite this article:

  • Cano, Jorge Enrique Garcés. "Dialectical Model of Marketing versus Trends and Fashions{1}." Journal of Business and Management Sciences 2.3 (2014): 58-68.
  • Cano, J. E. G. (2014). Dialectical Model of Marketing versus Trends and Fashions{1}. Journal of Business and Management Sciences, 2(3), 58-68.
  • Cano, Jorge Enrique Garcés. "Dialectical Model of Marketing versus Trends and Fashions{1}." Journal of Business and Management Sciences 2, no. 3 (2014): 58-68.

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1. The Marketing P’s Theory: A Classic or Traditional Marketing Theory

The academic concept of more diffused and accepted marketing and businesswise since Phillip Kotler popularized its use in the 60’s of the XX century it is center in the marketing 4P’s: in their original version, Product, Price, Promotion and Place, also called “marketing mix”, “marketing mixture” or “marketing fundamental variables”. Operative elements that focalized in their transactional aspects and in the technical vision on the tactical short problems, given producers their only reason of being corporate: how to maximize the utilities that appropriated individually.

The widespread 4P’s constitute the beginning of the operational emphasis in Marketing. Whether its origin would be attribute to the Works by the Harvard University’s professor Neil H. Borden along the 1950’s (Borden, 1964). To E. Jerome McCarthy in 1960, or the so-called Copenhagen School, in Europe, which had elaborated a nearly approach by the same time, but through a very different path. It is very well known by everyone that Philip Kotler would be who should develop a role as a releaser and issuer of the McCarthy’s ideas, and equally, would secure two opposed elements within this approached here identified as classic or traditional:

1. On the one hand, marketing is a theoretical body trying to explain processes that the economics had failed to address by itself; and as an applied science-Technology-, based on its foundational science (economics), had been using elements from Management and Psychology (fora deeper questioning about it, see Garcés 2003, 2005, 2006 and 2010).

2. By the other hand, a marketing process description without any definition about itself, in which the dependent variables remain no established for the marketing model; that is, there is no one responding to the independent ones: Marketing Mix, tactics or operational marketing. Nonetheless, gave this process the largest of the relevancies, perhaps, unintentionally (Garcés 1994-1995 and 2010).

Thus, this fact will mark the beginning of a process still persisting after more than 50 years: academic teaching, marketing advisory and consultancy, and business application, centered and focused on Marketing Mix issues, that is, on the capacity to operate the so-called “Kotler P’s”, nearly always in an intuitive way and, of course, with a high emotionality.

In the traditional approach of his first 40 years (1962-2002), Kotler indicated: “...marketing specifically studies how the transactions are created, stimulated, facilitated and valued.”Therefore, he defines the marketing process according to the mechanisms for attending the markets (that is, the demand), based on the company’s fundamental decisions: Mission, Objectives and Goals, Growth Strategy and Business Plan. That is, what within a model should be indicated as its parameters; something never explicitly proposed by Kotler, because of which it is only possible to talk about his organizational scheme, instead ofan explicit model{3} as such (see Kotler 1967, 1972, 1980 and 1989){4}.

In that organizational scheme, the following processes is define:

1. “identification and analysis of the marketing opportunities”

2. “segmentation and selection of the target markets”

3. “development of a competitive marketing mix strategy”

4. “design of the marketing management systems supporting the marketing approach and control, information and staff”

About this, is necessary to say something as follows, when the scientist stops focusing in the Operational Marketing topics. Either because he believes that the heart is inside “the 4P’s” of “a competitive and effective strategy”, or because simply these acquire the relevance that the authors granted to the topic starting from Kotler (something that is not necessarily responsibility of Kotler), they are centered in the devises mistaken like “every marketing situation is unique”, just as Kotler asserts.

And, consequently, it would be impossible to try to identify, model, construct and track to control, learn and improve, on a set of relations (stable or not along the time). Relations between the so called marketing variables-“the4P’s Strategy”-and some dependent variables to be clearly identified and conceptualized before defining any model; in the case of the Marketing Model, necessarily the real Marketing Strategic Objectives.

Notice that despite the excess of marketing writing about what supposedly constitutes the object study in this young paradigm and the numberless definitions that are recorded in marketing text on what constitutes every “variable mix”, will fail to establish and, in a clear way, define their relationships. As well as these existent ones to the other possible dependent variables in process, it is not try to construct a mathematical predictive model to the commercial problem address.

Thus, for most of its academic, consultant, professional actors would seem preferable “to guess instead of predict” and even, although in some cases the other variables-the dependent ones-, also appear defined in marketing books as Market Growth and Participation, Positioning, and Competitiveness, they never are shown identified as such. Nor their possible theoretical relations are explicitly set, with any modeling try for measuring, learning and predicting.

Then, the following queries arise. Whether anyone of these identified and questioned topics does not work or are not adequately tied to any marketing model, is not the model useful anymore?; would it be needed to develop another marketing model?; are so many marketing models required as types of organization and situations or market/product relations exist, and a valuing and understanding interest raises?. Is the casuistry of every business, the market/product relation, an impediment to consider appropriately the parts of a business or marketing model? Or rather, must be it permanently attached to circumstances and consulting firms of the moment, with their best seller, waiting for “the ultimate marketing cry”, to properly understand and stabilize the objectives and the epistemological focus of this science paradigm?

Definitely, the answer to every one of these queries should be an outright no. Marketing tied to the principles of science and the scientific method has to be develop, no matter if this one is an applied social science: a technology. Every organization ought to learn from marketing model to manage its decisions; nevertheless, it is nota model and a “trending” consultant to be required for every kind of organization and moment.

If it would be like this, think for example about such complex issue as the human body and brain function; and why not, the cosmos. Would require the education of medicine and astronomy experts, respectively; each of them with a “model tailored” for every particular case under observation, analysis, study and operation; that is, the specialization for each human case or star-galaxy would demand individual intuition and emotionality to the properly certainly attend its knowledge.

And yet worse, if every casuistry invalidate the advances and the development of every one of its models and methods according to science, marketing excuses so far by saying “this one is a social discipline”(at least when it can be seen like that), and they, social fields (especially if applied), are not “accurate”. That is a quite arbitrary poor epistemological position, because the general problem in science is not the “accuracy” or inaccuracy with this one can work, but the fact of scientific methods are utilized, or not, to approach knowledge of the phenomenon being studied (observation, explanation and possible prediction), within a well-defined study field and object.

But, regrettably, in most cases, it is not even accepted that a science paradigm is faced, since most executors conceive marketing as an art, craft, technique (a “gorgeous sophisticate done”, but after all, a technique); or simply, a “human activity” which “cannot be” measured, controlled, much less, modeled, to learn from the process.

2. The Continuity of such an Emphasis in the Marketing of the 80’s

From McCarthy (1960) to Frey (1961), Lazer and Kelley (1962), Stanton (1964), and Kotler (1967), all of them using pioneer responsibility in relation to the topic, until the heap of writers of marketing books that 70’s and 80’s arose in the years-omitted by logical reasons- but whose legacy was to introduce some novel variable forgotten by its predecessors. A that to the incorporate being to the classic or traditional pattern, it would guarantee new magic recipes for “to achieve a strategy of successful, only marketing, winner and profitable”.

Although with Bagozzi (1974, 1975A, 1975B, 1977, 1978, 1979 and 1986) and Hunt (1976, 1977, 1978, 1983A, 1983B and 1991) the theoretical interest arises of guiding the nature from this discipline to other aspects, the managerial practice and the ideas of the consultancy of the moment had more echo. The first one opens the debate on the structural error of having been considering their study field in exclusive function of a technical group and centering it in the study of relative individual and social activities to the initiation, resolution and escape of relationship exchange. The second one, clarifying as the central nucleus of the discipline should be the exchange relationship or transaction, to the being a science of the behavior that seeks to explain the relationships between buyers and salespersons.

However, among the 80 and 90years, the discussion on the strategic bottom of the marketing, the connection with the consumer and its necessities, would be continued relegate in most of works whose interest was centered in demonstrating that the marketing of “4P’s” can be extended to all style conditions. This is, all type of products briefcases, organizations, interexchange experiences and in general, to reward the paper of the units interested in offering any ideas, causes and political, cultural, religious activities, etc. The casuistry was appearing and allowing stand out some topic that its discoverer chose (to see the question to such literary fashions in Garcés, 2003, 2005 and 2006).

It is not focus of this work to carry out a historical description around the marketing concept evolution and their critical analysis, topics that are in extensive approached in Garcés, 2010. One can affirm that in sum, Marketing in the same line than other disciplinary fields of management, is line up and secured between the80’sand 90’sas “management styles and trends”:

•  The “n” P’s of Marketing (extended from 4 initial to 16 by the final 80’s)

•  The 7 W’s of Marketing

•  The 4 I’s of Service

•  The 4 C’s of Marketing (or supposedly, of Customers)

•  The “9 Kotler-points” of a successful company

•  The 10 rules of the quality service

•  The 10 rules of the efficacious research

•  The 22 marketing immutable laws

•  The “McKinsey 7-S Framework”

•  The 7 success keys of the marketing champions or maxi-marketing

•  The4 faces of the massive individualization

•  Marketing One to One

•  Holistic Marketing

•  Megamarketing

•  Hypermarketing

•  Neuromarketing

•  Etc., etc., etc. It is impossible to list them all.

To the interior of the paradigm, Ildefonso Grande (1992) and Jean-Jacques Lambin (1987) represented an interesting change of focus. They shared a marketing view like a applied social science, whose starting point is the economic theory, and seriously questioned those hypotheses of the neoclassic economic theory{5} which lead to place emphasis on supply factors and implicitly centered marketing in their operational issues, even among several wide affirmations about the role of the “consumer needs” in the business decision making. Even worse, where all aspects of the marketing process ended up being defined as “strategy”, from the tactic marketing P’s to a technique, tool or instrument like the market segmentation.

This element, in addition to the need for constructing and working with predictive models and separating the strategic from operational issues, constituted undoubtedly a significant progress in the development of this young paradigm. Then, it can be said that the first explicit models, which establish relations between strategic and tactic elements, are there in marketing process (Lambin, 1987), and equally, a concern for defining statistical mechanisms and mathematical models to learn of the process (Grande, 1992).

By the 2000 year, Kevin J. Clancy and Peter C. Krieg emphasized the importance of two of the three Marketing Strategic Objectives, by showing that companies should marketing managers focus their business models on:

1. To construct strong marks: to position in a clear brief way and with great power marks, something clearly resumed from the Al Ries and Jack Trout ideas and concepts (seethe positioning concept in Ries and Trot, 1990).

2To compete by taking appropriate choices: to construct a competitive advantage with strategies having as starting point the scientific information, instead the managers’ intuition, an issue also resumed from Michael Porter’s approaches(seethe concept of competitiveness and competitive advantage in Porter 1979, 1982 and 1990).

According to Clancy and Krieg (2000), the marketing managers and their bosses don’t know, don’t have a clear connection between their possible inputs-the operation of the so called marketing mix variables-, to their outputs-the results of the commercial process-; consequently, they are permanently led to operate with:

•  Empirical and intuitive defenses.

•  Assumptions about reality, without models based on real information on markets and y probabilistic measures.

•  Impossibility to quantify, measure, monitor and can learn of the marketing process.

Their conclusions are overwhelming: the needed to tune the marketing process from a scientific view with “a mathematical model which establishes such relations and allows finishing the intuitive practices”. That is what they define as a counter-intuitive marketing or, to their view, a summation of Science and Art:

•  Science: model, rigorous analysis, errors and associated probabilistic measures, and impeccable databases.

•  Art: creativity and dreams focused in market reality, instead of their managers’ emotions.

As a corollary of the above, they suggest the next need:

1. Back to consumer, “if we some time have been there”, said the authors.

2. Establish a mathematical model relating the largest possible number of variables instead of paying attention only on the operational ones.

3. Define the marketing plan with a previous clear conceptualization of every one of its elements, parts and components.

4. Implement (work out), without allowing subjectivity is above scientifically validated information.

5. Track: measure, control, learn and redefine the strategy beginning with the tactical management (feedback audit).

This means that, by the first time in the brief marketing history, some people from the academy and the consultancy within the Sanhedrim dared to put into question the approaches defined from the establishment of the pyramid of knowledge, that have hitherto been enjoying the status of “universally accepted” by groups of academics and consultants worldwide followers. And, even, questioned with relevant information the supposed well marketing function in the developed countries, especially in the north American economics, since their numbers and analyses is precisely addressed with data from leading companies in the USA.

It is not less worthy, however, to recall that this fact had been put into question already by Jean Paul Sallenave in “La Teoría L: Manual de Antigerencia”(1995). The same possibility to merge these arguments with those of Day and Wind (1980), Webster (1981, 1988, 1992, 1994), Day and Wensley (1983, 1988), Carlzon (1987), Day (1990, 1992, 1994A, 1994B, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2000A, 2000B), and Day and Van den Bulte (2002), along with the approach of Grönroos (1983, 1989, 1990 and 1995),and Gummesson (1987 and 1991).

All of these elements configure a clear break line itself of classical and traditional marketing paradigm. One recovering to the consumer and the long-term relation construction and pressing a new marketing definition and publication by the director board of the American Marketing Association-AMA. “Marketing is a function of the organization and a set processes addressed to create, communicate and distribute value among the customers, and to direct the integral relations with customers, so the organization and its stakeholders are mutually benefited” (AMA, 2004){6}.

Paradoxically, in this “latter” definition keep latent the next topics: 1) Marketing is, above all, an organizational function, as accounting, purchases, etc., are. 2) It is define in terms of a set of processes. 3) The 4P’s disappear for the first time, but also the concepts of exchange and satisfaction. 4) The new keywords, those that would trendy are Value and CRM{7}. Finally, 5) it is spoke of mutual benefits.

There fit the following questions: Are, then, the exchange as a loose action or the transactions as continuous events, the key element to unify the marketing concept? Is the key to be born as a private business activity, whose directors were interested in solving problems of interruption in the circuits of sales and distribution, typical of a world in crisis, overproduction and war? ¿Are the actions and interests of that who supplies what determine its nature, in front of an actor who ultimately is still assumed as “passive and manipulated”, the costumers?

3. Dialectical Model of Marketing by Jorge Garcés (1994-1995)

It is initially necessary to establish that as well, the economy is a social science dealing with the study of the social relations of production, distribution, accumulation and consumption, between different economic agents{8}. Marketing materializes as an applied science (nonetheless, a social one), in the study of those aspects determining the relationship between suppliers and demanders, to ensure the processes of value units exchange, which are generated in markets. That’s, it’s circumscribed to the identification of some of the economic aspects determining production and consumption, to ensure the exchange of value units-use and exchange- between supply and demand; not necessarily of equivalents, as asserted by neoclassical-neoliberal theory.

From the author´s dialectical and social-historical perspective, it is not possible to validate the existence of real business marketing or any other kind of social practice with the same object of study, before the great crisis of overproduction and the subsequent Great Depression of the 30’s in the past century. It makes no sense to talk about its presence in the entrepreneurial activity, or conceptually in the academic one, within a world of pre-capitalist social relations of production, distribution, accumulation and consumption. Much less in the social-historical contexts of the primitive communism of the first Homo Sapiens, in the slaveholder world of Greco-Roman society of Plato and Aristotle, or in the feudal order with their courts, kings, glebe serfs and droit du seigneur.

Actually, it is also not possible to raise such a social activity in the early stages of evolution to the capitalist production mode that Marx (1867) did identify under simple reproduction of capital conditions. Stage up to which the state of progress and development of the productive forces make possible even the validation of the Say’s equation-all supply creates its own demand-. That is, structural conditions with permanent excesses of demand over supply, in which the resource endowments and installed capacities are insufficient to meet the consumption aggregates (for deepening this issue, see Garcés2007, 2008, 2010, 2012A and 2012B).

In sum, what sense makes to consider marketing in a society in which everything to be decided to produce will be automatically absorbed by markets-by the demand-and will passively accommodate to its production conditions itself. That is, all the pre-capitalist economical formations and even, the first stages of evolution and transformation of the present capitalist production mode, which Marx would identify to the simple capital accumulation processes, in which permanent excesses of demand over supply are validated? Marketing would be not required there, as being conceptualizing in this work.

This historical reality is the refereed as marketing here. A socially generalizable, extensible and necessary category, given certain advance and development of the productive forces within the capitalist production mode; a phenomenon that can be objectively observed and measured as a technology or applied science, rising since the strengthening of the worldwide expansive phase of capitalism-globalization of production-,with its processes self-sustained of growth, accumulation and work productivity increases. There is where the development of marketing comes alive, whose preliminary identification of historical antecedents only makes sense in the period comprised between the late XIX century and the early XX (for an extension about the origins of its ideas on the first neoclassical theories in the XIX century, as well as on its concept historical evolution, see Garcés, 2010).

Now it can proposed the challenge to define marketing linked to an integral and human economic theory, when the focus is the guiding role of demand and consumers in markets, just as the laid down in Marx (1867) and Keynes (1936)works. In concrete, which a theoretically and empirically validating the actual market orientation, placing the consumer as the central actor of the exchange process in general, for all organizations styles. In a particular view, that of the strategic-operational commercial or marketing model, both, aspects equally relevant as a constitutive part of anon-neoclassic marketing theory, as the one constructed by the author since 1994.

This applied social science also utilizes the history-the information on the exchange relation-as its central analysis method, in order to construct consumer behavioral models allowing for being permanently learning about this relation that established in markets, between producers and consumer. When it is understood how these factors determining supply and demand of tangible and intangible products behave over the time, it can, based on such an information, to develop strategies and tactics whose relation must necessarily be addressed to the prediction, under the central uncertainty principle in markets, instead of an automatic guarantee of supposed “equilibria” between supplies and demands. With calculated error margins, reasonable risk levels and success-associated probabilities higher than those provided by the pure chance (50-50)and intuition, both aspects highly permeated by the emotion sickening and hindering the clear exercise of the scientific method.

This elements allows indicating that, marketing being a social science and behaving as such, it cannot and should not get away those game rules defined for science in general which permit to take it apart from non-science or anti-science; not to use the name that more easily define the phenomenon: esotericism. And also, being an applied science, it cannot be academically nor organizationally allowed that everyone conceptualizes and defines to his arrangement the relations extant between the different parts constituting its application model, when that who intervenes at least takes the job up to explicitly formulate a model; otherwise, trends end defining his north and academic and entrepreneurial orientation.

Yet worse, it would be ending to accept the esoteric idea that its practical application is ruled by a commonly understood supposed principle of “relativity”, according to which, as affirmed by some authors, “in marketing everything depends on everything” and, therefore, its exercise is much more depending on something called “common sense” that of another thing.

That is, intuition is stronger than the validated information. Any strategy works provided it is “well supported”. Anything action constitutes “a strategy” there is no difference between strategy and tactics, because “a tactics is simply a more micro strategy”. Hence, there is neither difference between the elements constituting the one and the other, or if established, it is irrelevant in the entrepreneurial world. So “doing marketing” is to operate a cluster of “marketing mix” activities, related to product, price, promotion-meaning communication, instead of incentive for the final consumer-, or place-meaning distribution, instead of “lieu”.

In sum, it cannot permitted the low conceptual level of the pure empiricists to continue attacking the possibilities of marketing development. And spreading a view which it is possible to label now like anti-scientific and, mostly, overtly esoteric, because of their incapacity for defining and constructing models-something general-with predictive intentions-from the science perspective-and some mathematical relations established for every relation market/product, within any kind of organization-the casuistry-.

The marketing graphic model shown in Figure 1 has been developed around 1994-1995,based on the dialectical view of the described process. An integral model constructed according to science and its method, in which the phases, components, elements and functional interactions between their diverse parts, are verified and visualized from an integral or holistic perspective, same will be referred here as a dialectical marketing dimension.

Figure 1. Dialectical View of Marketing

In a dialectical view that incorporates the dynamic-being itself movement- it is try to identify the movement of each one of the elements or parts that compose it, and to understand the real scenario in which leaves developing the construction of relationships with long-term customers. The concept of profitability with which its achievements are revised overcomes or it overflows the pecuniary vision, individualist and of short-term, of the neoclassicist-neoliberal paradigm.

In the graphic model (see Figure 1) the strategic marketing (phases I, and II, components 1 to 5) precedes the operative marketing (phases III, and IV, components 6 to 10). At the same time, strategic marketing includes since it requires the visualization and identification of its viability from the phases of strategic thought (phase I) and strategic planning (phase II); thus, this theoretical approach emphasizes two aspects:

1. Strategic marketing-the strategy- is possible where the dialectical relation extant between strategic thought (phase I in the model with components 1 to 3 in Figure 1), strategic planning (phase II in the model with components 4 and 5), and strategies actions or tactics (phase III in the model with components 6 to 9),is identified and attended. All of these aspects will be explain later.

2. Although there are short-term strategic issues{9}, the real strategic marketing cannot be confused with the design of short-term strategies actions (that is, tactics), under the usage of the different operational marketing mix variables, emphasis utilized by almost every one of the classic and traditional marketing, including Lambin(1987). Since, from the perspective assumed here, these are simple tactics or operations, just constituting the in dependent variables of the model, and the strategy, as the set of its dependent variables. Marketing requires additional mid and long-term approaches, which will be explain later.

The Figure 1 model must be understood as the systemic development of commercial processes of thought (phase I), planning (phase II) and strategies actions (phase III). These latter, tactics, operations, activities and necessary tasks and enough to conquer, bring closer, seduce and market retain-the demand-with briefcase of products or solutions-the supply-, satisfying the consumer needs and consequently, consolidating the permanence and rentable growth of any kind of organization in such a market. That is, developing, monitoring and tracing the history of a long-term market/product relation, ensuring the permanent feedback by means of the functional operation of a quality system, service auditor “customer voice” (phase IV, component 10).

Something that only will be possible as sustainable relations with some consumer groups, who may be call customers, will be establish along the time, in whose process the consumer is both point of departure as the arrival. It is about processes allowing to identify, create, communicate and deliver value units; subjective or use value, on the demand side, and change or objective value, as material support of the ability to create from the producer, on the supply side.

It is impossible to make an extensive presentation of the referred model, since it is out this work focus; some annotations are just worked out on the diverse phases, components and elements constituent of the same (see Figure 1),which are much better explained by Garcés (1994-1995 and 2010). In the marketing strategic thought phase(phase I), three key components make evident to be solve:

1. The Strategic Diagnostic of the Marketing Situation (DESM in Spanish), component 1 in Figure 1, a sine qua non condition to the strategic planning (phase II, components 4 and 5) and strategies actions or tactics (phase III, components 6 to 9)processes, minimizing the error probabilities. In sum: 1) Analysis of the macro-environment variables. 2) Analysis of the sectorial structure whose macro-determination will depend on the size and strategic position of the organization in the sector (monopoly grade). 3) The consumers’ analysis in the category (not only customers in the organization). 4) Analysis of the external channels (sales and distribution) or strategic commercial partners (if there were them). 5) The suppliers’ of all type analysis. 6) Other publics’ of interest analysis. 7) Analysis of the internal variables that define possible strengths or weaknesses. Synthesis through the Diagnostic Womb{10}.

2. The Information Market System construction (SIM in Spanish), component 2in Figure 1like a unique continuous and structural mechanism of assessment and for ensuring permanent measurement processes and, hence, an increasing decline of intuitive-emotional decision-making. Their three big components, grosso modo, are the administration and systematic diffusion of: a) informal information (casuistry); b) commercial information (all the internal-external indicators and their interactions); c) formal or scientific information (articulation of the markets investigation in all their possible modalities, to the internal databases and the rest of the business indicators).

3. The Key Factors of Success definition (FCE in Spanish){11}, component 3 in Figure 1, a technique guaranteeing the alignment of the organizational strategy to the marketing strategic plan, as an additional mechanism of internal pressure for directing to market-in abstract-, and consumer-in short-. In this model, it is a technique designed by the author to assure a long-term integration and alignment of the corporate strategic planning like as a marketing strategy. The validation element with regard to this component is very simple: are they or not the strategic-tactical plans of all the organization support areas in the internal value chain, being design in arrangement and function of the expectations of the strategic marketing planning? Are clear the indicators to the half contribution grade or affectation to the execution or nonfulfillment of the negotiated standards and agreed under the consumer’s demands?

In marketing strategic planning phase II (components 4 and 5 in Figure 1), the first step of the process is a clearly identify, according to the previous diagnostic phase, the stable consumption groups with which there is interest for constructing market/product relations, within their different relationship and time units contexts. That is, the first marketing strategic decision as shown in the component 4 of the Figure 1: a Focusing-Approach- Strategy (EE in Spanish). The Markets Definition required a strategic clarity on profiles (qualitative indication), sizes (quantitative indication), and dynamics of the markets to assist on time: a) short-term, the goal markets; b) medium-term, the objective markets; and c) long-term, the potential markets. A deviation in such a sense is unequivocal sign of lack market orientation.

The technique to use is Marketing Segmentation. There, this is not strategy, but simply a technique, instrument or tool of the economic-administrative sciences can be uses in process, to determine in theirs three dimensions{12} the markets to be attend in long-term (Potential Market), mid-term (Objective Market) and short-term (Goal Market).

Second step consisting in the qualitative definition of the three (3) which themselves are marketing strategies:

1) Growth Strategy in short-term, and their related one, the strategy to win market participation (OEM 1 in Component 5, Figure 1).

2) Positioning Strategy in mid-term (OEM 2 in Component 5, Figure 1).

3) Long-term Competitiveness or Competitive Advantage Construction Strategy (OEM 3 in Component 5, Figure 1).

Following their qualitative identification their quantification is indispensable with achievement efficacy or result indicators, that enable measurement and tracking over time. That is, their concretion like as dependent or output variables of the integral marketing model (Yi); the explicit form of the commercial strategy through these three (3) Strategic Marketing Objectives (OEM in Spanish), component 5 in the Figure 1: Market Growth and Participation OEM in short-term (Y1); mid-term Positioning OEM (Y2); and long-term Competitiveness OEM (Y3){13}.

Finally, the strategies actions of marketing phase III (components 6 to 9, Figure 1) or tactic-operational-marketing, comprising the tactics, operations, actions, activities, tasks, etc.{14}, which must be verified according to their higher or lower level of relevance and contribution to the real OEM previously defined. These tactics are the independent or input variables of the marketing model (Xj) that can now defined themselves having clarity on what is expect to achieve. They have been identify by utilizing and re-organizing some of the elements of the classic or traditional Marketing Mix(MIX in Spanish), components 6 to 9 in Figure 1and here are shown cluster as statistic factors or groups of control variables, in order to they can be easily comparable{15}:

1) The integral or global product (component 6 in Figure 1), including decisions and investments in product technical characteristics (X1), prices (X2), packing (X3), and brands (X4).

2) The commercial communication(component 7 in Figure 1), corresponding to advertisement (X5), merchandising (X6) and other ways of direct communication (no media broadcasting), public relations focused on business(X7), and customer promotion (X8) within the Spanish meaning of short-term incentives to consumer.

3) The commercial management (component 8 in Figure 1), related to traditional channels for sales (X9), physical-geographical distribution channels (X10), direct marketing campaigns (X11), and virtual-alternative or complementary-sales or distribution-channels (X12). And, finally,

4) The customer service (component 9 in Figure 1), with campaigns and reactive and proactive programs for managing: after-sales guarantees and services (X13); quick questions about petitions, complaints, procedures and claims (X14); repair, retention and recovery customer plans (X15); and maintenance, satisfaction and loyalty (X16){16}.This group of variables is clearly absent in the classic or traditional marketing model.

It can be close from this Dialectical Model of Marketing (Garcés, 1994-1995), like any other kind of science model that the difference between strategic and operational objectives are in the dialectic relation extant, as defined before, between strategy and tactics. The operational objectives are subordinated to the strategic ones, but, likewise, the strategic ones incorporate, direct from their conception and pose the own viability of the operational ones. Whereas the strategic ones are the output process variables, and the second ones are the input; that is, talking instrumentally, the first ones (the OEM in Spanish) will always be dependent variables within a marketing model (Yi=3); meanwhile the second ones (the MIX in Spanish) will correspond to its independent variables (Xj=16).

It this being an applied science-a technology-, in addition to the graphic and verbal models required its representation summarized as a mathematical model; an abstraction and synthesis of reality, allowing to simplify the phenomenon to be observed for its categorization, study and measurement along the time.

Thus, for simplification and explanatory ease, a matrix system for simple linear regression can be use, such as that shown below{17}:

Such as indicated in the verbal model description, there are here three dependent (Yi=3) and 16 independent (Xj=16) variables. The first ones are the real three marketing strategies concreted throughthe OEM-in Spanish- (Y1, Y2 and Y3); and the second ones, to the set of the 16 tactics (X1 to X16), listed in their four variables groups (MIX in Spanish); all, whose terms were identified already.

ˆβo is the parameter indicating the proportion of results (OEM in Spanish) that cannot be explained by the marketing tactics used (MIX in Spanish), that is, totally exogenous, random and uncontrollable factors loading on the strategies. The ˆβij correspond to a 48 linear unbiased parameters or estimators allowing to identify the mathematical correlations extant along the time, between each pair of dependent (OEM) and independent (MIX)variables; finally, ϵ% identifies an acceptable error degree or level, own of the very exercise of scientific modeling{18}.

In addition to the decision of the analyst on the quality and quantity of the data base it use, it must not lose sight to another factors that can lead to practical and reductionist economistic approaches:

•  As well as all dependent variables show covariance between them, some independent variables present strong covariance with other of their same nature; for example, price versus customer promotion.

•  Some correlations can be positive in short-term, for example, price and customer promotion versus growth, and simultaneously show negative correlations at mid-term: price and customer promotion versus positioning.

•  There are also in the model effects of self-correlation, with lag phenomena along the time; thus, a marketing program, this with any investment emphasis in the advertisement variable, a constant in the business performance of the past 50 years, could generate impacts on the OEM (in Spanish), which could not always be verified in short-term (one year).

•  Models required be construct with relevant and opportune information; even within the best marketing conditions, they work under scenarios of uncertainty and associated margins of calculated-reasonable- error.

•  Finally, and for all the above, the mechanisms of prediction are not infallible and their sole aim is to support business decision making with tools overcoming intuition and pure random; it must be remembered that there is a big difference between predict, forecast or estimate, event itself of science and its method, and guess, a clear field of anti-science.

From the ability of marketing analysts or scientists to study, model and understand such relations, it will depend the possibility to obtaina higher probability of achievement in the marketing plans implementation. A long-term securing of such relationships between producers and consumers is a task of marketing in its casuistry, whether it will be for local, national or international application. It is something that cannot be address without a continuous tracing to the history of such exchange interaction sand relations, not only mediated and guided by pecuniary objectives and profit maximization, with short-term individual appropriation. This is the only serious way to combat and remove the generalized practice of intuitive marketing, trends and any other esoteric approaches.

It should not be improvise to the swaying of the circumstances, feeding on all kinds of organizations the idea that, and the people behavior is like that and this is supposedly “unpredictable”, the best is to take advantage of the great experience of either business experts or a famous consultant. The low level of conceptualization, lack of strategic clarity, randomness excess, assessment or testing without measurement-without learning from the experience-, are notorious norms of the entrepreneurial style and classic or traditional marketing, plagued empiricist presentations camouflaged of science.

Especially in Latino-Managements (paraphrasing Sallenave, 1995), which not only impress certain immaturity biases and low development to marketing organizations, but these impressions project in other of its activities such as. First, improvisation in the planning of budgets of income and expenditure. Second, deficiencies in the staff selection processes, mainly in leadership positions who have technical relevance. Third, little or no orientation to teamwork, which is reinforced in the selection process very oriented to assessment of individual qualities and aptitudes in general, to ensure stars in the territory. Fourth, belief that they are, the leaders, who “define the aims” (almost like feudal lords) and their subordinates must follow the foot of the letter without step out of line (as if They Were serfs glebe), which results in low levels of empowerment.


The author is highly grateful to Fidel Ernesto Poveda Gómez (fierpogo@gmail.com), a Colombian biologist, almost MSc, friend since our youth, who collaborated in translation whit original literary style of the Spanish manuscript.


1. The viewpoints expressed here have been part of the work material in Strategic Marketing, Operative Marketing and International Marketing courses, designed and taught by the author to undergraduate and graduate students in several universities in Colombia and abroad, since 1994 (Garcés, 1994-1995). Evenly, these ones documented in different work places, courses, seminars, trainings, advisories and consultancies, which the author has worked out for several companies, entities, institutions and universities, since 1994;and more recently in Garcés (2003, 2005, 2006 and 2010).

2. According to Wikipedia “…is a Greek origin word, τεχνολογία, formed by technē (τέχνη, art, technique or craft that can be translated as skill) and logia (λογία, something’s study)”.That is, “…the set of technical knowledge, scientifically ordered, allowing to design and create goods and services which facilitate the adaptation to the environment and to satisfy the people’s essential needs as well as their desires.” Therefore, technology is defined as applied science; otherwise, the application of the scientific knowledge-from the science- in a specific field or discipline, aiming to improve the life quality of the planet earth inhabitants-not just humans- and its long term sustainability. A relevant epistemological approach for the purposes of this work, because it allow to distinguish basic sciences (i.e.: biology, physics, and economics) from applied sciences or technologies (i.e.: medicine, astronomy, and marketing), or techniques, arts or crafts with these ones could be interconnected (i.e.: advertisement in marketing). Thus, the reduced view about technology as exclusively focused in its results, technological objects, devices, either production and consumption instruments, and even, simple products of the contemporary capitalism, is overcome. According to Marx (1867), technology is neither “good nor evil”, and the ethic judgments about it make no sense, since these ones don’t self-define the disposition and use given to it-social relation of production- referring to both, organizational forms of the means of production, as industrial machines. Itself is capital, as a productivity facilitator in the actual production of use values and, hence, subordinated to the production of plus-values (in turn, a sub-product process).

3. In science the models can be Descriptive, Predictive or Normative (Decisive); evenly, and in a simultaneous way, they can be verbal, graphic or mathematic. Then, key is to define what type of model should be a clear demand for an applied field of knowledge such as marketing: a technology

4. The author has clear and it recognizes that in the most recent works until Kotler decides to abandon and to question the classic or traditional marketing 4P’s focus but without a structural rupture with his theoretical foundation (to see Kotler 2001, 2003 y 2005; and Kotler et. al. 2002).

5. For deepening about these issues, see Garcés (1992 and 2012).

6. It was modify in 2007: “Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.” Unbelievably it was change in 2012, but by July 2013, itreturned to this version: https://archive.ama.org/Archive/AboutAMA/Pages/DefinitionofMarketing.aspx.

7. Customer Relationship Management.

8. Unlike the neoclassic/neoliberal argument, accepted by all the writings of the classic or traditional marketing, according to which economics is the shortage science, studying how optimize some supposed technic production factors, whose limitations are established among scarce land, capital and work endowments; the “butter capital” of which Robinson (1959) talked about.

9. In this multivariate model is about the short-term growth and market participation strategy that is embodied and made explicit for measurement in time with the first of the three MarketingStrategic Objectives (OEM in Spanish) indicated in the component 5, Figure 1. The other two strategies and OEM are mid-term positioning and long-term competitiveness, marking a clear difference to the classic or traditional model with one single dependent variable, notexplicitly presented so by its authors.

10. Mathematical instrument designed by Garcés (1994-1995) for the DOFA quantitative treatment.

11. In administration, management and marketing literature, a similar term is in use, but not the same. It is call Critical Factors (of Failure?). It doesnot complete the function that it is assign in a dialectical model.

12. After its qualitative identification, a market must be simultaneously quantify in three dimensions: number of prospects (P), number of product units (Q) and monetary value ($).

13. Diverse are the possible measurement of effectiveness indicators to use for tracing each of the OEM.

14. The classic or traditional marketing, the management, and even Lambin (1987), take more than 50 years conceptualizing them and defining them like as “strategies”.

15. In this case, they being the process operational variables, the indicators tracing their execution necessarily measure their productivity or efficiency (not of effectiveness); and thus, their degree in which they contribute to the achievement of the real indicators of efficacy or results: the OEM (in Spanish).

16. All time related to this variables reference are to the concrete concept to customers, it is not the abstract concept of consumers and buyers. That is, among all the possible set of consumers having interaction with the supply, that part which has qualified itself as such and has transform by its own from a simple initial, eventual, fortuitous buy, to an objective change relation, measured according its seniority, frequency and economic value along the time. Logically, as change value to the offer, a measure of its present net value.

17. In a market reality, within any kind of relation market/product to be studied, the marketing variables model will not always wield a linear and aggregative relationship condition, such as the indicated here to just synthetize. It would not reasonable to assume always absence of co-linearity and multi-co-linearity between the same ones, both easement elements for modeling, rather than empiric validity. Similarly, it is quite probable that variables as the OEM (Yi) so the MIX (Xj) present covariance between them; therefore, for modeling them, it would result even more appropriate to establish the relations through a complete system of structured equations, in which some causality conditions could be better fixed for making less restrictive the proposed model. Nonetheless, this subject overcomes the interests and aims of this assay.

18. It is the error (ϵ%) obtain in the regression, associated to the quantity and quality of the data series in years, utilized to obtain the parameters of the regression. In this case, the matrices to the annual series with the indicators of the results obtained in the three strategies (OEM) and their corresponding investments in the 16 marketing mix variables (MIX). For example, for a 10 years historic, it would be a matrix-vector to 19*10 (190 data), to obtain the 48 parameters (ˆβij) in the regression (an excellent degree of freedom level).


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