Exploring the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment among Health Worke...

Paul Ayobami Akanbi, Kehinde Adeniran Itiola

  Open Access OPEN ACCESS  Peer Reviewed PEER-REVIEWED

Exploring the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment among Health Workers in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Paul Ayobami Akanbi1,, Kehinde Adeniran Itiola2

1Department of Busiess Administration Faculty of Social and Management Sciences Ajayi Crowther University, Nigeria

2Department of Business Administration and Management Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Osun state, Nigeria

Abstract

This paper investigated the association between job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the area of health in Nigeria. The objectives of this study were to determine whether reward system, job meaningfulness, job related stress, training were predictors of organizational commitment and also to establish the significant relationship between supervisory roles, and job related stress and organization commitment. The study employed survey research. Primary data was used for the study with questionnaires as research instrument. The subjects of this study were three hundred and thirty employees in the service of Federal Medical Centre in Ido- Ekiti, Ekiti state Nigeria. The hypotheses formulated for the study were tested using correlation analysis, regression analysis, T-test and analysis of variance with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The findings of the study revealed that the joint effect of independent variables (Reward system, Job related stress, Job meaningfulness, Training, and Supervisory role) jointly and independently predicted Organizational commitment. The research also indicated that there was a significant relationship between reward system and organizational commitment. There was also a significant difference between training and organizational commitment. Based on the findings of this study it was recommended that the management should try as much as possible to give constant attention to things that can enhance job satisfaction. Also, promotion and recruitment should be based on merit, performance on the job, initiative, educational qualifications and experience.

Cite this article:

  • Akanbi, Paul Ayobami, and Kehinde Adeniran Itiola. "Exploring the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment among Health Workers in Ekiti State, Nigeria." Journal of Business and Management Sciences 1.2 (2013): 18-22.
  • Akanbi, P. A. , & Itiola, K. A. (2013). Exploring the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment among Health Workers in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Journal of Business and Management Sciences, 1(2), 18-22.
  • Akanbi, Paul Ayobami, and Kehinde Adeniran Itiola. "Exploring the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment among Health Workers in Ekiti State, Nigeria." Journal of Business and Management Sciences 1, no. 2 (2013): 18-22.

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1. Introduction

Facing of the tide of globalization, one of the major challenges for human resource professionals is how to gain organizational competitive advantage in the rapidly changing environment. For any organization, an appropriate manpower structure is one approach to maintain effective organizational performance [1].

Job satisfaction can be defined as an affective response to one’s job while organizational commitment is the degree to which a worker identifies with an organization and is committed to achieving its goals and objectives. A strong positive correlation between job satisfaction and organizational commitment has been reported in various studies [2, 3, 4, 5, 6] .There had been however a controversy as to the causal nature of these two constructs. Some researchers support the fact that job satisfaction causes organizational commitment [3, 5, 7], others believe that it is the other way round [8, 9]. Yet others have argued that the relationship between the two constructs are mutual [2]. This study therefore examines the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment among health workers in Nigeria.

1.1. Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this study is to ascertain the nexus between job satisfaction and organizational commitment among health workers. Other objectives include:

1. To ascertain whether the measures of job satisfaction considered in this study are predictors of organizational commitment.

2. To assess the main and interaction effect of reward system and job meaningfulness on organizational commitment.

3. To determine the significant association between supervisory role and organizational commitment.

4. To analyse the significant relationship between reward system and organizational commitment.

5. To study the significant difference between job meaningfulness and organizational commitment.

6. To determine the nexus between job related stress and organizational commitment.


1.1.1. Hypotheses

The hypotheses of this study are as stated below:

1. Ho: Reward system, job related stress, job meaningfulness, training and supervisory role will not jointly and independent predict organizational commitment.

H1: Reward system, job related stress, job meaningfulness, training and supervisory role will jointly and independent predict organizational commitment.

2. Ho: There will not be main and interaction effect of reward system and job meaningfulness on organizational commitment.

H1: There will be main and interaction effect of reward system and job meaningfulness on organizational commitment.

3. Ho: There will not be a significant relationship between supervisory role and organizational commitment.

H1: There will be a significant relationship between supervisory role and organizational commitment.

4. Ho: There will not be a significant relationship between reward system and organizational commitment.

H1: There will be a significant relationship between reward system and organizational commitment.

5. Ho: There will not be a significant difference between job meaningfulness and organizational commitment.

H1: There will be a significant difference between job meaningfulness and organizational commitment.

6. Ho: There will not be a significant relationship between job related stress and organizational commitment.

H1: There will be a significant relationship between job related stress and organizational commitment.

2. Literature Review and Conceptual Framework

At times, employees may not leave an organization even when they are dissatisfied or do not feel committed to the organization. This makes studying the two variables serve an even greater importance. When workers are dissatisfied, this may create grievances, which can lead to a lower level of organizational commitment. In turn, this may result in severe consequences such as labour strikes. Another reason why we are interested in studying whether job satisfaction would lead to organizational commitment is because this may increase productivity. With an improvement in productivity, organizations will operate better and have higher growth, which is an important goal for most organizations. Thus, a manager should investigate their employees’ level of satisfaction, which can signal whether there is commitment from their workers.

Analyzing the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment is particularly crucial nowadays, as people often do not work at the same organization or job throughout their lifetime. It is also sometimes hard to find suitable people for certain positions. So once an ideal candidate is chosen, organizations will like to make a great effort to retain those employees. If two employees exhibit different levels of job satisfaction and that job satisfaction can be proven to lead to organizational commitment, the employer will likely hire the employee with the higher level of job satisfaction. This is because the employer can expect the more satisfied individual to stay with the organization. Another reason as to why satisfaction will lead to commitment is that a higher level of job satisfaction may lead to a better family life and a reduction in stress. The reason is because an employee’s feelings of jobs satisfaction may affect his or her emotions. This feeling will affect the worker’s behaviours inside and outside the organization.

When a worker is dissatisfied with his or her job, the employee may have negative emotions. The consequence is that he or she may start to think about quitting. The decision process will begin with the individual identifying and evaluating alternatives, about whether to quit or to stay on in their job. The sequence of decisions will change the employee’s commitment level. Managers would be most interested in knowing about the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment, because it would become clear as to how important and worthy it would be to retain their most satisfied employees. In turn, having this knowledge would motivate managers to satisfy their employees. This would ultimately benefit the organization, as it is expected that these same employees will be highly committed. When employees are committed, their personal goals may go in line with those of the organization that they work for.

Much of the interest in assessing and analyzing employee satisfaction stems from a concern about possible on-the-job behavioural consequences [10]. Low level of job satisfaction among employees have been shown to produce various undesirable behaviours, such as using the organization’s time to pursue personal tasks, psychological and practical withdrawal from the job, and behavioural changes that alter the work place environment [10]. Additional negative consequences associated with low levels of job satisfaction include attendance problems, higher rate of turnover, early retirements, lack of active participation in the job task, and psychological withdrawal from work [10, 11, 12]. [11] defines job satisfaction as “the degree to which a person likes his/her job”, while [13] define the term as “the fulfillment of gratification of certain needs that are associated with one’s work”. Employees are better satisfied with their jobs when they are adequately recognized for a job well done and when they have an opportunity to contribute to policies and procedures of the organization [14].

Good working conditions are positively related to organizational commitment. Clean, attractive surroundings, enable employees to perform their work smoothly and thus are likely to have a positive impact on organizational commitment. Research by [15] found that the general working conditions were significantly related to organizational commitment. Also, although commitment might not be the intended or at least the most obvious objective of training, it can nevertheless be influenced in the process. The provision of training and development sends a message to the employees that the organization cares about them and supports them, and this is likely to lead to increased organization commitment. Research findings have revealed a positive relationship between organizational commitment and training opportunities.

Satisfaction with supervision is also likely to be an important predictor of organizational commitment among health workers. This is because supervisors create much of a subordinate’s work environment. Thus, supervisors play a crucial role in the perception employee form about the organization’s supportiveness and the extent to which they can be trusted to look after their interests.

Furthermore, providing high compensation could lead to higher organizational commitment through a variety of reasons. First, it allows the organization to attract a larger pool of applicants from which to recruit. Second, high compensation serves as an indication of how much an organization values its people, thereby enhancing their self-worth and feelings of importance. Third tying compensation to performance motivates the employees to exert more effort on behalf of the organization. For these reasons, high compensation that is tied to organizational performance is predicted to lead to increase levels of organizational commitment.

3. Methodology

3.1. Research Design

This study adopted a survey research design which measured two variables, independent variable and dependent variable. The independent variable was job satisfaction (Reward system, Job related stress, Job meaningfulness, Training, and Supervisory role) and the dependent variable was organizational commitment.

3.2. Sample

The sample of this study comprised three hundred and thirty employees of Federal Medical Centre, Ido Ekiti, Ekiti State Nigeria. The samples were randomly selected across different cadres at the centre. A total of three hundred and sixty questionnaires were distributed, with a number of three hundred and thirty found usable and were analysed. The subjects consist of one hundred and sixty males and one hundred and seventy females with age ranged between below 25 and above 45.

3.3. Data Analyses

The demographic information was analysed using frequency counts and simple percentage. The hypotheses for this study were analysed using correlation analysis, regression analysis, t-test and analysis of variance.

Hypothesis 1 was analysed using multiple regression, hypothesis 5 was tested using t-test, hypotheses 3, 4 and 6 were analysed using Pearson correlation and hypothesis 2 was analysed using analysis of variance.

3.4. Instruments

The study used a survey questionnaire divided into seven sections. Section A centres on the demographic information, while sections B to F measured job satisfaction in terms of reward system, job related stress, job meaningfulness, training, and supervisory role respectively. The scale for job satisfaction was adapted from a scale developed by [16] which is a twenty five item scale with a Likert scoring format ranging from strongly agree (5) to strongly disagree (1). The alpha reliability coefficients for reward system was 0.84, job related stress was 0.76, job meaningfulness was 0.80, training was 0.59 and supervisory role was 0.71. Section G measured organizational commitment. The scale for organizational commitment was adapted from organizational commitment questionnaire which was developed by [17]. The scale is a fourteen item questionnaire ranging from strongly agree (5) to strongly disagree (1).

The instruments were revalidated, and the cronbach alpha reliability coefficients gave the following results: Reward System -.56, Job Related stress-.90, training-74, supervisory role- 83, organizational commitment- 84.

3.5. Data Presentation and Analyses

Table 1 Showing the descriptive statistics of demographics

In Table 1, the Male respondents were 160 (48.5%) while their Female counterparts were 170 (51.5%) respectively. The table also shows that 140 (42.4%) were with Age less than 25 years, 92 (27.9%) were within 26-35 years, 60 (18.2%) were within 36-45 years, 38 (11.5%) were above 45 years respectively. The table indicates that 44 (13.3%) respondents possesse Post Graduate certificate e.g. M.sc, 199 (60.3%) had B.sc, HND, 22 (6.7%) had OND, NCE certificate, 65 (19.7%) had Secondary school leaving certificate.

3.6. Hypotheses Testing

Hypothesis 1

H1: Reward system, Job related stress, Job meaningfulness, Training, and Supervisory role will jointly and independently predict Organizational commitment.

Table 2. Summary of regression analysis showing reward system, job related stress, Job meaningfulness, Training, and Supervisory role on Organizational commitment

It was shown in the table above that the joint effect of independent variables Reward system, Job related stress, Job meaningfulness, Training, and Supervisory role jointly predicted Organizational commitment was significant (F(5,324) = 38.575;R = .611, R2 = .373, Adj. R2 = 0.363; P < .05). About 37% of the variation was accounted for by the independent variables.

Hypothesis 1b: Reward system, Job related stress, Job meaningfulness, Training, and Supervisory role will independently predict Organizational commitment.

Table 3. Summary of independent prediction of Reward system, job related stress, job meaningfulness, training and supervisory role on organizational commitment.

The result above shows the relative contribution of each of the independent variables on the dependent:

Reward system (β = .116, P <.05), Job related stress (β = .244, P <.05), Job meaningfulness (β = .247, P <.05), Training (β = .181, P <.05), and Supervisory role (β = .132, P <.05) , respectively.

Hence, all the independent variables were found to be significant.

Hypothesis 2

H2: There will be main and interaction effect of reward system and job meaningfulness on organizational commitment.

Table 4. Summary of ANOVA showing the main and interaction effect of reward system and job meaningfulness on organizational commitment

Table 4 showed that there was main effect of reward system and job meaningfulness on Organizational Commitment, however, there was no interaction effect of reward system and job meaningfulness on organizational commitment (F(3,326) = 1.464, P > .05). The result obtained did not fully support the hypothesis.

Hypothesis 3

H3: There will be a significant relationship between supervisory role and organizational commitment.

Table 5. Summary table showing the relationship between organizational commitment and supervisory role

It is shown in Table 5 that there was a significant relationship between supervisory role and organizational commitment(r = .397**, N= 330, P < .01). The result therefore supports the hypothesis that states that there is a significant relationship between the nature of supervisory role and organizational commitment.

Hypothesis 4

H4: There will be a significant relationship between reward system and Organizational commitment.

It is shown in Table 6 that there was significant relationship between Organizational commitment and Reward system (r = .370**, N= 330, P < .01). The result therefore supports the hypothesis that states that there is a significant relationship between reward system and organizational commitment.

Table 6. Summary table showing the significant relationship between Reward system and Organizational commitment

Hypothesis 5

H5: There will be a significant difference between Job meaningfulness Organizational commitment.

Table 7. Summary table showing the significant difference between Job meaningfulness and Organizational commitment

The above table showed that there is a significant difference between job meaningfulness and organizational commitment (Crit-t =1.96, Cal.t = 5.861, df = 328, P < .05 level of significance). The hypothesis is therefore accepted.

Hypothesis 6

H6: There will be a significant relationship between Job related stress and Organizational commitment.

Table 8. Summary table showing the significant relationship between Job related stress and Organizational commitment

It is shown in Table 8 that there was a significant relationship between job related stress and organizational commitment (r = .364**, N= 330, P < .01). The hypothesis is accepted.

3.7. Conclusion

This study examined the association between job satisfaction and organizational commitment among health workers in Nigeria. The result of this study revealed that highly committed members are likely to continue their work with their current workplace, and at the same time, they are likely to put more effort on work assigned to them and thereby perform at higher levels than their uncommitted counterparts.

This is an important finding offering a substantial contribution to theory development with respect to organizational commitment. Previous research has suggested that organizational commitment and job satisfaction could have differential effects on individuals in the workplace [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. The results also suggest that management might be able to increase the level of commitment in the organization by increasing satisfaction with compensation policies and work condition.

From the analysis carried out, it can be concluded that reward system, job related stress, job meaningfulness, training, and supervisory role jointly predicted organizational commitment. This indicates that all the five dimensions of job satisfaction adopted for this study were predictors of organizational commitment. Supervisory role was also positively correlated with organizational commitment. This means that the degree and intensity of supervision can affect the commitment of employees to the organization. The study confirmed the hypothesis that reward system has an association with organizational commitment. This research supported the fact that there is a significant difference in commitment of employees that attach meaningfulness to job they are performing on daily basis. The study showed that there is a link between inherent stress in a particular job or task and commitment to the organization.

3.8. Recommendations

The following are recommended based on the findings from this study.

● The management should try as much possible to give constant attention to matters that can enhance job satisfaction. This is necessary because a frustrated staff who had long been very committed in carrying out his or her duties can be involved in sharp practices which can cause huge problems for the hospital.

● Promotion and recruitment should me based on merit, performance on the job, initiative educational qualification and experience. However, educational qualification while on the job should be given an edge over others. This will serve as compensation for staff who utilize leisure in reading and such employees would become more innovative and contribute meaningfully to the growth of the organization.

● Management should see to the possible increase to review the allowances of employees especially transport, housing and food subsidy.

● The organization should encourage its members to attend seminars, workshops and the like so that their administrative behaviour could be positively modified towards achieving organizational goals and objectives.

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