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Investigation of Safety Factors in Ports According to Their Development (Case Study Jask Port)

Danial Ghaderi , Hassan Ghassemi, Mojgan Khaleghi, Maryam Rahbani
Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2017, 5(2), 69-75. DOI: 10.12691/jap-5-2-5
Published online: November 20, 2017

Abstract

Nowadays 90 percent of world exchange to be achieved by marine transport and it can be said that the sea is undeniable dimension of economic affairs for every country. Substructure of ports, harbor and formation of suitable and safe conditions for vessel movement is helpful and acceleration affair in loading and offloading of goods, and also is the effective and important factor for vessels movement, In this research by using the library study and the results of numerical modeling with the descriptive and analytic method the effective parameters in vessels safety traffic in the harbor basins to be explained. For this purpose eastern harbor of Jask port is selected. The result are explained in two categories; direct results and results of the numerical models, that including; wind, tide, wave and current.

1. Introduction

Iran has 3698.04 Km coastline in north and south 1 in the vicinity of Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. So Iran is ranked 37th in term of coastline in the world 2. Therefore Iran is known as a maritime country, which shows Iran good condition in marine potential, and can cause the development of improvement of marine potential in country economic growth.

Marin transport is the largest international industrial in the world, and very important for the development of foreign trade, in every country. Marine transport has positive feature like; low expense, high speed and high volumes, so it is one of the best methods in commercial transport 3. About 90 percent of total trade in the world is carried by sea transport 4. These statistics show the importance of marine transportation in the international scale. Suitable quantity and quality standard substructure in the harbors and ports, mobility shipping and the new generation of vessels is essential for the development and economic growth.

In this study the favorite conditions of harbor basin and berthing condition like: speed and direction of wave, current and wind, with using Figures and numerical modeling are discussed.

1.1. Area of Study

For studying circumferential and physical conditions of breakwater basin on eastern of Jask by using the numerical modeling research which is located in 25° 36 to 25°44’ northern and 57°42 to 57°56 eastern (Figure 1) this modeling was done by MIKE 21/3 Integrated Model.

The data used in this study are; wind, wave and surface level (tide) and using the prediction with artificial neural network. The point of option to extract the data is shown in Figure 2.

1.2. Introduction of Numerical Models

In this numerical modeling the data that use are wind and wave height concern to chronological span 2003 before construction of the breakwater and 2011 after construction of the breakwater, also because of unavailable data about of the construction predicted the artificial neural network of feed forward ANN with Perception type with Tan-sigmoid function 5, 6.

For analysis of phenomenon which dominant on sea circumference, MIKE21 is prepared by the Denmark Hydraulic Institute. This is 2D modeling for estuaries, coastal areas, the seas and etc. This model is the useful tool for analysis of current and wave pattern, sedimentation and erosion on the beaches and coastal sediment transport rate 7.

In this numerical modeling, spectral wave (SW) and Hydrodynamics module are used. Parameters and properties of this modeling is shown in Table 1. Also for calibration, White capping, Wave breaking and Bottom friction are used.

2. Report of Iran Active Ports

At the north of Iran; Bandar Amirabad, Noshahr, and Bandar-e Anzali are active as the major three port in north, and the another port are act as subsidiary ports.

At the south of Iran; Bandar Chabahar, Bandar Imam Khomeini, Bandar Bushehr, Bandar Abadan and Bandar Khorramshahr, Bandar Shahid Bahonar, Bandar Shahid Rajai are the major port, and the another port are subsidiary. Table 2 shows the specifications of Iran’s ports 8.

2.1. Operation of Port Interpretation

Coastal areas are the main context of economic and social human activities for present and future generation, so that 90 percent of global trade to be accomplished by the oceans, and 80 percent of world big cities are located near of the sea. Humans advance to sea direction with the development targets, Is bring to a conclusion with the different manner, which is different regard with kind of the target. Nowadays the human is trying to achieve the development of social, economic and industrial its community, so that we see the improvements developed countries with planning and prosper management in the twentieth century, as a result of these, we see the large fissure in global trade 9. The important factor in global economy is quick exchange development in transport, communication and Information,

According to Annual reports of the Information and Communication Technology Office of Statistics and Informatics Department of Ports and Maritime Organization of Iran, total trade exchange volume of ports of Iran shown in Figure 3.

The amount of loading and unloading, (oil, non-oil) container, and passenger and vessel movement from 2005 until 2016 are shown in Figure 3. The amount of passenger movement from 2008 until 2016 has been a rapid growth, about 17 million passengers. The amount of the loading and unloading Oil goods from 2005 until 2016 has a similar trend, but non-oil-loading and non-oil –unloading goods from 2009 has been increased. The amount of container (empty- full) movement from 2006 has been increased, but from 2012 has been reduced, because of the economic sanctions. The chart of amount vessel movement over are thousand tons is not regular, but can say the average of vessels movement from the all Iran’s ports is about 9 thousand vessel per year.

In Table 3 the amount of the movement of incoming and outgoing vessels to the ports of Iran is shown, in order, Shahid Rajaee port and Bandar Imam Khomeini have highest traffic ports with Vessel over one thousand tons in Iran. Also Shahid haqany, Lengeh, Khorramshahr and Shahid bahonar ports have high traffic ports with Vessel under one thousand tons in Iran.

3. Results

3.1. Annual Wind

Extracting the data which exist in the underground from 2012 until 2016 is shown in Figure 4 10. During these five year, the maximum of wind speed is about 32 m/h, but average of the wind speed is 24 m/h, according to the chart at the Figure 5 the wind speed from Mid-June to Mid-September is highest and prevailing wind is from the northwest, and there is a southeast wind at a time of year, which has a period fewer but higher speed.

3.2. Monthly Wind

In all of the month prevailing wind is from the northwest, but in July, August and September The prevailing wind direction is oriented to the southeast, and in April the wind speed is highest from northwest (Figure 5).

3.3. Tide

According to the data of Hydrographic Mapping Agency of Iran 11, monthly tidal graph of Jask from 1/12/2015 until 1/11/2016 is shown in Figure 6. By considering this monthly tidal graph we can see the condition of Neap tide and Spring tide in terms of perfect moon or imperfect moon condition of the different days of one month. Therefore, the highest water level in the Spring tide condition is about 2.7 m and the highest water level in the Neap tide is about 2.1 m.

3.4. Waves and Currents

In order to consider the status of waves and currents in harbor basin at east of Jask port, for the extract required data from numerical models, five desirable points were selected (from Figure 2). Point 1 located at the mouth of breakwaters, Point 3 located at the Nera of mooring vessel and point 2.4 and 5 are located among the basins, were selected.

Waverose of five points before and after the constructing breakwaters is drawn in Figure 7. Before the construction of breakwaters, prevailing directional waves is the southeast, and the measure wave height in point 1 and 2 is more than the other point, because of the point 1 and 2 are located far away from the beach. But after the construct of breakwaters prevailing directional waves are irregular, but prevailing directional waves in point 1 and 2 are consistent with the mouth of the breakwater. The measure wave height at the each of five points is decreased.

Currentrose of the five desirable points in before and after the constructing of breakwaters is drawn in Figure 8. Before the constructing of breakwaters prevailing direction current is from east to west (normal condition of water circumference of the Persian Gulf) 12, and the maximum flow rate is about 0.0034 m/s. After the constructing of breakwaters prevailing direction current is irregular, and flow rate in these five point is weak, which represents calm conditions in the basin of the harbor.

4. Conclusion

According to statistics are listed, for the development and economic expansion of Iran, the ports have important role. In marine transport issue, paying attention to the ports and harbors for safe and quick mooring, movement, loading and unloading is very important affair, so knowledge, scientific study of environmental conditions of the ports and harbor are required.

In this study by selecting a harbor for evaluate the important parameter in safety of vessel in port and harbor when they are enter and leave the harbor for management and developing of Iran’s port.

The results were classified in two categories; direct results and obtained from numerical models, that including; wind, tidal, wave and current. The results of the wind show the dominant prevailing direction of wind is northwest and the dominant prevailing direction in summer is changes.

Tidal graphs show Spring tide and Neap tide condition which respectively are 2.7 meter and 2.1 meter. The second category showed positive effect of breakwater in harbor and port with creating a calm condition in the basin of the harbor.

References

[1]  Taghinejad, R. and Ghaderi, D. (2016). Evaluation of Iran's Coastal tourism according to sustainable development, 18th Marine Industries Conference, 18-21 Oct 2016, Kish Island, Iran.
In article      
 
[2]  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2060.html
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Ganji Zahraei, H. and Fasihi Karami, H. (2016). Factors and solutions modernization of traditional fleet maritime transport of Iran from the perspective experts and authorities, 18th Marine Industries Conference, 18-21 Oct 2016, Kish Island, Iran.
In article      
 
[4]  Zeraatkar, M. (2010). Maritime transport's share in global trade
In article      
 
[5]  Khaleghi, M. (2016). Physical Oceanography Master's thesis. Numerical modeling of wind waves in the North of Oman Sea. University of Hormozgan.
In article      
 
[6]  Ports and Maritime Organization (PMO). (2010). The Directorate General of Coasts and Ports, Modeling of sea waves Iran, Volume Two, the Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman.
In article      
 
[7]  DHI Water and Environment. 2005. MIKE 21/3 coupled modeling manual.
In article      
 
[8]  Calendar Statistics Actions, Department of ICT office of Statistics and Informatics, (2005-2016). Available at www.pmo.ir.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Ghassemi, H. (2001). Shipbuilding industry in Korea and Japan and potential of capacity in Iran, Second National Conference on Marine industries.
In article      
 
[10]  www.wunderground.com/cgibin/findweather/getForecast?query=jask.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  www.iranhydrography.ncc.org.ir.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Sanatgaran, M. (2011). The effect of surface temperature and density in currents of Persian Gulf, Journal of the harbor and the sea, No 173, p 101.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2017 Danial Ghaderi, Hassan Ghassemi, Mojgan Khaleghi and Maryam Rahbani

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Danial Ghaderi, Hassan Ghassemi, Mojgan Khaleghi, Maryam Rahbani. Investigation of Safety Factors in Ports According to Their Development (Case Study Jask Port). Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2017, pp 69-75. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jap/5/2/5
MLA Style
Ghaderi, Danial, et al. "Investigation of Safety Factors in Ports According to Their Development (Case Study Jask Port)." Journal of Atmospheric Pollution 5.2 (2017): 69-75.
APA Style
Ghaderi, D. , Ghassemi, H. , Khaleghi, M. , & Rahbani, M. (2017). Investigation of Safety Factors in Ports According to Their Development (Case Study Jask Port). Journal of Atmospheric Pollution, 5(2), 69-75.
Chicago Style
Ghaderi, Danial, Hassan Ghassemi, Mojgan Khaleghi, and Maryam Rahbani. "Investigation of Safety Factors in Ports According to Their Development (Case Study Jask Port)." Journal of Atmospheric Pollution 5, no. 2 (2017): 69-75.
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[1]  Taghinejad, R. and Ghaderi, D. (2016). Evaluation of Iran's Coastal tourism according to sustainable development, 18th Marine Industries Conference, 18-21 Oct 2016, Kish Island, Iran.
In article      
 
[2]  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2060.html
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Ganji Zahraei, H. and Fasihi Karami, H. (2016). Factors and solutions modernization of traditional fleet maritime transport of Iran from the perspective experts and authorities, 18th Marine Industries Conference, 18-21 Oct 2016, Kish Island, Iran.
In article      
 
[4]  Zeraatkar, M. (2010). Maritime transport's share in global trade
In article      
 
[5]  Khaleghi, M. (2016). Physical Oceanography Master's thesis. Numerical modeling of wind waves in the North of Oman Sea. University of Hormozgan.
In article      
 
[6]  Ports and Maritime Organization (PMO). (2010). The Directorate General of Coasts and Ports, Modeling of sea waves Iran, Volume Two, the Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman.
In article      
 
[7]  DHI Water and Environment. 2005. MIKE 21/3 coupled modeling manual.
In article      
 
[8]  Calendar Statistics Actions, Department of ICT office of Statistics and Informatics, (2005-2016). Available at www.pmo.ir.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Ghassemi, H. (2001). Shipbuilding industry in Korea and Japan and potential of capacity in Iran, Second National Conference on Marine industries.
In article      
 
[10]  www.wunderground.com/cgibin/findweather/getForecast?query=jask.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  www.iranhydrography.ncc.org.ir.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Sanatgaran, M. (2011). The effect of surface temperature and density in currents of Persian Gulf, Journal of the harbor and the sea, No 173, p 101.
In article