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Detection of Adulteration and Quality Evaluation of Raw Milk Collected from Local Markets in Bangladesh

Md. Anwarul Islam, Md. Touhiduzzaman Sarker, Adhita Sri Prabakusuma, Md. Imrul Hasan Russel, Md. Shahidul Islam
Journal of Applied Agricultural Economics and Policy Analysis. 2018, 1(1), 1-7. DOI: 10.12691/jaaepa-1-1-1
Published online: June 02, 2018

Abstract

This experiment was aimed to detect adulteration and evaluate the quality (physical, chemical and microbiological of raw milk collected from local markets. For this purpose, the milk samples were collected from Narikali Bazar, Sofir Mia Bazar and Sokal Bazar of Jamalpur district in Bangladesh. Parameters were used to detect adulteration such as presence of Formalin, Starch, Cane Sugar and coloring agent, and to monitor the qualities of milk samples on the basis of physical tests (color, flavor, taste, texture and specific gravity), chemical tests [acidity (%), fat (g/kg), ash (g/kg), protein (g/kg), lactose (g/kg), TS (g/kg) and SNF (g/kg)]-and microbiological tests (total viable count and coliform count, CFU/ml). From the physical test it was found that all the market samples were yellowish white in color, normal in taste and flavor and free flowing fluid in case of texture. All of the raw milk samples did not fulfill the legal standard of milk composition. However, raw milk samples of Sokal Bazar were higher in fat, protein, lactose, SNF and TS contents than the other two sources of raw milk samples. Microbiological parameters (total viable count and Coliform count) also remained high in all raw milk samples than the standard. It was observed that there was no adulteration in any of the collected raw milk samples. This study revealed that hygiene condition did not properly maintain during milking and transportation of the raw milk supplied in the local markets.

1. Introduction

As a third world country, Bangladesh suffers from malnutrition severely. It has an average of 1.47 lakh square kilometers with population of 154 million, of which 28 per cent live in urban and 72 per cent in rural areas. The sources of balanced diet are very challenging here for the people. Hasan and Rakib 1 reported that the average milk production per cow per year is about 2190 kg in developed countries, 1220 kg in Asia whereas 206 kg in Bangladesh. Milk is the lacteal secretion of healthy animal. It can be obtained 15 days before or 5 days after calving. It is colostrum free and containing the minimum prescribed percentage of milk fat (3.5%) and solids not fat (8.5%) 2. Milk is an essential item of the daily food for the growing children and expectant mothers 3. In Bangladesh, milk is produced mostly in a non-organized way and usually it is being supplied to the consumers from the urban and rural areas by middleman 4. Most of the dairy farmer’s livelihood depends on rearing cow and selling milk 5. It is very common in rural areas by which dairy farmer of rural area earn money by selling milk and it helps to reduce their poverty and food insecurity 6, 7, 8. Women farmer also can rear milking cows in the riverine island char areas of Bangladesh which empowers themselves 9, 10, 11. Although there are little milk pockets especially Milk Vita and some established dairy farm where surplus milk is readily available, this perishable product has neither received particular attention by hygienic distribution to the consumers 12, 13. Dairy farmer needs capital for purchasing healthy cow and rearing so that the production can be increased with improved milk quality. The capital can be borrowed from commercial banks of Bangladesh but it needs special attention of government 5, 14

Milk is the heterogeneous product and an almost complete and well-balanced food for the newly born infant or animal 15, 16. Farkye (2003) showed that milk contains on average 87.7% water, 4.9% lactose (carbohydrate), 3.4% fat, 3.3% protein, and 0.7% minerals. Besides, milk contains considerable amounts of fat soluble vitamins (Vit-A, D, E & K) and water-soluble vitamins (Vit-B complex). Javaid et al. 17 reported that Milk is a compulsory part of daily diet for the expectant mothers as well as growing children. Milk-fat is an important element of milk due to its nutrias value. It is easily digestible and serves as the concentrated source of energy and each gram of fat furnishes 9 calories energy, which is 2.25 times more than protein and carbohydrate. It is a carrier of fat-soluble vitamins and helps in lactose assimilation 18. The protein of milk is not a single compound but includes three major proteins namely: casein (80 % of total protein) and lactalbumin (18%) and lactoglobulin (2 %). Among them Casein is the principal protein component of milk. The essential amino acids like tryptophan and lysine are present in large quantity in milk, which are deficient in vegetable protein. Besides glutamic acid present in cow’s milk are 3 times higher than in human milk, which results a reduction of cholesterol level in blood. Oratic acid of milk protein improves liver detoxification. Another content taurine is responsible for the development of immature brain tissue of mammalian young. Lactose the only milk sugar is an excellent food for babies. Lactose has favorable influence on the utilization of calcium through formation of calcium lactate in the intestine 1. Moreover, galactose the special component of lactose is essential for nervous system. Lactose provides an important role for growth and development of central nervous system as well as brain tissue of mammalian baby. Milk is an excellent source of calcium and phosphorus, which are important in the formation of bone and teeth. Calcium aids in the contraction and relaxation of heart muscles inducing clotting of the blood to prevent fetal bleeding and maintains buffer capacity of blood. Most of the essential minerals needed by the body are present in the milk. Milk is also a rich source of all known vitamins except vitamin C, which are essential for human health and nutrition. More over some are present in large quantities than human requirement 10. Milk also contains Vitamin E, which cures heart disease. Most of the milk in Bangladesh is consumed by farming households or sold on the informal market, and less than 20 per cent is delivered to formal milk processors. Khan et al. 19 reported that in Bangladesh, Milk collector (Goala) collects milk from rural and urban areas and sell it to the market. It is main professions of so many people who lead their livelihood on it. Goalas purchase milk from different small holder dairy farmers and local markets. Besides dairy farmer sells their milk by themselves in the local market and earn money which helps to reduce poverty and improving food security. There is some established milk processing center in Bangladesh which collects milk from dairy farmers through milk collector and process it for future use by packaging. Islam et al. 20 found the supplied milk occasionally adulterated. Knowledge of the different levels of microorganisms in milk is very essential to determine its quality and capture long term demand for milk by consumers for a successful dairy operation 1. The consumer usually suffers for milk adulteration so they want to get fresh, clean and pure milk and pathogen free 21, 22. In these reason, the nutritive value of milk depends on its freshness, cleanliness, purity and wholesomeness. Global data indicate that during the last 20 years, the world has witness spectacular expansion in the livestock industries. Farrell 23 reported that Milk is expected to increase by 64% in the world by the year 2020. So, it is necessary to increase milk production to mitigate the requirement. Milk can undergo spoilage due to action of various microorganisms. Flavor deterioration, Souring, discoloration, gassiness, and many other defects causes due to presence of undesirable bacteria in milk. Lactose is broken down to glucose and galactose by microbial enzyme lactase and finally lactic acid is produced from glucose. Haasnoot et al. 24 showed that the main cause of losses in quantity and poor quality of milk are Milk adulteration, poor hygiene, malpractices, lack of preservation technology, cooling facilities and sanitation conditions. The chief ways of adulteration of milk are addition of water, flour and sugar. This adulterated milk may cause various diseases to the consumers. For this reason, technical knowledge is important to examine adulterated milk.

The examination of market milk in different parts of our country would be valuable addition to our knowledge of dairy technology. The present study was under taken with the aim of detecting adulteration and evaluating the hygienic quality (physical, chemical and microbiological) of raw milk from local markets of Jamalpur district in Bangladesh. The specific objectives are (a) to determine the type of adulterants and frequency of adulteration in the raw milk supplied, and (b) To evaluate the quality of raw milk in terms of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Site Selection and Collection of Sample

The experiment was conducted, firstly to collect the milk sample from different local markets of Jamalpur Upazila; secondly adulteration, organoleptic, chemical, and microbiological test was observed 25. The samples of milk were collected from the 3 different places of Jamalpur Upazila. These samples were collected from the following places: Narikali Bazar, Sofir Mia Bazar and Sokal Bazar of Jamalpur Upazila of Bangladesh. The present experiment was conducted at Dairy Science laboratory of the Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the period from 1st July to 13th November, 2013. Individual raw milk samples were collected from local markets at Jamalpur Upazila. The selected markets were Narikali Bazar, Sofir Mia Bazar and Sokal Bazar were designated by the sample as Narikali Bazar, Sofir Mia Bazar, and Sokal Bazar. Before collection, milk carrying pots were cleaned and dried properly in order to avoid any kind of external contamination or adulteration. Samples were collected 3 times from 3 local markets and each time 3 samples were collected. These samples were analyzed in the laboratory during the experimental period.

2.2. Analysis of the Samples

Different tests related to detection of adulteration, organoleptic, chemical 25 and microbiological parameters were conducted for each milk sample to monitor their adulteration and quality status 26.


2.2.1. Adulteration Test

Adulteration tests were done through starch, formalin, cane sugar and colouring agents as follows.


2.2.2. Organoleptic Evaluation

a) Color: The judging of color was done by eye for organoleptic test. Color of milk is a blend of individual effects produced by Carotene, which imparts a yellowish color.

b) Flavor: Flavor may be detected by sniffing the products before placing in the mouth and also while in the mouth.

c) Taste: The sample was placed in the mouth, rolled around in the mouth to come in contact with the taste buds located on the various portion of the tongue.

d) Texture: The judging of texture of milk sample was also done by eye.


2.2.3. Chemical Tests

a) Determination of acidity: Acidity of all milk samples were determined as per method described by 25.

b) Determination of fat: Fat test was done by Babcock fat test methods.

c) Determination of protein: Protein percentage is calculated by the formal titration method described by Hasan and Rakib 1.

d) Determination of lactose: The lactose content was estimated by the following formula: Lactose content of milk = SNF% - (Protein% + Ash %).

e) Determination of ash: Details of the test are given in Appendix I section. Ash content was determined as per method by WM Clunie Harvey and Harry Hill 27.

f) Determination of total solids (TS): Details of the test are given in Appendix I section. TS of all milk samples were determined as per method described by WM Clunie Harvey and Harry Hill 27. Solids-not-fat (SNF) was also determined 25.

g) Specific gravity: Specific gravity test was performed by using Quevenne Lactometer, according to the method described by 25.


2.2.4. Microbiological Tests and Statistical Analysis

The experimental procedures were followed for the determination of the number of total viable bacteria in a sample and the detection and enumeration of coliform bacteria as per recommendation American Public Health Association 28. Data were analyzed statistically by using MSTATC package in one-way analysis of variance test as per Completely Randomized Design (CRD). For ranking the means Least Significance Difference (LSD) test was used.

3. Results and Discussion

In this experiment, milk samples collected from three local markets of Jamalpur town i.e. from Narikali Bazar (A), Sofir Mia Bazar (B), and Sokal Bazar (C) were analysed to detect adulteration and monitor their quality 29. Results obtained from this experiment are discussed below:

3.1. Tests for Adulteration
3.1.1. Starch Test

The results for starch test of milk samples collected from local markets of Jamalpur Upazila showed negative results. Akirul 30 showed negative results of starch test for all the samples collected from Muktagacha Upazila of Mymensingh District. Rashedul 31 also found the negative results of starch test for all milk samples collected from Fulbaria Upazila, Mymensingh. Lateef et al. 32 reported that Milk dealers maximize their profit margin by dilution and extraction of valuable milk fat which is removed as cream and increasing total solids content up to a level which is acceptable by the consumers with the addition of cheap substance like starch 33.


3.1.2. Formalin Test

The results for formalin test of collected milk samples showed negative results. Safi 34 found the negative results formalin test for all the collected milk samples of Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Rashedul 31 also reported the negative results of formalin test for all milk samples collected from Mymensingh, Bangladesh.


3.1.3. Cane Sugar Test

The results for cane sugar test of all milk samples showed negative results. Pal et al. 35 reported that added sugar in milk is a very common adulteration problem in dairy industry 29 and the SNF content in milk is increased by the addition of sugar and only 0.2% addition increase lactometer reading by one degree of 60°F. Zia 36 observed that cane sugar is added in milk to increase solids-not-fat content of milk after addition of water.


3.1.4. Test for Coloring Agent

All the milk samples showed negative results in case of coloring agent. Akirul 30 showed negative results of coloring agent for all the samples collected from Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

3.2. Physical Parameters

The physical parameters were measured after collection of milk from local markets of Jamalpur, Bangladesh (Table 1). These parameters were mainly organoleptic test (colour, flavour, taste, texture) and specific gravity of the raw milk samples 37.


3.2.1. Colour

All the raw milk samples collected from local markets of Jamalpur Sadar were yellowish white in color. Most of the samples agree with Rashedul 31 who reported that the color of the milk sample collected from Fulbaria market were yellowish white in color. Monem 38 showed the color of most of the milk samples of Bogra town were yellowish white.


3.2.2. Flavor

All the collected milk samples were normal in flavor. This result agreed with the work of Bari 39 who showed that the milk flavor was normal (pleasant and aromatic) collected from dairy farm of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.


3.2.3. Taste

The taste of all milk samples was normal. Bari 39 showed that normal taste of milk collected from BAU Dairy Farm in where milking had been done hygienically. Safi 34 found the taste of all milk samples collected from local markets of Mymensingh, Bangladesh were slightly sweet in taste. Rashedul 31 also reported slightly sweet in taste for all milk samples of Mymensingh, Bangladesh.


3.2.4. Texture

The texture of raw milk sample was examined when milk was bought. All samples were normal texture (Free flowing fluid). Rashedul 31 found the texture of raw milk sample were normal. Safi 34 also found normal texture for all milk samples. From the above results it may be said that the physical quality of raw milk collected three local markets of Jamalpur in Bangladesh were almost similar with a few variations in terms of physical qualities.

3.3. Chemical Parameters

The results of the experiment for chemical parameters of total solids (g/kg) raw milk samples such as specific gravity, acidity%, fat (g/kg), protein (g/kg), lactose (g/kg), ash (g/kg), total solids (g/kg), solids-not-fat (g/kg) are shown in the Table 2.


3.3.1. Specific Gravity

Specific gravity of sample A, B and C were 1.028±0.00, 1.027±0.00, and1.027±0.00 respectively (Table 2). Statistically it was found that there was no significant difference within the specific gravity of different milk samples. It was observed that specific gravity of milk obtained from Narikali Bazar was higher than milk of another Bazar. Islam et al. 20 who found that specific gravity of cow’s milk from BAU Dairy Farm was higher than that collected from the local markers. In another experiment, Salam 40 reported that the average specific gravity of milk of Bhaghabarighat Dairy Plant was 1.027 ± 0.00. Rahman 41 studied the physical and chemical quality of milk collected from different plants of Milk Vita and also reported the average specific gravity of the milk of Bhaghabari Dairy Plant was 1.023 ± 0.00. Mahedi 42 reported that the average specific gravity of milk collected from Mymensingh town was 1.024±0.02. Monem 38 found the average specific gravity of milk collected from Bogra town was 1.026±0.06. Milk fat has some influence on the specific gravity of milk. Specific gravity mostly depends on the TS content and increases when the TS content rises.


3.3.2. Acidity Percentage

Average acidity of milk samples is shown in Table 2. From the table, it is found that acidity percentage of sample A, B and C were 0.15±0.00, 0.16±0.01 and 0.16±0.01 respectively. Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference within the acidity percentage of milk collected from local markets. Acidity percentage of milk sample of Sofir Mia Bazar was higher than another Bazar. Asaduzzaman 43 reported the average percentage of acidity of milk available at Mymensingh district of Bangladesh was 0.15±0.00. In another experiment, Mahedi 42 also found the average percentage of acidity of milk at Mymensingh town of Bangladesh was 0.15±0.00. Higher percentage of acidity in milk may be due to microbial activities or enzymatic reaction 44. Besides, acidity of milk collected from the markets depends sometimes on the time required from milking up to receiving milk in the laboratory. The higher content of SNF in milk may show slightly higher percentage of acidity and lower contents shows lower acidity of milk. From the normal acidity value of milk obtained from three markets, it may be said that all the milk samples were fresh during experiment on laboratory.


3.3.3. Fat content

Fat content of sample A, B and C were 37.50±0.50, 38.66±0.29, and 38.88±0.29 respectively (Table 2). Statistically it was found that there was significant difference within the fat content of different milk samples 45. In this experiment highest value of fat was obtained from the milk of Sokal Bazar than other sources. According to the proposed standard of BSTI-(2002) the average fat content of milk is 35g/kg. Asaduzzaman 43 found that milk sample collected from BAU Dairy farm had higher fat content than that of market samples was 44.35gm/kg. Safi 34 found the average fat content of milk available at Mymensingh town of Bangladesh was 31.5gm/kg 25.


3.3.4. Protein content

Average protein content of milk samples is shown in Table 2. From the Table, it is found that protein content of sample A, B and C were 35.86±0.85, 36.93±1.50 and 37.16±1.04 respectively. Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference (p<0.01) within the protein content of different milk samples 46. The average protein content was higher in Sokal Bazar compared to other. This might be due to genotypic variation and nutritional level of cows.


3.3.5. Lactose Content

Lactose content of sample A, B and C were 42.70±0.96, 42.43±2.93, and 44.66±1.76 respectively (Table 2). Result showed that there was no significant difference within the lactose content of different milk samples 1. Milk sample of Sokal Bazar designated by C resume more lactose compared to other sources. Mahedi 42 revealed that lactose content in milk collected from different sweetmeat shops in Mymensingh town of Bangladesh was 39.13±3.2, 39.05±2.05, and 38.61±3.61 g/kg respectively 21. So, the finding of the results in this study were higher 46.


3.3.6. Ash Content

Average ash content of milk samples is shown in Table 2. From the Table it is found that ash content of sample A, B and C were 6.66±0.21, 7.23±0.93, and 6.83±0.58 respectively. The ash content of different of milk samples had no significant difference. The percentage of ash in cow’s milk collected from mid lactation was 0.75% 46. From the present study it was observed that ash content of milk that ash content of milk sample of Sofir Mia Bazar almost meets the standard value and lower value in case of Narikali Bazar and Sokal Bazar.


3.3.7. Total Solids (TS) Content

Average total solids (TS) content of milk samples were 122.73±0.91, 125.26±5.33 and 127.50±1.80 respectively. The TS content of milk collected from local markets of Jamalpur Sadar, and Sokal Bazar had higher total solids content than other sources. Total solids content of milk collected by Rahman 41 from Manikgonj Chilling Centre, Tangail Chilling Centre, Takerhat Pasteurization Plant and Bagliabari. Dairy Plant was 11.49, 10.78, 10.72 and 12.91 %, respectively.


3.3.8. SNF Content

SNF content of sample A, B and C was 85.23±2.33, 86.60±5.05 and 86.66±1.76 respectively (Table 2). The SNF content of milk samples had no significant difference. Islam et al. 20 also reported lower SNF contents in local market milk than that of the milk from BAU Dairy Farm, Mymensingh. Hossain (1968) experimented that the average solids-not-fat percentage of milk of local nondescript cows was 8.91 ± 0.256%. Rahman 41 reported that the average SNF content of mixed milk collected from different primary co-operative society under Baghabari Dairy Plant was 7.69%. Mahedi 42 found the average SNF percentage of raw milk of Mymensingh town was 7.7

3.4. Microbiological Test
3.4.1. Total Viable Bacterial Count

The average values of total viable count of sample A, B, C were 8.3±1.25×105, 10.0±1.0×105, 7.6±0.76×105. Total viable bacteria count per ml of raw milk collected from local had no significant difference. Average total viable counts/ml for “Grade A” raw milk is not exceeding 200000 for milk to be pasteurized. From this study, it was found that the raw milk collected from local markets were not “Grade A” category in term of total viable bacterial count. In this experiment, comparatively higher viable bacterial count in B may be due to poor hygienic milking and utensils 46. On the other hand, total viable count collected form C was slightly lower that might be due to maintaining proper hygienic condition. High bacterial density of above mentioned three local markets milk might be due to unhygienic milking and handling. Monem 38 showed that the total viable bacterial count of Bogra town range from 10×105 to 19×105. So, the finding of the results in this study were lower.


3.4.2. Coliform Count

The average values of coliform counts of sample A, B and C were 63.33±15.28, 70.00±20.00 and 60.00±10.00 CFU/ml respectively. The coliform counts/ml of different milk samples had no significant difference and the coliform counts/ml of milk samples were slightly higher. This may be due to poor hygienic milking, improper cleaning of dairy utensils and unhygienic handling during marketing of raw milk. Some toxin producing strains such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 can cause severe hemorrhagic diarrhea in humans and have been occasionally isolated from BTM 46. Coliform Count (CC) is a nonregulated test that has been used historically to assess milk production practices such as milk refrigeration, milking machine sanitation, and premilking udder hygiene. Coliform count is a practical indicator of milking hygiene because it is easy and inexpensive to perform, and it is often correlated with the population of other bacteria in BTM 47. Rashedul 31 reported that coliform count of raw milk samples of Fulbaria Upazila in Mymensingh District ranges from 70 to 120.

4. Conclusion

The research was aimed to determine the adulteration and evaluate the quality (physical, chemical and microbiological) of raw milk samples collected from three selected markets of Jamalpur Sadar of Bangladesh. Total 27 milk samples were collected from three markets taking 9 samples from Narikali Bazar, 9 samples from Sofir Mia Bazar, and 9 samples from Sokal Bazar. This study revealed from chemical parameters that milk samples of Narikali, Sofir Mia and Sokal Bazar had mean acidity (0.15±0.00, 0.16±0.01, 0.16±0.01); fat (37.50±0.50, 38.66±0.29, 38.83±0.29 g/kg); protein (35.86±0.85, 36.93±1.50, 37.16±1.04 g/kg); lactose (42.70±0.96, 42.23±2.93, 44.66±1.76 g/kg); ash (6.66±0.21, 7.23±0.93, 6.83±0.58 g/kg); TS (122.73±0.91, 125.26±5.33, 127.50±1.80 g/kg); SNF (85.23±2.33, 86.60±5.05, 86.66±1.76 g/kg); specific gravity 1.028±0.00, 1.027±0.00 and 1.027±0.00 respectively. It further found that the milk samples of local markets showed significant differences in case of fat content and there were no significant differences in case of other parameters among three markets. However, in adulteration test, all of the test results were negative. There was no adulteration in obtaining milk sample, though there was fluctuation in parameters (fat, protein, ash, lactose) regarding the standard value. It was visualized after inspection that all the market samples were yellowish white in color, normal in taste and flavor and free flowing fluid in case of texture. The specific gravity of all raw milk samples was more or less similar. From the overall experiment, it can be concluded that Milk collected from Sokal Bazar milk was superior in case of Fat, Protein and Lactose content than any other markets of collected milk sample. Yet, for the production of "better quality milk" it is necessary to train farmers about the hygienic aspects of milk production and marketing. Person should be honest who is involved in milk marketing as well as Dairy industry for ensuring safe consumption of milk to the consumers.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.

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[24]  Haasnoot, W., Smits, N. G. E., Kemmers, V. A. E. M., Bremer, M. G. E. (2004). Fast biosensor immunoassays in milk of ewes and goats. Journal of Dairy Science, 71, 322-329.
In article      
 
[25]  Islam, A., Ahmed, S., & Masum, A. K. M. (2016). Quality evaluation of raw milk collected from local markets at Madhupur upazila of Tangail district. Fundamental and Applied Agriculture, 1(2), 70-74.
In article      
 
[26]  Carvalho, B. M. A. D., Carvalho, L. M. D., Coimbra, J. S. D. R., Minim, L. A., Barcellos, E. D. S., Júnior, W. F. D. S., … Carvalho, G. G. P. D. (2015). Rapid detection of whey in milk powder samples by spectrophotometric and multivariate calibration. Food Chemistry, 174, 1-7.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[27]  Clunie, H. W. M., Harry, H. (1951). Milk: Production and Control. Third Edition, H.K. Lewis and Co. Ltd. pp.122-412.
In article      View Article
 
[28]  Davidson, P. M., Roth, L. A., & Gambrel‐Lenarz J. B. S. A. (2012). Tech. Comm. In Chapter 7 Coliform and Other Indicator Bacteria, Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products. pp. 187-226, 17th ed. HM Wehr, JF Frank, edited: American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
In article      
 
[29]  Du, L., Lu, W., Cai, Z., Bao, L., Hartmann, C., Gao, B., & Yu, L. (2018). Rapid detection of milk adulteration using intact protein flow injection mass spectrometric fingerprints combined with chemometrics. Food Chemistry, 240(May 2017), 573-578.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[30]  Akhirul, M. (2012). Detection of adulteration of raw milk collected from Muktagacha upazila of Mymensingh district. MS Thesis, Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
In article      
 
[31]  Rashedul, M. D. (2012). Study on the quality evaluation and detection of adulteration of raw milk at Fulbaria upazila of Mymensingh district. MS Thesis, Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
In article      
 
[32]  Lateef, M., Faraz, A., Mustafa, M. I., Akthar, P., & Bashir, M. K. (2009). Detection of adulterants and chemical composition of milk supplied to canteens of various hospitals in Faisalabad city. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 9, 139-142.
In article      
 
[33]  Islam, A., Ahmed, S., & Masum, A. K. M. (2016). Quality evaluation of raw milk collected from local markets at Madhupur upazila of Tangail district. Fundamental and Applied Agriculture, 1(2), 70-74.
In article      
 
[34]  Safi, U. (2012). Study on the quality evaluation and detection of adulteration of raw milk at Mymensingh sadar upazila in Mymensingh. MS Thesis, Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
In article      
 
[35]  Pal, P. K., Battacharya, A. M., Das, M. K., Bandyopadhyay, T. S. (1989). Rapid detection of added sugar in milk. The Indian Journal of Dairy Science, 32(2), 405-408.
In article      
 
[36]  Zia, U. (2007). Improved market access and smallholder dairy farmer participation for sustainable dairy development. Consultancy Report CFC/FIGMDP/16FT. Lessons Learned Study. Islamabad, Pakistan.
In article      View Article
 
[37]  Gondim, C. de S., Junqueira, R. G., Souza, S. V. C. de, Ruisánchez, I., & Callao, M. P. (2017). Detection of several common adulterants in raw milk by MID-infrared spectroscopy and one-class and multi-class multivariate strategies. Food Chemistry, 230, 68-75.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[38]  Monem, P. K. (2012). Quality of raw milk available at different markets of Bogra town. M.S Thesis, Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
In article      
 
[39]  Bari, A. K. M. (2001). Comparative study of platform tests on milk in the local markets and Bangladesh Agricultural University dairy farm. MS Thesis, Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
In article      
 
[40]  Salam, A. M. (1993). Studies on the physical, chemical and microbiological qualities of milk produced in Baghaban Milk shed Area. MS Thesis, Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
In article      
 
[41]  Rahman, A. K. M. (1995). A study on the physical and chemical qualities of milk collected from different plant of Bangladesh milk producers’ Co-operative Union Ltd. (Milk Vita). M.S. Thesis, Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
In article      
 
[42]  Mahedi, H. (2012). Quality of raw milk available at different markets of Mymensingh town. MS Thesis, Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
In article      
 
[43]  Asaduzzaman (2009). Detection of adulteration of milk collected from Bangladesh Agricultural University Dairy farm, Mymensingh and local markets, MS Thesis, Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
In article      
 
[44]  Liu, J., Ren, J., Liu, Z. M., & Guo, B. H. (2015). A new comprehensive index for discriminating adulteration in bovine raw milk. Food Chemistry, 172, 251-256.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[45]  Lu, W., Liu, J., Gao, B., Lv, X., & Yu, L. (2017). Technical note: Nontargeted detection of adulterated plant proteins in raw milk by UPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric proteomics combined with chemometrics. Journal of Dairy Science, 100(9), 6980-6986.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[46]  Motta, T. M. C., Hoff, R. B., Barreto, F., Andrade, R. B. S., Lorenzini, D. M., Meneghini, L. Z., & Pizzolato, T. M. (2014). Detection and confirmation of milk adulteration with cheese whey using proteomic-like sample preparation and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Talanta, 120, 498-505.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[47]  Pantoja, J. C. F., Reinemann, D. J., Ruegg, P. L. (2009). Associations among milk quality indicators in raw bulk milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 92, 4978-4987.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Md. Anwarul Islam, Md. Touhiduzzaman Sarker, Adhita Sri Prabakusuma, Md. Imrul Hasan Russel and Md. Shahidul Islam

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Normal Style
Md. Anwarul Islam, Md. Touhiduzzaman Sarker, Adhita Sri Prabakusuma, Md. Imrul Hasan Russel, Md. Shahidul Islam. Detection of Adulteration and Quality Evaluation of Raw Milk Collected from Local Markets in Bangladesh. Journal of Applied Agricultural Economics and Policy Analysis. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2018, pp 1-7. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jaaepa/1/1/1
MLA Style
Islam, Md. Anwarul, et al. "Detection of Adulteration and Quality Evaluation of Raw Milk Collected from Local Markets in Bangladesh." Journal of Applied Agricultural Economics and Policy Analysis 1.1 (2018): 1-7.
APA Style
Islam, M. A. , Sarker, M. T. , Prabakusuma, A. S. , Russel, M. I. H. , & Islam, M. S. (2018). Detection of Adulteration and Quality Evaluation of Raw Milk Collected from Local Markets in Bangladesh. Journal of Applied Agricultural Economics and Policy Analysis, 1(1), 1-7.
Chicago Style
Islam, Md. Anwarul, Md. Touhiduzzaman Sarker, Adhita Sri Prabakusuma, Md. Imrul Hasan Russel, and Md. Shahidul Islam. "Detection of Adulteration and Quality Evaluation of Raw Milk Collected from Local Markets in Bangladesh." Journal of Applied Agricultural Economics and Policy Analysis 1, no. 1 (2018): 1-7.
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[15]  Abdelfatah, E. N., El-Araby, I. E., & Mohamed, A. A. (2015). Identification of Species Adulteration in Raw Milk and Butter Using Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. System, 15(3), 332-338.
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[18]  Brandao, M. P., Neto, M. G., Anjos, V. D. C. D., & Bell, M. J. V. (2017). Detection of adulteration of goat milk powder with bovine milk powder by front-face and time resolved fluorescence. Food Control, 81, 168-172.
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[19]  Khan, M., Zinnah, M., Siddique, M., Rashid, M., Islam, M., & Choudhury, K. (2008). Physical and microbial qualities of raw milk collected from Bangladesh Agricultural University dairy farm and the surrounding villages. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 6(2), 217-221.
In article      
 
[20]  Islam, M. N., Hussain, S. M. I., Mannan, A. K. M. (1984). Studies on the physical parameters and chemical qualities on market milk in Mymensingh town (Bangladesh). Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science, 13 (1&2) 52-55.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Coitinho, T. B., Cassoli, L. D., Cerqueira, P. H. R., da Silva, H. K., Coitinho, J. B., & Machado, P. F. (2017). Adulteration identification in raw milk using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 54(8), 2394-2402.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[22]  Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, M., Ghatreh-Samani, N., Naderi-Boldaji, M., Forina, M., & Bonyadian, M. (2017). Development of two dielectric sensors coupled with computational techniques for detecting milk adulteration. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 140, 266-278.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Farrell, D. (2003). Status of poultry in global food products with special emphasis on the Asian Pacific Region. pp. 14-18.
In article      
 
[24]  Haasnoot, W., Smits, N. G. E., Kemmers, V. A. E. M., Bremer, M. G. E. (2004). Fast biosensor immunoassays in milk of ewes and goats. Journal of Dairy Science, 71, 322-329.
In article      
 
[25]  Islam, A., Ahmed, S., & Masum, A. K. M. (2016). Quality evaluation of raw milk collected from local markets at Madhupur upazila of Tangail district. Fundamental and Applied Agriculture, 1(2), 70-74.
In article      
 
[26]  Carvalho, B. M. A. D., Carvalho, L. M. D., Coimbra, J. S. D. R., Minim, L. A., Barcellos, E. D. S., Júnior, W. F. D. S., … Carvalho, G. G. P. D. (2015). Rapid detection of whey in milk powder samples by spectrophotometric and multivariate calibration. Food Chemistry, 174, 1-7.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[27]  Clunie, H. W. M., Harry, H. (1951). Milk: Production and Control. Third Edition, H.K. Lewis and Co. Ltd. pp.122-412.
In article      View Article
 
[28]  Davidson, P. M., Roth, L. A., & Gambrel‐Lenarz J. B. S. A. (2012). Tech. Comm. In Chapter 7 Coliform and Other Indicator Bacteria, Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products. pp. 187-226, 17th ed. HM Wehr, JF Frank, edited: American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
In article      
 
[29]  Du, L., Lu, W., Cai, Z., Bao, L., Hartmann, C., Gao, B., & Yu, L. (2018). Rapid detection of milk adulteration using intact protein flow injection mass spectrometric fingerprints combined with chemometrics. Food Chemistry, 240(May 2017), 573-578.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[30]  Akhirul, M. (2012). Detection of adulteration of raw milk collected from Muktagacha upazila of Mymensingh district. MS Thesis, Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
In article      
 
[31]  Rashedul, M. D. (2012). Study on the quality evaluation and detection of adulteration of raw milk at Fulbaria upazila of Mymensingh district. MS Thesis, Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
In article      
 
[32]  Lateef, M., Faraz, A., Mustafa, M. I., Akthar, P., & Bashir, M. K. (2009). Detection of adulterants and chemical composition of milk supplied to canteens of various hospitals in Faisalabad city. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 9, 139-142.
In article      
 
[33]  Islam, A., Ahmed, S., & Masum, A. K. M. (2016). Quality evaluation of raw milk collected from local markets at Madhupur upazila of Tangail district. Fundamental and Applied Agriculture, 1(2), 70-74.
In article      
 
[34]  Safi, U. (2012). Study on the quality evaluation and detection of adulteration of raw milk at Mymensingh sadar upazila in Mymensingh. MS Thesis, Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
In article      
 
[35]  Pal, P. K., Battacharya, A. M., Das, M. K., Bandyopadhyay, T. S. (1989). Rapid detection of added sugar in milk. The Indian Journal of Dairy Science, 32(2), 405-408.
In article      
 
[36]  Zia, U. (2007). Improved market access and smallholder dairy farmer participation for sustainable dairy development. Consultancy Report CFC/FIGMDP/16FT. Lessons Learned Study. Islamabad, Pakistan.
In article      View Article
 
[37]  Gondim, C. de S., Junqueira, R. G., Souza, S. V. C. de, Ruisánchez, I., & Callao, M. P. (2017). Detection of several common adulterants in raw milk by MID-infrared spectroscopy and one-class and multi-class multivariate strategies. Food Chemistry, 230, 68-75.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[38]  Monem, P. K. (2012). Quality of raw milk available at different markets of Bogra town. M.S Thesis, Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
In article      
 
[39]  Bari, A. K. M. (2001). Comparative study of platform tests on milk in the local markets and Bangladesh Agricultural University dairy farm. MS Thesis, Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
In article      
 
[40]  Salam, A. M. (1993). Studies on the physical, chemical and microbiological qualities of milk produced in Baghaban Milk shed Area. MS Thesis, Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
In article      
 
[41]  Rahman, A. K. M. (1995). A study on the physical and chemical qualities of milk collected from different plant of Bangladesh milk producers’ Co-operative Union Ltd. (Milk Vita). M.S. Thesis, Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
In article      
 
[42]  Mahedi, H. (2012). Quality of raw milk available at different markets of Mymensingh town. MS Thesis, Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
In article      
 
[43]  Asaduzzaman (2009). Detection of adulteration of milk collected from Bangladesh Agricultural University Dairy farm, Mymensingh and local markets, MS Thesis, Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
In article      
 
[44]  Liu, J., Ren, J., Liu, Z. M., & Guo, B. H. (2015). A new comprehensive index for discriminating adulteration in bovine raw milk. Food Chemistry, 172, 251-256.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[45]  Lu, W., Liu, J., Gao, B., Lv, X., & Yu, L. (2017). Technical note: Nontargeted detection of adulterated plant proteins in raw milk by UPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric proteomics combined with chemometrics. Journal of Dairy Science, 100(9), 6980-6986.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[46]  Motta, T. M. C., Hoff, R. B., Barreto, F., Andrade, R. B. S., Lorenzini, D. M., Meneghini, L. Z., & Pizzolato, T. M. (2014). Detection and confirmation of milk adulteration with cheese whey using proteomic-like sample preparation and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Talanta, 120, 498-505.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[47]  Pantoja, J. C. F., Reinemann, D. J., Ruegg, P. L. (2009). Associations among milk quality indicators in raw bulk milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 92, 4978-4987.
In article      View Article  PubMed