Last 50 Years of Hydro Energy-a Bibliographic Survey

Atul Rai, Mohit Jain, Anuradha Tomar

  Open Access OPEN ACCESS  Peer Reviewed PEER-REVIEWED

Last 50 Years of Hydro Energy-a Bibliographic Survey

Atul Rai1, Mohit Jain1, Anuradha Tomar1,

1Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Northern India Engineering College, New Delhi, India

Abstract

A study has been done for past 50 years in the field of hydroelectric power generation. The various features of a hydroelectric plant have been covered. The paper has been divided into various categories like control, maintenance, program based application, hydroelectric power projects and pumped storage plants. The references have also been provided as a future reference for the analysis.

Cite this article:

  • Rai, Atul, Mohit Jain, and Anuradha Tomar. "Last 50 Years of Hydro Energy-a Bibliographic Survey." International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System 2.1 (2014): 7-13.
  • Rai, A. , Jain, M. , & Tomar, A. (2014). Last 50 Years of Hydro Energy-a Bibliographic Survey. International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System, 2(1), 7-13.
  • Rai, Atul, Mohit Jain, and Anuradha Tomar. "Last 50 Years of Hydro Energy-a Bibliographic Survey." International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System 2, no. 1 (2014): 7-13.

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1. Introduction

Hydro power is the most widely used form of renewable energy which is clean and reliable with very good efficiency. It cannot be depleted over time and can be replenished consistently. The energy in the form of kinetic energy is used to turn the water wheels and is converted into mechanical energy that turns the turbines in rotation and the energy is converted into electrical energy by the generator and finally conveyed through the transmission lines. The first section is the pumped storage which is also used for generation by storing water’s potential energy. It is the cheapest way to generate electricity. Various generating methods are dams, pumped storage, run of the river, tide and underground water. The study has included various control and maintenance techniques, program based applications which are the computer simulations and algorithms. Some hydropower projects including the three Gorges dam, Murray hydroelectric plant and Ertan hydro plant is described.

2. Pumped Storage

A.M. Cochran, D.E. Isles and I.T. Pope [1], pumped storage is mostly used and is one of the best methods of developing electrical energy. A 3-stage method is adopted to determine a practical limit to the proportion of pumped storage plant so that better use of other energy producing plant can be made. The first stage is feasibility assessment. The other two stages involved detailed examination. The method is also applicable for small hydraulic plant and is one of the best ways of determining the characteristics of future pumped storage plants. This method is also very flexible.

Z. Gajic, J. Menezes, D. Trisic and M. Citakovic [2], Described the design of an integrated numerical protection scheme for two pump storage generator or motor transformer units. One unit can be integrated within a single numerical multifunctional IED for complete protection scheme regardless of the application complexity. Section includes literature about the pumped storage hydroelectric power plants.

3. Maintenance

Yitao Chen and Zhaohui Li [3], showed that in order to reduce the maintenance cost and the equipment downtime, the maintenance strategy for hydro power plants have to be progressively changed from time-based maintenance (TBM) to condition-based maintenance (CBM). A 3D dynamic modelling method consisting of digitized modelling (DM) method for hydroelectric generating unit (HGU) is discussed and the distributed physical graphic-net modelling method to satisfy the demands of CBM in this paper is also discussed. It gives an introduction to the aim of digitized modelling method, technologies, executive steps and the foundations. According to the hydro turbine governing system, the methods and its executive steps of DM method are particularly described with an application example of wobble gate main servomotor. With the introduction of the digitized modelling method in hydropower plant, it has been seen that this method in the maintenance field is a great advancement in course of device operation, maintenance and management.

I Kuzle, H Pandzic and S Tesnjak [4], described that the maintenance of the generating facilities is necessary for economical and for reliable operation of the power system. Economic aspect which is responsible for revenue and technical aspect, which provides desirable level of reliability of the power system, has to be confronted and the cheapest solution which complies with the technical limitations has to be obtained. The paper discussed the mathematical programming method called Benders decomposition. After the brief description, an application of the Benders decomposition on the three Croatian hydroelectric power plants in a row on the River Drava is carried out.

Fu Chuang, Ye Lu-Qing, Cheng Yuan-Chu, Liu Yong-Qian and Iung Benoi [5], showed that for realization of integration control, maintenance and technical management of a production process automation system, Multi-Agent System (MAS) concept and technology is applied in order to analyze automation system components. A MAS-based model is also proposed for an Intelligent Control-Maintenance-Management System (ICMMS). According to the requests of ICMMS, the operational mechanism and functions of all the member agents of this model is determined based on the characteristics and basic structure of the CMMA. This proposed model was applied to an ICMMS platform for a hydroelectric Generating Unit.

F Munteanu and C Nemes [6], three different maintenance strategies namely first come-first served (FCFS), relative priority (RP) and total priority (TP) are presented to practical study from theoretical approach. The results showed how these strategies were useful in maintenance in reliability calculations and their influence on MTTF, system reliability, steady state time interval reliability and steady state point availability.

4. Program Based Application

Huang Shyh-Jier [7], showed that an application of genetic based fuzzy systems to hydroelectric generation scheduling is presented and discussed. In this method, with respect to objectives and constraints the fuzzy logic is implemented. A genetic algorithm was included to further enhance the process of tuning membership functions. By this way, membership mappings for those important parameters can be optimally adjusted. It resulted in the improvement in computational performance. Through the utility data, this method was tested on Taiwan Power System (Taipower). Test results have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach for the applications.

Zhang, Yong-Chuan and D.T. Chiang [8], they showed the concept of convex dynamic programming. For the dynamic programming model of the reservoir dispatch, sufficient condition of convexity was determined. An algorithm was proposed based on the convexity property and was implemented on the Zhexi Hydropower station in China. It resulted in increase of 5.6 % in the annual power output of the Zhexi Hydropower station in China. The result of convex dynamic programming was extended to two other dynamic programming models of hydroelectric power station operation.

Liu Haiying and Dai Luping [9], showed the fault diagnosis in the hydroelectric generation a new method using wavelet packet transform was presented. The analysis provided a favorable means of high frequency signals that may exist in the fault signal detection and identification. Computer simulation showed that this method was very effective for hydro-generator unit vibration fault diagnosis.

R.H. Liang and Y.Y. Hsu [10], Showed that good controlling performance in control cannot be achieved by the conventional controllers as the hydroelectric generation is difficult and non-linear. An advanced soft computing technique based on fuzzy control, neural network and genetic algorithm was used in the control of hydroelectric generating unit system of hydropower plant. Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the parameters, fuzzy reasoning system is used as controller and the rules of fuzzy controller is used in the design of controller or real time control process. Dynamic model of control system based on RBF neural networks was designed to appraise the controlling performance of fuzzy controller. The genetic algorithm increases optimizing speed and makes fuzzy controller acquire knowledge effectively. The algorithm was adopted based on general genetic algorithm and character of control system. Simulation results showed that the designed soft computing optimization control system can well control hydroelectric generating unit and its control performance is superior to conventional controller.

5. Control Methods

Zhang Jian-Ming and Wang Shu-Qing [14], showed a new neuron model-free control method for hydroelectric generating units. Intrinsic characteristics of generating unit and the problem with the governing control are considered. The neuron model free control method with PID turning gain eliminates the influences of time-varying parameters and the disturbances on control behaviour of the system. The results showed that the new control system has good real time control performance and strong learning ability. The transient and robust performances are improved.

Nanhua Luo and Xiaoju Yang [15], showed the development of advanced control techniques for hydroelectric unit and its application in the hydroelectric power plant. With the recent development in automatic generation control, this paper emphasizes in the application of advanced control like the intelligent control in the hydroelectric unit control. They have also proposed the development and direction of control techniques for the hydroelectric units. C. Bhurtun and I Jameerbacus [16], showed the performance of hydroelectric plant can deteriorate due to gate limitation caused by large overshoot and settling time. The problem of saturation in an isolated hydroelectric generating unit is rectified by using a fuzzy controller. A fuzzy controller is used to improve the performance of the system and effectiveness is obtained. A linear stable model is developed in order to study the frequency control problem and the load and the performance of the system is studied when the governor controlled gate is subjected to saturation. A fuzzy controller is incorporated in order to improve the performance of the system and effectiveness obtained is shown.

6. Hydro Electric Power Projects

Gongzhi Liu, Zhihe Li, A Fuerst and D Schafer [11], The Three Gorges hydropower project is compared to a traditional structure on the bases of oblique element design. J.H. Jones [12], The Murray hydroelectric project is a two unit project with a total rated capacity of 39 MW located on the Arkansas River is described. The emphasis is given on projects electrical features. The two generating units are of open pit design with horizontal double regulated turbines. Turbines full load speed is 46 RPM. The generators power factor is 0.9 which is rated at 22.77 MW and rated at a voltage of 6.9 kV. The paper discusses plants mechanical hydraulic governor, 115 kV transmission line, black start capability, its mechanical systems and the plant, unit and offsite control systems and its electrical system.

Jie Fang Yong and Xue Yusheng [13], the Ertan Hydroelectric Power Project has a total capacity of 3300 MW. An on line pre decision system (OPS-1) was developed and was tested for emergency control. OPS-1 follows the measured operating conditions and refreshes the look-up decision table based on online stability analysis and pre decision making. OPS-1 integrates the EEAC technique for stability analysis, integer programming for transient stability control, an object oriented processing system for contingency oriented parallel computation into distributed devices for emergency control. It is adaptive to change in operating condition and structure evolution of the power system and present emergency control system. The control system structure, decision searching algorithm and laboratory test results are presented in this paper.

7. Conclusion

This paper had tried to sketch a picture of research and developments going on the area of hydro electric power. Various fields like pumped storage, maintenance, control methods, program based applications and hydro related projects with reference to hydro power are considered. Presented paper is based on many research articles papers, published from in last 50 years. The citation listed in the bibliography provides a representative sample of current engineering thinking.

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