International Journal of Physics
Volume 9, 2021 - Issue 3
Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ijp

ISSN(Print): 2333-4568
ISSN(Online): 2333-4576

Article Versions

Export Article

Cite this article

- Normal Style
- MLA Style
- APA Style
- Chicago Style

Research Article

Open Access Peer-reviewed

Jarl-Thure Eriksson^{ }

Received April 02, 2021; Revised May 03, 2021; Accepted May 12, 2021

The standard ΛCDM model has successfully depicted most of the astronomical observations. However, the model faces several question marks such as, what was the cause of the Big Bang singularity, what is the physics behind dark matter? The origin of dark energy is still unclear. The present theory, CBU, standing for the Continuously Breeding Universe, has been developed along with known principles of physics. The theory incorporates important ideas from the past. The universe is a complex emerging system, which starts from the single fluctuation of a positron-electron pair. Expansion is driven by the emersion of new pairs. The gravitational parameter G is inversely proportional to the Einsteinian curvature radius r. The Planck length and Planck time *t*_{P} are dependent of the curvature and accordingly by the size of the universe. It is shown that the solution to the Schrödinger equation of the initial positron-electron fluctuation includes an exponential function parameter equal to the Planck length of the initial event. The existence of a wave function provides a link between quantum mechanics and the theory of general relativity. The fast change of momentum increases the Heisenberg uncertainty window thereby enhancing the positron-electron pair production, especially strong in the early universe. When these findings are introduced in the energy-momentum tensor of Einstein’s Field Equation, the equation acquires a simple configuration without G and a cosmological constant. The universe is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum world.

The renowned British physicist Paul A. M. Dirac was interviewed in an early 1970’s CBC radio series entitled Physics and Beyond. Referring to his work on astrophysics, Dirac said: “Now, I want to have G varying, and I also want to have a continuous creation. It’s possible to combine those two ideas and I’ve worked out some equations on possible models of the universe incorporating them,” ^{ 1}. These ideas remained on a general level in an article published in 1974, ^{ 2}. A year earlier E. P. Tryon had suggested that the universe was initiated by a positron-electron quantum fluctuation, ^{ 3}.

In 1994 Alan Guth, the man behind the inflation theory, suggested that the total energy of the universe is zero. Matter and radiation provide the positive part, while the potential energy of gravity forms the negative part, ^{ 4}.

The present article exposes a comprehensive study of a scenario based on these presumptions. Quantum mechanics will have a key position in the explanation of the universe expansion. The gravitational force is a macroworld phenomenon, a force created by a disturbance in the gradient of a field, in this case the curvature of space. Similarly, macroscopic electro-magnetic forces obey Maxwell’s laws and not the flow of photons.

The energy-momentum tensor of the Einstein Field Equation will be formulated in the original form ^{ 5}. The momentum change, expansion pressure and G (gravitational parameter) must be included in the T-tensor density and pressure terms in order to find the correct formulation.

The basis of the present article was outlined in four previous papers, ^{ 6, 7, 8, 9}. The *CBU**- theory (Continuously** Breeding Universe) *was developed in the first one along with a Coriolis-explanation of galaxy dynamics. In the following papers momentum change was suggested as an alternative to the cosmological constant, the redshift time scaling was revised due to the larger G in past times. A solution to the Schrödinger equation of the initial event was shown to have a crucial impact on the excitation of real positron-electron pairs from the virtual ground state foam.

According to the CBU theory the energy is confined to matter and radiation, neither dark energy nor dark matter is required. However, a certain part of the quantum foam, from which real matter emerges, may be considered as virtual dark energy, which in an accumulated form corresponds to the dark energy of the CDM theory.

In principle the universe can be considered as a black hole, because light is confined to the space of the universe, there is no space on the outside. Bernard McBryan has studied black holes of different modes, ^{ 10}. He states that one could live in a low-density black hole without knowing it. According to his classification our universe could be a “classical finite height black hole”, wherein the photon sphere radius is half the Schwarzschild radius r_{s}. We make this a fundamental law by utilizing the Schwarzschild photon horizon equation

(1) |

where r_{u} is the outer radius and M_{u} the mass of the universe (actually the total energy W_{u} divided by c^{2}), G is the gravitational parameter and c the velocity of light. Equation (1) has occurred in several significant proposals, most important those by Brans and Dicke, ^{ 11}, Sciama, ^{ 12}, and Dirac, ^{ 2}. A simple formula also hints in the same direction: Imagine all mass concentrated to the centre, how far do we have to go in order to create a new mass m, which equals the gravitational potential energy? Answer: mc^{2} = GM_{u}m/r_{u}, i.e. eq. (1).

However, the best argument in favour of eq. (1) is the Schwarzschild photon sphere radius.

It has always been a problem to visualize the 4D space-time into 3D. In the paper on the cosmological constant of 1917, ^{ 13}, Einstein writes “the points of this hyper-surface form a three-dimensional continuum, a spherical space of curvature R”. He also defines a constant which scales the energy-momentum tensor As will be shown later this constant is directly connected to a 3D sphere. Figure 1. is a visualization of the 3D universe, the radius r_{u} is the virtual outer radius, even if there is no outer border as the space turns into itself. Outside the universe there is no space, no vacuum.

However, it is useful to think of the universe as a sphere, the volume and outer area of which are

(2) |

(3) |

Here r = r_{u}/2 is the radius of the observable universe. r = *a*r_{0} is the most important variable of this study. *a* is the scale factor, r_{0} the present r.

Based on eq. (1) we state as our **principal postulate** the following equation

(4) |

where W_{u} = M_{u}c^{2}, the total real energy (matter and radiation) of the universe.

At the initial moment, when the first positron-electron pair appears, we have

(5) |

where G_{i} is the initial gravitational parameter, r_{i} the radius and m_{e} (W_{e}/c^{2}) the electron rest mass. The energy equation is obtained by assuming a πr_{i} separation between the particles

(6) |

here e is the electron charge and ε_{0} is the vacuum permittivity. The (curvature, see section 7.3.) radius of the initial universe is

(7) |

As we shall see later, r_{i} is a fundamental quantity in the physics of the universe.

The following relation can be confirmed, cf. ^{ 9},

(8) |

As a result, the present value of the radius of the observable universe can be determined

(9) |

where G_{0} = 6,6743015·10^{-11 }Nm^{2}/kg^{2}, Newton’s gravitational constant. r_{0} is close to the official estimate of 4,40·10^{26} m.

When G_{0} from eq. (9) is substituted into eq. (4) we obtain the energy of the universe

(10) |

These numbers are consistent with the official baryonic content (here 8 times those of the observable universe). Eq. (10) is valid for any arbitrary value of r, i.e. the energy is proportional to r^{2}. The author has chosen the following definition

(11) |

where b is a universal energy “pressure” constant (J/m^{2}). From the initial event we have

(12) |

In summary we write down some relations that are of importance in the rest of the study. The gravitational parameter is

(13) |

The density of matter (m) and radiation (γ) is

(14) |

In the original General Relativity text, ^{ 5}, Einstein introduced what he called the Eulerian hydrodynamic pressure P_{E}, which is obtained from dW_{u} = -P_{E}dV_{u}. We have

(15) |

The minus-sign indicates that the pressure drives expansion (capital letter P for pressure while p symbolizes momentum).

The Hubble parameter h_{H} (1/s) reflects the velocity of expansion. For a constant rh_{H} the time derivative is zero. It was shown, cf. Perlmutter, ^{ 14}, that this is not the case. Starting from the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker kinetic energy equation a rigorous derivation of the acceleration is presented in ref. ^{ 7}. Here we use the result as follows:

Ansatz

(16) |

where B equals (ß – 1) in ref. ^{ 7}. In section 6 it is shown that B is not an arbitrarily chosen constant, but a calculable factor connecting expansion to the positron-electron inflow.

The acceleration symbol g was chosen to avoid a mix-up with the scale factor *a*. The acceleration parameter B is approximately a constant, a fraction of 1.

Equation (16) is differentiated with respect to

(17) |

By integration we obtain

(18) |

where *a*_{i} = r_{i}/r_{0}.

*The incoming new matter causes a continuous change in the momentum p.* As a result, there is an additional pressure P_{M} enhancing the expansion. The momentum force is

(19) |

We incorporate ¼ into eq. (18) and write L = ln(r/r_{i}) + ¼. This does not change the acceleration, because integration excludes the constant.

The Hubble parameter is now obtained from

(20) |

The pressure provided by the increasing momentum is

(21) |

The acceleration parameter B is still unknown, the determination requires a deeper investigation of the quantum mechanics of the positron-electron generation.

This section offers a bridge between quantum mechanics and gravity and is crucial for the understanding of the emergence of the universe.

The time-independent Schrödinger equation is

(22) |

where is the quantum-mechanical wave function, E_{i} is the ground state energy, U_{i}_{ }= 4πbr_{i}^{2} is the potential energy. The spherically symmetric form of eq. (22) is

(23) |

where r is the curvature radius and b the energy constant of eq. (12).

Let

(24) |

(25) |

The Schrödinger equation takes the form

(26) |

This Sturm-Liouville type differential equation has the solution

(27) |

where H_{n}_{ }is the Hermite polynomial function and 1F1_{(}_{a;b;x}_{)} is the Kummer confluent hypergeometric function. c_{1} and c_{2}_{ }are constants of integration.

We have a special interest in the constant *a*_{1}

(28) |

By substituting b from eq. (12) we have

(29) |

And by substituting G_{i}_{ }from eq. (5) we obtain

(30) |

By definition is the Planck length of the virgin universe. In the CBU theory the Planck length is dependent on the radius r – and time. The numerical value is _{ }**= 1,435164·10**^{-14 }**m**, that is 26,907 times the initial radius r_{i}.

This is an important result, which proves that the postulate and related presumptions of the CBU theory are credible.

In order to show the link between the initiation of the universe and the quantum fluctuation we establish the ratio

(31) |

where r_{B} is the Bohr radius of the hydrogen atom. The last term equals the fine structure constant we have

(32) |

The equation is an evidence of the connection between quantum mechanics and gravity. It emphasizes the significance of the curvature radius r_{i} of the virgin universe.

Substituting G from eq (13) into eq. (30) we obtain a general expression for the Planck length

(33) |

As a control the present value of the Planck length as calculated according to eq. (33) using r_{0} = 4,205508·10^{26} m results in 1,616255·10^{-35}, which is the official value as expected.

In analogy with the hydrogen atom the ground state energy E_{i} is postulated to be of the form

(34) |

The general expression of the instantaneous ground state energy takes the form

(35) |

It is plausible to assume that E_{GSr} represents the instantaneous value of the quantum foam, the existence of which was first suggested by John Archibald Wheeler,^{ }^{ 15}, i.e. the virtual vacuum energy.

The Planck energy W_{P} has an important bearing on the inflow of new matter. By definition

(36) |

At the initial moment a positron and an electron are exited, from eq. (36) one deduces that the particles originate from

(37) |

The ratio ** = 13,453499** has a significant role in the CBU theory, cf. section 6.

The general expression for W_{P}(r) = W_{Pr} is

(38) |

The present value is 1,9560815·10-9 J, which is in full compliance with the official value.

A comparison of eq. (38) with eq. (35) shows that

(39) |

W_{Pr} is a constant fraction of the ground state energy.

A generalized form of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle has an important impact on the production of new e^{+}-e^{-} pairs. Because of the dynamic change of the momentum the uncertainty window is much wider than that provided by the classical Heisenberg formulation, cf. Adler ^{ 16}. We divide ∆x into a Heisenberg component ∆x_{H} = h/(4π∆p) and a gravity component

(40) |

The momentum uncertainty is

(41) |

We have

(42) |

where the term containing 1/4L is due to the fact that L is a ln(r) function.

Assuming that the location uncertainty is ∆x = /2 we have

(43) |

where

(44) |

Ronald J. Adler has derived an expression for the gravity component, ^{ 16},

(45) |

After some algebraic manipulation we arrive at the final uncertainty equation

(46) |

where F_{r} = f_{r}(1 + f_{r}) is the overall uncertainty factor.

The pressure responsible for the expansion can be formulated as a negative energy density. By combining eqs (14), (15) and (21) we obtain

(47) |

The energy W_{vDE} = is the virtual dark energy. It is an accumulation of the energy fraction of E_{GSr}, from which the real energy W_{u} emerges. As will be shown below, the ratio of the densities equals

(48) |

We can now determine the present value of **BL = 9****,59012425** and **B = 0,099152544** (L=ln(r_{0}/r_{i})+1/4 = 96,72091). According to eq. (48) BL is a constant, which underlines the fact that the acceleration Ansatz is an approximation.

From eq. (20) we obtain the Hubble parameter

In order to derive the real energy change dW_{u}/dt we postulate that the change is proportional to the Planck energy divided by the Planck time times the uncertainty “enhancement” F_{r}. We have

(49) |

We substitute E_{GSr} from eq. (35) (2^{nd} middle term) and F_{r} from eqs (44) and (46), and end up with

(50) |

The numerator appears to be = 13,45387, that is an accuracy of 5 digits as compared to = 13,453499. The result proves that dW_{u}/dt equals the time derivative of W_{u} = 4πbr^{2}, i.e.

(51) |

*This important result shows that the energy input can be deduced directly from a quantum mechanical origin*.

The Field Equation in its simplest form is

(52) |

where is the Einstein tensor and is the energy-momentum tensor. Eq. (52) has an analytical solution, if is isotropic and homogeneous.

In the present study we expel the cosmological constant Λ term. It will be shown that incoming new matter in combination with a variable G influences the energy density and the pressure responsible for the expansion.

The Einstein tensor is divided into the Ricci curvature tensor and the Ricci scalar R. We have

(53) |

The components of the tensor are obtained by utilizing the Christoffel symbols, the procedure can be found in any textbook on General Relativity, cf. Carroll ^{ 17}. The Ricci tensor is

(54) |

where r_{cur} is the curvature radius and k the curvature parameter according to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metrics. k is 1 for a closed, 0 for a flat and -1 for an open universe.

The Ricci scalar is

(55) |

The metric tensor is

(56) |

Judging from eq. (52) and (55) the unit of the energy-momentum tensor components is that of a mass density, kg/m^{3}. The tensor components are zero except for the diagonal. We define the tensor in the following way

(57) |

Our task is to find the expressions for the equivalent density ρ_{eq} and the pressure P_{exp} responsible for both expansion and acceleration.

The density ρ_{eq} has a bearing on the velocity of expansion, i.e. the Hubble parameter. It consists of two components

(58) |

where is caused by the momentum change.

The 1^{st} law of thermodynamics says that

(59) |

where W_{exp} = _{EM}c^{2}V. The time derivative is

(60) |

here Further we approximate that

(61) |

From eq. (59) we now obtain

(62) |

Substituting P_{EM}_{ }from eq. (47) we have

(63) |

and

(64) |

In order to get the total pressure P_{exp} we need to include the gravitational parameter G into the 1^{st} law of thermodynamics

(65) |

After some manipulations we have

(66) |

From eq. (13) we conclude that Finally the pressure is obtained from

(67) |

The Einstein Field Equation is completed in a form which eliminates the need for a cosmological constant Λ

(68) |

All components of the energy-momentum tensor contain By substituting G from eq. (13) and from eq. (14) we arrive at the following expression for the tensor

(69) |

Interestingly G vanishes, the energy-momentum tensor is independent of the gravitational parameter. Making use of the definition of the Hubble parameter in eq. (20) we can write the tensor as follows

(70) |

The Field Equation written in its most compact form is now

(71) |

The Friedmann-Robertson-Walker temporal equation, which also may be called the Hubble expansion equation, is

We have

Further,

By definition . k = 1 means that the universe is closed. ar_{cur} = ar_{0} indicates that the average curvature radius equals the radius of the observable universe, a circumstance emphasized by Einstein in the cosmological constant paper, ^{ 13}.

The *acceleration equation* is obtained from

where i and j = 1, 2, 3. By substituting elements from eqs (54), (55) and (70) we have

from which we end up with

or

For *a* = 1, B = 0,099152544 we have **g**_{0}** = 1****,0595****·10**^{-11}** m/****s**^{2}.

The equation corresponds to our Ansatz in eq. (16). The acceleration g is an inherent characteristic of the expanding universe. Over a comoving distance d in the vicinity of an observer, the scale factor *a* in eq. (74b) equals 1- d/r_{0}_{ }≈ 1.

*As a result, g provides a **Coriolis** **effect**, which explains the rotational behaviour of the galaxies and the celestial movements at large, and thereby eliminates the need for dark matter*, cf. Eriksson ^{ 6}.

It is important to prove that the tensor fulfils the temporal energy conservation condition. The general expression using Christoffel symbols Γ is, cf. Carroll ^{ 17},

The time derivative is

We have

The conservation condition is fulfilled. The result also indicates that the components ρ_{eq} and P_{exp}/c^{2} are correctly derived.

The passage of time since the initial event is obtained by integrating the Hubble parameter, eq. (20). The solution, cf. ref. ^{ 6}, involves the Dawson integral function D_{+}(√L), which can be found in Wolfram Alpha. The cosmic age is

(76) |

At r = r_{0} we have √L = 9,8346789 and further D_{+} = 0,0511075. The present age is **t**_{0}** = 4,553659·10**^{17}** s = 14****,43****·10**^{9}** yr**, slightly larger than the standard value.

The CBU theory is based on ideas presented by prominent physicists, such as Arthur Eddington, Paul Dirac and Fred Hoyle. The theory does not require unrecognized phenomena. In Table 1 some key numbers are compared to recent satellite data, ^{ 18}.

Considering that CBU is a theoretical construction, wherein the only calibration parameter is the present value of G, the numbers in Table 1 are surprisingly concordant, closest are the Hubble parameter values, difference 1 %.

The largest difference occurs in the density of matter and radiation, difference 7,4 %, partly explained by the difference in r. For satellite data the ratio of the dark and real energy is 13,89, which is fairly close to The critical density values are almost identical considering the inaccuracy of observational values. The critical density also proves correctly the assumption that the 3D image (Figure 1) of the universe is spherical, meaning that the total volume is 8 times that of the observable universe.

Figure 2 shows how all principal pieces of a jigsaw puzzle fall into place. The last piece, the Postulate can now be dropped down and complete the picture of the Einsteinian General Relativity and its theoretical background.

A detailed investigation and analysis show that the expanding universe according to present observations can be described by known laws of physics and a consistent mathematical framework including the original geodesic formulation of Albert Einstein.

Vacuum energy has been proposed as the source of dark energy, but controversial interpretations of the magnitude of the vacuum energy have not been able to solve the so called cosmological constant problem. In the present study an expression of the quantum ground state energy E_{GSr} was derived as a function of the curvature radius r. E_{GSr} is considered as the energy of a foam of virtual particles, from which real energy emerges as positron-electron pairs, a process controlled by the generalized uncertainty principle. The approach leads to a very plausible solution of the dark energy problem.

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) requires a comment. An embryo to a theory suggests that the initiatory homogeneous black hole undergo a transition, whereby the radiation due to positron-electron annihilations is released and the rest of matter form a multitude (10^{12}) of black hole “droplets”. The reason for a transition might be that the energy reaches a stage of half matter and half radiation, thus satisfying the Schwarzschild condition r_{u}_{ }= 2GM/c^{2}. This scenario suits the CMB homogeneity pattern and also explains why the CMB image roughly correlates with the present distribution of galaxies.

According to the CBU theory matter is created spontaneously throughout space. So far, the change of electrons and positrons into fermions is an open question. Do the black holes in the galaxy centres have an impact? Does the gravitational pull near the black holes make positron-electron clouds implode and create the nucleus of new stars? A change of paradigm could bring new answers to these questions.

The CBU theory opens new avenues for the understanding of the distinction between our perception of reality and the quantum world.

[1] | CBC Broadcast, Physics and Beyond series, P. A. M. Dirac interview conducted by David Peat and Paul Buckley. Early 1970’s. | ||

In article | |||

[2] | Dirac, P. A. M., Cosmological models and the Large Number hypothesis. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A., 338, pp. 439-446, 1974. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[3] | Tryon, E. P., Is the universe a vacuum fluctuation. Nature, 247, pp. 396-397. (1973). | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[4] | Guth, A., The Inflationary Universe: The quest for a new theory of cosmic origins. Perseus Books, 1997. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[5] | Einstein, A., Die Grundlage der allgemeine Relativitätstheorie. Annalen der Physik, 49, 769-822, 1916. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[6] | Eriksson, J.-T., A modified model of the universe shows how acceleration changes galaxy dynamics. International Journal of Physics, Vol 6, No. 2, pp. 38-46, 2018. | ||

In article | |||

[7] | Eriksson, J.-T., The momentum of new matter replaces dark energy and explains the expansion of the universe. International Journal of Physics, Vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 161-165, 2018. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[8] | Eriksson, J.-T., A combined cosmological and gravitational redshift supports Electron-positron annihilation as the most likely energy source of the CMB. International Journal of Physics, Vol. 7, no. 1, pp.16-20, 2019. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[9] | Eriksson, J.-T., The Universe as a Quantum Leap. International Journal of Physics, Vol.8, No.2, pp. 64-70, 2020. | ||

In article | |||

[10] | McBryan, B., Living in a low-density black hole. arXiv: 1312.0340v1, 2 Dec 2013. | ||

In article | |||

[11] | Brans, C., Dicke, R. H., Mach's principle and a relativistic theory of gravitation. Physical Review, 124, 3, pp. 925-935, 1961. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[12] | Sciama, D. W., On the origin of inertia. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 113, 34-42, 1952. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[13] | Einstein, A., Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akad. d. Wissenschaften, 1917. | ||

In article | |||

[14] | Perlmutter, S., Supernovae, Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe. Physics Today, April 2003. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[15] | Wheeler, J. A., Geons Physical Review, 97 (2), pp. 511-536, 1955. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[16] | Adler, R. J., Six easy roads to the Planck scale. Am. J. Phys., 78, pp. 925-932, 2010. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[17] | Carroll, S. M., Lecture notes on General Relativity. arXiv: gr-qc/9712019v1. 3 Dec 1997. | ||

In article | |||

[18] | Planck Collaboration: Aghanin, N., et al., Planck 2018 results Cosmological parameters, arXiv:1807.06209v2, 20 Sep 2018. | ||

In article | |||

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Jarl-Thure Eriksson

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Jarl-Thure Eriksson. Quantum Fluctuations and Variable G Return Einstein’s Field Equation to Its Original Formulation. *International Journal of Physics*. Vol. 9, No. 3, 2021, pp 169-177. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijp/9/3/4

Eriksson, Jarl-Thure. "Quantum Fluctuations and Variable G Return Einstein’s Field Equation to Its Original Formulation." *International Journal of Physics* 9.3 (2021): 169-177.

Eriksson, J. (2021). Quantum Fluctuations and Variable G Return Einstein’s Field Equation to Its Original Formulation. *International Journal of Physics*, *9*(3), 169-177.

Eriksson, Jarl-Thure. "Quantum Fluctuations and Variable G Return Einstein’s Field Equation to Its Original Formulation." *International Journal of Physics* 9, no. 3 (2021): 169-177.

Share

[1] | CBC Broadcast, Physics and Beyond series, P. A. M. Dirac interview conducted by David Peat and Paul Buckley. Early 1970’s. | ||

In article | |||

[2] | Dirac, P. A. M., Cosmological models and the Large Number hypothesis. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A., 338, pp. 439-446, 1974. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[3] | Tryon, E. P., Is the universe a vacuum fluctuation. Nature, 247, pp. 396-397. (1973). | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[4] | Guth, A., The Inflationary Universe: The quest for a new theory of cosmic origins. Perseus Books, 1997. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[5] | Einstein, A., Die Grundlage der allgemeine Relativitätstheorie. Annalen der Physik, 49, 769-822, 1916. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[6] | Eriksson, J.-T., A modified model of the universe shows how acceleration changes galaxy dynamics. International Journal of Physics, Vol 6, No. 2, pp. 38-46, 2018. | ||

In article | |||

[7] | Eriksson, J.-T., The momentum of new matter replaces dark energy and explains the expansion of the universe. International Journal of Physics, Vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 161-165, 2018. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[8] | Eriksson, J.-T., A combined cosmological and gravitational redshift supports Electron-positron annihilation as the most likely energy source of the CMB. International Journal of Physics, Vol. 7, no. 1, pp.16-20, 2019. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[9] | Eriksson, J.-T., The Universe as a Quantum Leap. International Journal of Physics, Vol.8, No.2, pp. 64-70, 2020. | ||

In article | |||

[10] | McBryan, B., Living in a low-density black hole. arXiv: 1312.0340v1, 2 Dec 2013. | ||

In article | |||

[11] | Brans, C., Dicke, R. H., Mach's principle and a relativistic theory of gravitation. Physical Review, 124, 3, pp. 925-935, 1961. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[12] | Sciama, D. W., On the origin of inertia. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 113, 34-42, 1952. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[13] | Einstein, A., Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akad. d. Wissenschaften, 1917. | ||

In article | |||

[14] | Perlmutter, S., Supernovae, Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe. Physics Today, April 2003. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[15] | Wheeler, J. A., Geons Physical Review, 97 (2), pp. 511-536, 1955. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[16] | Adler, R. J., Six easy roads to the Planck scale. Am. J. Phys., 78, pp. 925-932, 2010. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[17] | Carroll, S. M., Lecture notes on General Relativity. arXiv: gr-qc/9712019v1. 3 Dec 1997. | ||

In article | |||

[18] | Planck Collaboration: Aghanin, N., et al., Planck 2018 results Cosmological parameters, arXiv:1807.06209v2, 20 Sep 2018. | ||

In article | |||