A Study of Influence of Entrepreneurship Teaching Workshops on the Increase of Creativity and Innova...

Narges Larijani, Esmail Shabani Nejad, Avishan Yazdani

International Journal of Materials Lifetime OPEN ACCESSPEER-REVIEWED

A Study of Influence of Entrepreneurship Teaching Workshops on the Increase of Creativity and Innovation of the Payam- E- Noor Universities of the Mazandaran Province Case Study: Payam- E-Noor Universities of the Mazandaran Province’s West

Narges Larijani1,, Esmail Shabani Nejad2, Avishan Yazdani3

1Departman of Management Payam Noor University(PNU), P.O.BOX19395-3697, Tehran, Iran

2The M.A. student of Business Administration Tehran University

32The M.A. student of Business Administration Tehran University

Abstract

Possession of entrepreneurship culture can be searched both in the bed of personality traits and social norms of society. With aim of studying the influence of entrepreneurship educating workshops on increase of creativity and innovation of the students in Payam- E- Noor universities of the Mazandaran province’s west, current research is carried out. The used research method is descriptive being of the surveying- correlation type. Statistical universe of the current research consists of all students of Payam-E-Noor universities of the Mazandaran’ s west which a 85- individual sample of students, using Morgan table, has been selected by random sampling method. Tool of data/information collection in this research is questionnaire, including 29 questions, and it has been analyzed by use of Pearson analysis statistical methods and T test. Results of the research show that the first and second hypothes of this research dealt with a studying the influence of traits of search for success and independentism of the entrepreneurship teaching workshops on the creativity and innovation have been confirmed. And, the third hypothesis dealt with a study of trait of risk- taking in universities has not been confirmed. Also, the fourth hypothesis concerned with studying the trait of creativity and innovation relates to holding of the entrepreneurship teaching workshops positively and significantly. Therefore, it can be concluded that entrepreneurship teaching workshops influence on increase of creativity and innovation of students positively.

Cite this article:

  • Narges Larijani, Esmail Shabani Nejad, Avishan Yazdani. A Study of Influence of Entrepreneurship Teaching Workshops on the Increase of Creativity and Innovation of the Payam- E- Noor Universities of the Mazandaran Province Case Study: Payam- E-Noor Universities of the Mazandaran Province’s West. International Journal of Materials Lifetime. Vol. 2, No. 1, 2015, pp 38-43. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijml/2/1/6
  • Larijani, Narges, Esmail Shabani Nejad, and Avishan Yazdani. "A Study of Influence of Entrepreneurship Teaching Workshops on the Increase of Creativity and Innovation of the Payam- E- Noor Universities of the Mazandaran Province Case Study: Payam- E-Noor Universities of the Mazandaran Province’s West." International Journal of Materials Lifetime 2.1 (2015): 38-43.
  • Larijani, N. , Nejad, E. S. , & Yazdani, A. (2015). A Study of Influence of Entrepreneurship Teaching Workshops on the Increase of Creativity and Innovation of the Payam- E- Noor Universities of the Mazandaran Province Case Study: Payam- E-Noor Universities of the Mazandaran Province’s West. International Journal of Materials Lifetime, 2(1), 38-43.
  • Larijani, Narges, Esmail Shabani Nejad, and Avishan Yazdani. "A Study of Influence of Entrepreneurship Teaching Workshops on the Increase of Creativity and Innovation of the Payam- E- Noor Universities of the Mazandaran Province Case Study: Payam- E-Noor Universities of the Mazandaran Province’s West." International Journal of Materials Lifetime 2, no. 1 (2015): 38-43.

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1. Introduction

All the world has been affected by change and transformation occurred in the category of entrepreneurship so that world of job and business will be affected by this category forever. For example, it can be referred to powerfully beginning of entrepreneurship activities in united states of America within the past ten years [13]. Many countries have accepted this subject and employed new political policies in order to support small- size and entrepreneur companies. Special efforts have been made aiming at promotion of the innovative activities and increase of innovative potencies as well. At present, European Union (EU) has accepted this subject extensively that future prosperity and welfare depends on creation of the businesses which are rooted in the native economy [14]. In To achieve this affair, a set of the native entrepreneurial talents must be developed and new businesses should be managed. In order to make this affair to be real, effective supportive structures are required in order to use native innovations and reinforce new businesses which are obligatory to create permanent employment. Educational and curricular plans in all courses and their executive processes must be designed in such a manner that the required skills in two focuses/ axes of individual skill and specialized skill are presented to students by them, and performance of entrepreneurship activities in university and, specially, teaching of entrepreneurship is included inside these plans. [18] Significance of entrepreneurship has reached a position in which some knowledgeable experts identify it as one of the production factors like capital and work/ job and introduce it as economic development engine (Driving force) [15]. In university environment, considering that socities, today, sustain remarkable expenses for teaching, universities are thus faced with daily- increasing problems, and many educational institutes are forced to reevaluate their mission and general strategies [16].

Governmental funds are decreasing, and rate of respondence regarding usage of these funds increases. With these financial prerequisites, universities must search for other alternatives in order to create revenue and support their missions. one of the ways of the universities’ repondence to the environmental prerequisites and support of their missions is to use entrepreneurship. One of the important curricular plans of this university is plans for development of personal skills. In this curricular plan, the participant learn the significant personal skills in order to complete their own required technical knowledge, and development of the important skills, including entrepreneurship and creativity are to be emphasized upon One of the duties assigned to the participants is project for development of a business through which entrepreneurial skills are learned [1, 2]. With regard to these achievements and an increasing welcome which exists in the global arena, this problem can be deliberated in the developing countries, including Iran that what measures have been taken in this direction, and what mechanisms will exist for future. Existence of these problems made up the research's mind, considering importance and necessity of holding the courses and forming the entrepreneurship workshops in universities, to identify the factors influencing on the formation of these courses and to research on their relationship with observance of the courses.

1.1. Theoretical Foundations and Background of Research

In this section, the key concepts are described firstly and, then, background of research, including the related experimental studies are studied.

1.2. Teaching of Entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurship is a process of presentation of new thoughts, exploitation from available possibilities and opportunities through relying on knowledge, profession and task related to it and risk- taking. Entrepreneurship is a factor which places various factors alongside each other so that exploitation of resources and their activation is feasible aiming at productivity and provision of national profits and the productive and creative institutes are established, leading to multi lateral growth and development [12]. Entrepreneurship supervises the risk- taking and innovative behaviors and exploitation of the opportunities; entrepreneurs are those who, along with risk taking, take advantage of opportunities and, through relying on their own thoughts and experiences, search for new approaches for profitability [9]. Entrepreneurship is a process leading to creation of satisfaction or new demand. Entrepreneurship consists of process of value creation through formation of an unique set of the resources in order to exploite opportunities [1, 2] With regard to above definitions, it can be said that entrepreneurship is a strategical phenomenon and a directive force. Entrepreneurship is a long- term process of education which requires planning in the educational and researching system and it’s enforcement from family and school to university and organization, leading to setting of cycle of the country’s economical activity into motion [12].

From 1970 on, paying attention to teaching of lessons/ curricula of entrepreneurship in universities was designed and organized considering local, regional and national needs [17]. But, educational background of entrepreneurship in the higher education in developing countries traces back to, and focuses on, beginning of 1990 which this affair, considering increase of unemployment rate and influence of entrepreneurship plans and their teaching in the economic growth of the developed countries, was led to that entrepreneurship is to be taken more into consideration. [11]. Education of the entrepreneurs in the higher educations of our country, with more than a 20 year delay compared, to the developed countries, was taken into consideration under topic an efficient plan in Ministry of Sciences, Researches and Technology in late of 2001 [8].

One of the necessities of establishment of entrepreneur university is creation of capital. Entrepreneurs are faced with difficult in order to put their own ideas into effect [19]. On one hand, big capitalists don’t have an opportunity to hear entrepreneurs' ideas and dealing with small tasks and, on the other hand, they spend their own capitals on the enormous projects [18]. Therefore, existence of university which creates / plays a role of center for support of entrepreneurship as a connective bridge between the entrepreneurs and capitalists is necessary. Some knowledgeable experts believe that entrepreneurship doesn’t result from direct teaching and the entrepreneurs must be educated by the nurtural method. But, no one denies these themes that usage of new technologies and creation of new business without teaching and researching is unattainable practically [8].

1.3. Significance of Teaching in Development of the Entrepreneurship at University

In the affair of entrepreneurship, nature of entrepreneurship and it’s foundations, at first, must be tought and, then, required teachings are presented to the entrepreneurs in order to acquire required skills [10]. In fact, objective of teaching the entrepreneurship is that the students are to be educated as creative individuals during the education courses. These individuals inclued in activities, daring individuals, innovators, users of appropriate opportunities and promotion of current. Entrepreneurship teaching courses search for improvement of motivation and tendency of individuals and deals with cases such as inclination toward independence, usage of ideal opportunities, innovation, tendency to risk- taking, commitment to job, inclination to solve problems and enjoyment from lack of certainity and obscurity [1, 2].

In this research, after comprehensive study of background/ of the entrepreneurship studies from various viewpoints, particularly from perspective of personality traits, the following attributes were selected as components of entrepreneur personality:

1- Creativity: Creativity is them/essence of the entrepreneurship and creativity, by itself, is based on human will. In fact, creativity is right of selection and power of decision- making for selection and power of decision- making for selection. [3] Carol refers to this point that creativity both includes abilities of creating ideas and includes new and unusual responses.

2- Searching for success: Researchers always consider "searching for success" as a single- dimension trait of the human which creates motivation in him/her in order to confront with challenges so that he/ she is able to protect his/ her success and superiority. [7] Macland's theory of requirement to success (1961) is one of the most applied theories regarding entrepreneurship. Macland (1961) expresses that requirement to success consists of:

Tendency to do hard works, superiority over others and acting better than other in order to gain access to a sense of personal achievement. Several studies have observed positive influence of requirement for high success on the entrepreneurial behavior.

3- Risk-taking: Risk-taking consists of admission of the mild risks which can be controlled and restrained by personal efforts [1, 2].

In fact, risk- taking refers to individual's tendency to show risk or avoidance from risk while confronting with risky situations. The researches showed agreeably that the entrepreneurs are moderate risk- takers (Grioland Watson, 2006).

4- Independentism: A need for independence is one of the features which has been emphasized as a very stimulation force. Mackeran and Flannigan (1996) express that independentism can be defined as phrases, including "To have control over oneself destination", "To do a job for oneself" and "To be boss and master of oneself" [1, 2]

1.4. Background of the Research

In a research under topic of "A study of bases and backgrounds of appearance and education of the entrepreneurship in the B.A.M.A. senior students of the Shahid Beheshti university", Azazi [5] concluded that there exists a significant relationship between variables of belief in intrinsic control, motivation for improvement, risk taking, independentism and students' creativity and/ with their entrepreneurship. In a research under topic of "A study of entrepreneurial capabilities of students" carried out in the Isfehan university, Badri [6] showed that the scores of capabilities of entrepreneurship, independentism, intrinsic control, motivation, achievement and creativity are higher than the medium rate of standard score and placed higher than average. Average of the student's risk- taking score is lower than mean rate of the standard score and in the average limit. Also, there is not a significant difference between entrepreneurship capabilities of the Freshman and senior students; that is there is not a difference between entrepreneurship capabilities of the freshman and senior students of the Isfahan University. In another study under topic of a survey of some entrepreneurship spirits in the students of the Shiraz university and it's comparison with industries managers, Yayari reached this conclusion that managers are of a higher motivation for achievement compared to students, and risk- taking of students has been higher than that of managers. Howard studied effect of development of the entrepreneurship capabilities, including independentism, risk- taking, motivation for advancement, intrinsic control, self- confidence and courage of creativity on the entrepreneurship of 450 students and reached this conclusion that there exists a direct relationship between these capabilities and individuals' entrepreneurship abilities. (Lytvnen 2000) their principal assumption is that being a entrepreneur individual is not randomly and by chance, and personality attributes are effective on the entrepreneurship. He tested two variables of motivation for searching for success and emphasis on control. He believes that risk taking, innovation, knowledge in the working and marketing field, ability to hunt opportunities and positive outlook on business are characteristics of an entrepreneur. Through study and evaluation of the existing situation of the students' entrepreneurship teaching in Argentina, Postigo (2002) expressed that the most important courses to teach entrepreneurship are courses of teaching the creativity and innovation from viewpoint of the students. In a research, Ahmad (1985) showed that entrepreneur individuals have intrinsic control, tendency to take risk and motivation for advancement.

1.5. Objectives of the Research: General Objecttive

A study of influence of teaching entrepreneurship on the increase of creativity and innovation of students in the Payam-E- Noor universities of the Mazandaran province's west.

1.6. Special Objectives

1- A study of influence of holding the entrepreneurship courses on the search- for- success feature of the students of Pyam- E- Noor University.

2- A study of influence of observing the entrepreneurship courses on the idependentism feature of the students of Payam-E- Noor University.

3- A study of influence of holding the entrepreneurship courses on the risk- taking feature of the students of Payam-E-Noor University.

4- A study of observing the entrepreneurship courses on the creativity and innovation feature of the students of Payam- E- Noor University.

1.7. Hypotheses of the Research

1- Rate of influence of holding the entrepreneurship courses on the search-for-success attribute in the students of Payam-E-Noor University has a significant relationship.

2- Rate of influence of observing the entrepreneurship course on the indepentism characteristic in the relationship students of Payam-E- Noor University has a significant relationship.

3- Rate of influence of holding the entrepreneurship courses on the risk-taking attribute in the students of Payam-E-Noor university has a significant relationship.

4- Rate of influence of observing entrepreneurship courses on the creativity and innovation characteristic in the students of Payam-E-Noor university has a significant relationship.

2. Methodology

In view of the fact that objective is influence of the workshops for teaching of entrepreneurship on the increase of creativity and innovating, the research is thus a applied from viewpoint of objective and is descriptive from viewpoint of how to collect information/ data and being of correlation type.

At first, number of the students participated in the entrepreneurship workshops was identified and information related to society received by referring to Payam-E-Noor university of the Mazandaran province’s western part. The statistical universe of this research is all the students in the entrepreneurship workshops of Payam-E- Noor universities of the Mazandaran province’s west, including 110 individuals. Considering existence of several branches, simple random sampling method was used. With regard to number of individuals of the statistical universe, sample volume, using Morgan method, was selected to be 85 individuals which, at the end, 85 completed questionnaires were prepared for analysis. In this research, in order to collect the required data, questionnaire was used. In order to measure domestic marketing variable, made- by- researcher questionnaire designed for this purpose is used. In order to assess validity of questionnaire, it's content validity was studied. In order to study content validity, an initial questionnaire was distributed among 30 students and, following the elimination or correction of obscure questions, the domestic entrepreneurship questionnaire, including 29 items / choices was employed which had content validity from perspective of these knowledgeable experts. The mentioned questionnaire designed on the basis of the literature available in the field of entrepreneurship includes 29 questions which were assessed on the basis of Likert five- choice spectrum whose reliability, using Choronbach alpha, was measured to be 0.82 by the researcher. The obtained data/ information were analysed by SPSS software.

In order to study hypotheses of the research, Pearson correlation methods and regression were used. It is in such a way that Pearson correlation method was used to study the main hypothesis and multiple regression was used to study sub hypotheses or subsidiary hypotheses.

3. Findings of the Research

3.1. Analysis of Data and Test of Hypotheses

After data collection, data were classified and summarized through questionnaire and using descriptive statistics. For demographic data such as age, education, job precedents, marital status and gender, descriptive table has been presented (Table 1 to Table 3) which the most important part of it’s result is as following:

50 individuals of the participants in the design are men (%58) and remainders include 35 women. (%42)

Table 1. Descriptive results of the participants in terms of gender

Table 2. Descriptive results of participants based on age

Table 3. Descriptive results of participants in terms of the educational course

Table 4. Descriptive statistics of T test of influence of the entrepreneurship teaching on increase of creativity and innovation

Table 5. single sample T perceptive statistics of influence of teaching the entrepreneurship on increase of creativity and innovation

Of this number, %41 are in the age ranged from 18 to 20 years old, %24 are in the age ranged from 21 to 25 years old, %24 are in the age ranged from 26 to 30 years old and %11 are more than 30 years old as well. from viewpoint of type of educational field, %40 of students were in management field, %27 of them in geography field in, %20 of them in librarian ship field and %13 of them in mathematics field.

Test of hypotheses: in this section, perceptive statistics has been used in order to test hypotheses of the research. In order to study effect of workshops for teaching the entrepreneurship on increase of the creativity and innovation and test the research’s principal test, T test has been used.

Result of test and it’s interpretation: Average of the descriptive static shows that rate of application of characteristic of creativity and entrepreneurship among students of Payam-E-Noor university in the Mazandaran province’s west is higher than quality of the test point. (0.3282). Also, output of T test shows that amount of calculated T (54.803) is greater than the standardized T(1.96) and has been located in region of Ho, and it can be said that zero assumption (The assumption which is opposed to the research) in the significance level of %95 has been confirmed, and research assumption (H1) is denied and this means that rate of creativity and entrepreneurship among the students of Mazandaran Payam-E-Noor university is in a desirable limit.

Regarding subhypotheses of the research, results of Table 6 showed that significance level in the all cases (Other than risk taking) is lower than 0.01 (P- V 0.01); therefore, subhypotheses based on influence of components of searching for success, independentism, creativity and innovation, with %99 of assurance, are to be confirmed.

Table 6. Correlation coefficients between holding of entrepreneurship workshops and increase of creativity and innovation

4. Conclusion and Presentation of Suggestions

Using statistical methods of correlation and regression, the current research searches for finding of influence of workshops of teaching the entrepreneurship on the increase of creativity and innovation. In connection with the first hypothesis of this research, it is observed that relationship between search for success, decision and will of students with holding of the courses has been confirmed significantly. And, considering quality of statistic of correlation coefficient calculated to be equal to 0.79 and significance level of 0.00, there exists a significant relationship between searching for success, decision and will of students with holding of the courses. Results of this research are in same direction (conformity) with the researches conducted by Azizi [5], Badri [6], Garusifarshi et al; [4] Therefore, it is suggested that:

Improvement of this feature requires changes in some behaviors of the students. In connection with the second hypotheses, it is observed that relationship between independentism of students with observance of courses has been confirmed together significantly. And, considering quantity of statistic of correlation coefficient calculated to be 0.470 and significance level of 0.00, there exists a significant relationship between independentism of students with observance of courses. There fore, it is suggested that:

Familiarity with life and state of success of successful entrepreneurs leads to that the individuals participated in the entrepreneurship courses to consider them as a symbol and tendency to indepentism increases. Dependence on others' assistance in performing the jobs, following and pursuing of the notified working orders and not being bullheaded are anti entrepreneurship behaviors, for example. In fact, these behaviors suggest that due to various reasons, including culture dominating over families, the pupils and, then, students are nurtured, educated and grown in form of dependent individuals, not independent individual, in the society. Reinforcement of spirit of lack of dependence of the children on father in accomplishment of the assigned affairs is, for example, one of the basic measures in order to reinforc spirit of independence in field of entrepreneurship.

In connection with the third hypothesis of this research, it is observed that relation between students' risk talking and/ with holding of the courses together has not been confirmed significantly. And, considering the amount of statistic of correlation coefficient calculated to be 0.112 and significance level of 0.00, there is not a significant relationship between students' risk-talking and/ with observance of the courses.

Results of this research correspond with findings of Badri [5] as well. Thus, it is suggested that:

According to the obtained results, even though average score of risk taking of the individuals participated in the courses were higher than others descriptively, a significant relationship between participation in the courses and increase of feature of risktaking was not obtained on the basis of the attained analysis. Risk taking is a trait which, under social, economical and educational conditions, can be very different among the individuals and is inherent noticeably. So, it can not be concluded that this attribute is increased by teaching of entrepreneurship. Encouragement of students to select hard targets, not putting importance on occupational security and lack of interest in collection of all required information to make decision are, for example, behavioral measures to improve feature of students' risk taking.

In connection with the fourth hypothesis of this research, it is observed that relationship between creativity and entrepreneurship of the students with holding of the courses together has been confirmed significantly. And, considering quantity of statistic of correlation coefficient calculated to be equal to 0.788 and significance level of 0.00, there exists a significant relationship between students' creativity and entrepreneurship with observance of the courses.

Therefore, it is suggested that:

Although creativeness is inherent, teaching can be used to educate it. There are a lot of creative individuals who don't identify their own feature or don't use it. Courses of teaching the entrepreneurship can be a motivation to improve this feature in the individuals. In addition, it is believed that teaching influences on the individuals' potency. Through teaching, higher education, thus, can influence on the traits and abilities of the individuals positively. Even intrinsic attributes, including intensity of learning, personal traits and creativity can be developed through teaching as well. However, some personal characteristics are teachable more difficultly, but researches show that teaching in the low ages is influential. In this manner, teaching of individuals, specially in the childhood can be led to that individuals gain possession of intrinsic control center and become independentism, risk-taker and creative. Therefore, in order to obviate problem of the lowness of the entrepreneurship's rate, it is suggested that, in Iran, the beliefs of center for intrinsic control and risk taking are to be reinforced and risk taking is to be introduced as a value by culturemaking and cultural innovation. Objective of entrepreneurship teachings must be transfer of knowledge and creation of skill in the students, and, finally, that these teachings must create entrepreneurial outlooks in them.

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