Investigating Method on Client Contentment in Hotel Sector: A Case Study of the Mariador Palace Hote...

Alhassane Touré, Zuo Guoxin, Sory Kaba

Investigating Method on Client Contentment in Hotel Sector: A Case Study of the Mariador Palace Hotel

Alhassane Touré1, Zuo Guoxin1,, Sory Kaba2

1School of Mathematics and Statistics, Central China Normal University, 152 Luoyu Avenue, Wuhan, Hubei, P.R. China

2School of Economics, Central China Normal University

Abstract

Today, we live in a world where the development of the country is partly dependent on the building of hotels. Hence, this is considered as a very important factor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the concept of client contentment in the hotel sector. In carrying out this study, the Mariador Palace was selected, and a study was conducted on 200 clients of this company. They were interviewed to answer a questionnaire which was used as a sample for the client contentment. In addition, some investigation method was used. From the results of this study, we have found that adopting client contentment concept in the Mariador palace Hotel will be a positive contribution in achieving objectives, getting client’s acquisition, maintaining retention, and decreasing client’s loss. This study recommends that the Mariador palace hotel should be based more on the development of the nature of their services, treatment of customer’s complaints, and obtaining feedback from clients who are loyal in patronizing the hotel. Thus, this is with the view of improving the quality of their service delivery again.

Cite this article:

  • Alhassane Touré, Zuo Guoxin, Sory Kaba. Investigating Method on Client Contentment in Hotel Sector: A Case Study of the Mariador Palace Hotel. International Journal of Econometrics and Financial Management. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2016, pp 39-47. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijefm/4/2/2
  • Touré, Alhassane, Zuo Guoxin, and Sory Kaba. "Investigating Method on Client Contentment in Hotel Sector: A Case Study of the Mariador Palace Hotel." International Journal of Econometrics and Financial Management 4.2 (2016): 39-47.
  • Touré, A. , Guoxin, Z. , & Kaba, S. (2016). Investigating Method on Client Contentment in Hotel Sector: A Case Study of the Mariador Palace Hotel. International Journal of Econometrics and Financial Management, 4(2), 39-47.
  • Touré, Alhassane, Zuo Guoxin, and Sory Kaba. "Investigating Method on Client Contentment in Hotel Sector: A Case Study of the Mariador Palace Hotel." International Journal of Econometrics and Financial Management 4, no. 2 (2016): 39-47.

Import into BibTeX Import into EndNote Import into RefMan Import into RefWorks

At a glance: Figures

1. Introduction

Public companies put marketing strategies into practice for the purpose of improving their client’s interface. This is done by increasing the capacity of their service delivery, modernizing reception areas, and training and informing employees who are always in contact with clients. Note that with the role that businesses play in the field of economics, marketing is one of the first factors used in all business services. Today, the competitive global market offers clients a wide range of choices unimaginable by previous generations. Consequently, today’s generation working with business services is traceable to competition between them about the proper functioning of marketing strategies. Thus, this is with the aim of having a good market position. Furthermore, it also attracts and maintains maximum clients’ satisfaction. This can meet the interests of services to businesses such as hotels in making all marketing plans to prepare a strategy to maintain their relationships with their clients by satisfying them. In today’s present day, it must be noted that the success of hotels depends on the contentment of client’s needs and expectations. This is because the role played by clients has become very significant in recent times. However, clients are the most important source of income of these business entities. Most companies realize that satisfying the needs of their numerous clients goes far beyond Porsche architectural designs and serene locations, but it ensures that the needs of clients are met on time ([1], 6-12). According to Zeithaml et al. ([21], 48-52), companies need to enhance their understanding of customers’ choices, because customers’ previous experiences are based on their evaluation of the services. Furthermore, customers’ cultural backgrounds, previous experiences, and travel motivation are factors that define customers’ behaviors in the tourism industries. As a result, this influences the end results. It is necessary for organizations to pay attention to clients’ views and to obtain essential information about company’s client contentment. Therefore, client choices in relation to a service or product depend on its productivity, need for recognition, and the responsiveness of the company. A good quality of client service is to meet clients’ expectation which is influenced by factors like the brand of the company, competitive pricing, employee’s attitude and courtesy, service quality, and good value. Nevertheless, a good employee tries his or her best to ensure the best possible service for the client. The objective of this article is to investigate client’s contentment in the hotel trade in Guinea, Conakry. In particular, the present study has three objectives which are: to explore the client contentment in the hotel sector, identify the main determinants influencing customer satisfaction in the hotel sector in Guinea, and to examine the level of customer satisfaction in Mariador palace Hotel. In addition, our investigations were done using SPSS software.

2. Literature Review

We are a changing world or business. Therefore, current business life is really related to the client. Thus, this has been often considered as a source of income which is regarded to be privileged. Improvements in the business such as images, revenue and brand, depends greatly on clients. It is important for the whole enterprise to address the needs and expectations of all clients and to ensure that they are satisfied. Client contentment is the measure of how the needs and expectations are collected and given to achieve client’s expectation. The commonly used definition for service quality is the comparison customers make between their expectations and perceptions of the received service [14]. Client contentment can be achieved if the client has an entire and good relationship with the company. In a competitive and attractive business marketplace, client contentment is a considerable performance, and has different essential elements of business strategies. As a result, the more the customer gets satisfaction, the more the organization and the relationship with the customer becomes very excellent. Parker et al. [15] stated that client’s contentment represents the importance of the customer’s impression or opinion about the organization. The opinion that a client makes about the provider or the company is the global process he goes through. However, this include the right to communicate with the company before doing any marketing plans regarding delivery options and services, and managing queries or complaints after delivery. In this method, the client comes across the working environment of different departments and the type of strategies involved in the company. This will allow the client to have solid opinion about the organization which finally results in good satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Hotel’s services never decrease after the delivery as clients are searching for high values of post marketing services which can help them employ and personalize the delivered product extra effectively. Kotler [10] said when the client gets satisfaction with the post marketing services, it will provide a good opportunity for the business to maintain existing customers, improve purchases, and then make good business profits. Many studies have concluded that quality of service is a key component to get the client’s contentment. Levesque et al. [11] said that quality of service is a consumer’s global idea of the relative level of an organization and its products and services. Oliver [13] developed the theory that there exists a close link between a customer’s satisfaction and what the customers want and expect. Lewis, R.C. [12] defines service quality as “the relation between what customer’s wants from a product or service and how they consider when they received them.” Consequently, previous studies revealed that satisfaction is evaluated by how positive a customer perceives goods such as the performance and the quality or benefit of a particular product or service. Gale, B. [6] said that it has been noticed that customers will have high levels of satisfaction if they feel that the quality of service is high. Also, he reported that the client will be satisfied and probably become a regular client at the establishment that provided the service if the company offers a service that exceeds the client’s needs and expectations. This view indicates that poor quality service would be the principal cause of dissatisfaction among clients. According to Zeithaml, V.A. [20], price is an important factor in the marketing mix. In previous customer satisfaction study, the importance of product or service price in the implementation of customer satisfaction has not been studied deeply. Oliver R.L. [13] affirms that satisfaction is a function of price, providing that price fairness might be the determinant factor of customer satisfaction and this influence includes both direct and indirect optic via price judgments. For this reason, this article will state that price perceptions influence clients’ entire contentment point of view directly and indirectly through price equality perceptions. As a result, it is estimated that price equality perceptions in hotel service would influence their contentment with the services that are being sold by hotel suppliers in Mariador Palace. Roger Hallowell [18] shows the importance of business image, saying that there is a relation between a person’s image of the organization and that person’s behavior to that organization. In his quantitative study in the leisure services domain, he found good quality image to be bound to good client contentment. A service failure is defined as some problems or mistake related to service that happen during a consumer’s experience with the organization. According to Hart et al. [5], a service recovery refers to the actions a business takes in response to a service failure. Also he says that service failures may cause negative dysfunction and finally dissatisfaction. However, if appropriate service recovery plans are applied, it can restore dissatisfied clients to the feeling of satisfaction. A client orientation is determined as a selling behavior where sellers assist clients to satisfy their needs and expectations, relative to sales orientation, putting the sellers or the company before the customers. Clients often rely on the behavior of service employees to judge the quality of a service which is insubstantial and interactive. Therefore, the level of client’s orientation is considered as a significant lever for the economic success of company’s services. Customer orientation of service is characterized by their recognition such as the need to establish and take care of personal relationship, the need to understand the customer, the need to communicate, and the need to serve [8]. Managing clients’ contentment resourcefully is one the biggest challenges that organization faces. The tools or methods to measure client contentment needs to be described properly to fulfill the desired goals. Today, measuring client contentment is an element which has become a significant problem to most business organization. In this direction, Werth, J. [19] maintains that, ‘If you cannot measure an element, you cannot understand it.’ There are a number of methods to measure customer satisfaction including direct method and indirect method. Thus, customer satisfaction has long been woven into corporate organizational business practices, marketing programs, and other customer-engagement initiative. Edvardsson et al. [4] stated that customer satisfaction enables a company to gain great insights about customers' needs, wants and requirements, and generates feedback (critical or praiseworthy) about the company's products, services, and customer service. The results generated from a client contentment attunes a company towards more focused client service, and develops better relationships with clients to achieve brand success. As a result of this, customers will become repetitive to the business organization that satisfies them and would prefer staying as long as they are always satisfied [17]. In literature review of client contentment, many concepts have been studied from diverse aspects. The considerations make bigger from normative to positive and from psychological to physical features. Though in most cases, the consideration is based on little basic aspect such as clients’ expectations to purchase, the use of a product, and his relative observation of the quality of that product after using it. Many studies designed their researches to manipulate client’s contentment. Therefore, their objective was to find out how client’s perceived performance ratings were influenced by expectations

3. Research Objectives

The objective of this study is to conduct a client satisfaction survey on clients in the five municipalities of the capital, Conakry, in Guinea. In particular, this study has two main objectives which are: to explore customer satisfaction in the hotel sector; and to identify the main determinants that influence customer satisfaction in the hotel sector in Guinea.

4. Research Questions

This study is set out to answer the following questions:

What is the concept of client’s contentment?

What are the main determinants of client’s contentment in the hotel sector in Guinea?

What is the level of satisfaction in Mariador palace Hotel in the capital, Conakry?

5. Hypothesis

In order to conduct this study on client’s contentment in the hotel sector, four hypotheses were developed.

H1: When prices are high, this would lead to a decrease in customer satisfaction.

H2: Good quality services increase the number of satisfied clients.

H3: When client’s focus is low in relation to the service, it would decrease customer satisfaction.

H4: There is a positive relationship between brand image and overall client’s contentment

6. Research Method

The research will use both primary data secondary data. Primary data will be collected from the survey through questionnaire. On the other hand, the secondary data will be collected from articles, journals, books, and related websites.

7. Examples and Sampling Techniques

Sampling technique is one of the methods used in this article to gain more understanding through our investigation study. It is commonly used in qualitative methodology because the focus is more on understanding rather than generalizing the whole concept under investigation. The sample of this article consisted of existing clients of the Mariador Palace hotel. A sample size of 200 clients was chosen. The respondents were from 18 years old and above. The respondents have diverse backgrounds, which will provide diverse responses with other precision in the results finding. All the methods of research were selected by the author because it is imperative to use investigation methods in order to totally solve the research problems of this work. The data was collected by delivering survey questionnaire directly to the respondents. The questions asked were closed-ended questions and it is done in order to reduce the probability of having mistaken response. And once this was collected, they were used to analyse and interpret the validity of the hypothesis

8. Instrument for Data Collection

This study collects information from clients because their ideas are useful in relation to the client contentment. The instrument for data collection has enabled us to conduct our surveys well in the field. It is necessary in obtaining the good results. This allows us to have ideas by asking some questions (quantitative and qualitative). The questionnaire was written in two versions. The first was written in French, while the second was written in English which makes it possible to be understood by the respondents. Therefore, they were placed in a logical order from personal data and ending with client suggestions. It consisted of two parts including 36 questions.

9. Administration for Data Collection

The data collection strategy, leads us to select the two standard questions (quantitative and qualitative) for this grouping technique. The collection was performed under the direct supervision of the one responsible. With the help of some colleagues, brother and hotel workers, clients were encouraged to answer our questionnaires in the five municipalities’ areas. To complete our investigation, the collections of the responses of the interviewed persons are useful to fully draw the conclusions using the software

10. Method of Data Analysis & Data Presentation

After the collection of data, the results of the information were analyzed using SPSS software. The data were presented in this research with the use of figures, graphs, and tables. This was done so that the data analyzed can be comprehensible and reasonable to the reader. Also, there were a total of 36 questions which the questionnaire contains. Also, the explanation of the data will be seen through the methodology.

General Information about the Respondents

Table 1.1. 58.5% of respondents were men, while the remaining 41.5% were women

Table 1.2 shows the age distribution of respondents. 9.5% is less than 20 years and 35% had their ages ranging from 20 to 29 years. For those whose ages ranged from 30 to 39 years constitute 23% of the whole sample. 20.5% is between 40 to 49 years, and 12% were more than 50 years old. In general, the sample is rather young (less than 40 years of age constitutes 68% of the sample).

Table 1.3 represents the educational level of respondents. According to the results, 37% of the respondents have quite a high level of education (Junior high 14.5% and Senior high 23.5%). 44.5% were educated to the high school level (University 30.0% and Diploma 14.5%). However, note that 11.0% had primary education, while 6.5% had no educational qualification.

Table 1.4. The five municipalities of the capital Conakry in Guinea

Table 1.4 above shows the area of municipalities of the surveyed customers. For the respondents, observed, the different areas included Kaloum (11.0%), Matam (12.0%), and Matoto (17.0%). The majority of the respondents were from Ratoma (45.0%) and A Dixinn (15.0%). It is not far and also quite in the same area.

Table 1.5 above shows the employment of the surveyed clients. For the employed respondents, observed, the different types included civil servant (12.0 %), banking (15.5 %), trading (10.0 %), businessman/woman (31.0 %), medical (9.0 %), and other activities (14.0 %). Most of the employed respondents were from the banking sector. Others were businessmen and women. Therefore, this distribution gives us an idea about the structure of economic activities with the clients using the services of Mariador Palace in Conakry. It should be noted that about 4.0 % were unemployed and 4.5 % were students.

Table 1.6 indicates that 24.5% out of the 30 hotels users who filled the survey were using Mariador Palace hotel services. About 22% used Rivera Royal, 15.0% used Mangrove hotel, 12.5% uses full south, 11.5% used Palm Camayenne, 9.0% used Hotel Galaxy services, and 5.5% used Hotel Honey. This indicates that many respondents used different hotels services. Therefore, respondents were asked whether Mariador Palace was their choice hotel in Conakry. According to the results of this study, 40% of the sample had Mariador Palace as their choice hotel (see Table 1.7).

11. The Analysis of Reliability and Correlation

Validity and reliability of the research have to be examined on each phase of the research procedure that includes questionnaire structure, the sample, data collection method, and proper analysis of findings ([2], 64). It does happen that research can be reliable but not valid, but if research approach is acutely valid, then it is also reliable ([3], 38).

We observed that Cronbach’s alpha is 0.973, which determines a high level of hotel client consistency for our scale with this specific sample.

11.1. Further Related Analysis

The following analysis is based upon the responses of the sample of the study. The total observation can be more than the effective sample size in view of the fact that respondents were given the choice to select multiple answers. Also in this further analysis, it is important to know what are the factors that should be considered by the clients in choosing a hotel service (i.e. Mariador Palace)? Which areas is Mariador Palace doing better than other hotels providers? Also, we need to know where Mariador Palace needs to improve. This section is intended to answer these important research questions. Table 2.1 and Figure 1 addresses the first question, Table 2.2 and Figure 2 answers the second question, and Table 2.3 with Figure 3 answers the third question.

Table 2.1. Factors of choosing MP (Mariador Palace)

According to the results we have collected (see Figure 1 above), when clients were asked to rank the factors they considered in choosing Mariador Palace, many of them use quality of service as the first, with 31.0% of the observations. Famous hotel came second with 25.0% of the observations, while appropriate location 17.5%, low cost 13.5 %, and use by friends 13.0% of the observations to finish.

Again, respondents were asked to indicate the areas they think Mariador Palace is doing better than the other providers. However, the results were presented in Table 2.2 and Figure 2. The majority of the observations are attributable to innovation with 39.0 %. The second most chosen area is appropriate location, recording 19.5% of the observations and affordability and front desk came third with about 17.5%. Also, promotions record 12.0% and security 12.0% of the observation.

When asked to indicate the areas where the Mariador Palace needs to improve, quality of service was ranked first, recording 27.0% of the observations. Followed closely are competitive prices which records 26.0% of the observation. Welcome recorded 22.0% of the observation to stay at third place, while employees and advertising recorded 14.5% and 10.5%, respectively.

The five dimensions of service quality (SERVQUAL) that must be present in any service delivery are reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and tangibles. Also, it suggests that values for the service quality scale items range from 45.0% to 6.0% indicating that the level of service quality associated with the Mariador Palace is quite higher. According to the result in Figure 4, the quality of service in Mariador Palace hotel is essential in affecting the chance of satisfied client. The quality of Service in any Company is a vital point which indicates the need for excellent and good quality service.

By using an excellent quality of service in MP, even a good level of service can become a great service which will lead to more client contentment and allow them to patronize and recommend the service to others customers. Hence, this increases the client’s contentment and the profitability of the company.

The items on price fairness record values in the range from 34.0% and 7.5%. First, the mean value competitive price (34.0%) and justified price (30.0%) is above the scale midpoint, indicating that clients agree that Mariador Palace hotel offers good prices for its products. Second, when increase in the price fairness is high, this would lead to decreased customer satisfaction. This is shown in unfair price 7.5% and expensive price 8.0%, by which items are all below the scale point. In addition, this suggests that this observation is somewhat consistent across all the respondents.

Table 2.6 presents means for items measuring brand image. The mean values range from 11.0 % to 28.5.66%. Clearly, the mean for the brand image items (BI2, BI3, and BI4) are above the scale midpoint, indicating that Mariador Palace hotel has a high image in the eyes of respondents and it influences the choices of the customers. Results showing 23.5% suggests that responses with respect to innovation in brand image are consistent across all the respondents.

Again, Table 2.7 highlights that value for the service recovery scale items range from 11.0% to 28.0%. This suggests that recovery from service failure associated with the Mariador Palace hotel is rather low. Likewise, it seems that from the present study’s findings on service recovery, the recovery efforts to rectify service failures associated with Mariador Palace hotel are barely contentment, at least from clients’ perspective.

Frequency and percentage for all items measuring client orientation are presented in Table 2.8. Some values exceed the scale midpoint, ranging from 15.5 % to 24.5 %, while some are very low. On the basis of mean values which is the scale midpoint and lower (i.e. 15.5% and 18%), it can be asserted that clients think that the employees at Mariador, in relation to providing service being professional, are not client oriented. Then, the poor aspect of client’s orientations in Mariador Palace hotel can lead to decrease in client’s contentment.

Table 2.9. Overall contentment with Mariador palace hotel

On the five point Likert scale, 3 is the scale midpoint, with values below showing satisfied and values above showing dissatisfied. This result determines that 29.5 % of the respondents are satisfied, and 19.0 % very satisfied with the services in Mariador Palace. Although this score is slightly under the average, it is a fairly poor assessment for hotel sector. The interpretation of this result could be that Mariador Palace clients are truly satisfied with the hotel service performance and its impact. In line with the adopted definition, this result showed that clients are satisfied with their experiences of the use of the hotel services

11.2. Correlations

12. Conceptual Frame on Client’s Contentment in Mariador Palace Hotel

The Conceptual Model

Figure 5 below explains the conceptual framework of this work, which principally shows that client contentment in Mariador hotel will be an important element of hotel service supplier’s quality of service, price, brand image, recovery service, and employees’ client orientation. This opinion is consistent with marketing theory which specifies that market orientation, either the business or employees level, have a big influence on an organizational performance across a diverse range of factors. These factors include business profitability, organizational commitment, price, business reputation, quality of product, client-business identification, and many others.

Hence, the concept of model advises that the influence of employees’ client orientation on client’s contentment would be mediated by the quality of service, the price, the brand image, and the recovery service. Therefore, this framework will be evaluated in the rest of this topic.

Figure 5. Determinants of client’s contentment in hotel business
12.1. Hypothesis Confirmation

H1: When increase in the price fairness is high, this would lead to decreased client contentment. The result shows there is a positive relationship between price and client contentment. The correlation coefficient between the price and client contentment is positive, 0.696. However, this means that an increase in good service quality also leads to an increase in client contentment. On the other hand, a decrease in service quality also leads to a decrease in client contentment.

H2: Good quality services increase the number of satisfied clients and hence, enhance client contentment. The correlation coefficient between service quality and client contentment is positive, that is 0.889 supporting H2. However, this means that an increase in good service quality also leads to an increase in client contentment. On the other hand, a decrease in service quality also leads to a decrease in client contentment. The implication of this result is that quality services is the most significant of all the hotel service in Mariador Palace in Conakry. Also, the result means that the client’s perception of hotel quality service strongly influences their perception of services and their contentment level.

H3: When client orientation is poor in relation of the service, it would decrease the client contentment. The correlation coefficient between employee’s client’s orientation and client contentment is high, 0.934 supporting H3. However, this means that employment status has good impact on how clients evaluate service performance. This result could as well be due to the fact that the MP is still one of the best hotel to establish such good relationship with the clients.

H4: There is a positive relationship between brand image and overall client contentment. The result determines that there is a positive relationship between brand image and client contentment. The correlation coefficient between the variables is positive, that is 0.917 supporting H4. Thus, this means that clients are influenced by the brand of the company.

12.2. General Conclusions

In conclusion, this article allows us to understand and demonstrate which of these factors contribute to the low level of client’s contentment in Mariador Palace hotel. Thus, a correlation analysis was performed, which resulted in the confirmation that client’s contentment in the hotel industry is positively and significantly associated with price fairness, service quality, brand image, and recovery service. According to the results, significant positive relationships exist between client’s contentment and quality service r=0.886. However, this is in line with many literature on SERQUAL, between client contentment and price fairness r=0.696, between brand-image and client contentment r=0.953, and between recovery service and client contentment r=0.916. However, a weak relationship was observed between brand image and price fairness r=0.612 which supports the fact that MP hotel operating in hotel industry is focused on marketing practice instead of market orientation.

The validity of the statement should be analyzed in the fact that the customers are suggesting that MPH should focus on its service quality, price competitiveness, and employees if they want to strengthen client’s contentment. This article was done in client contentment for Mariador Palace hotel. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to evaluate the current contentment level of the client in order to have a good understanding of the clients’ needs from a hotel view in improving the service level. Also, research also analyzed the factors and reasons that increase issues affecting contentment level. This article had been performed through the use of qualitative and quantitative research method, and some interviews were done with the hotel manager. The management literature of this study shows that in hotel industry, service quality, price fairness, brand image, recovery service, and client orientation of service employees could potentially impact the level of contentment of hotel clients. With the empirical results, this study concludes that service quality and price fairness are the most important determinants of customer satisfaction in a hotel company. The greater the perception of price unfairness, the greater the level of dissatisfaction; while the lower the service quality, the lower the level of customer satisfaction among clients. Although business organizations can be offering quality services and goods, but when it does not meet the expectations of the customers, it may result into waste. Furthermore, they should ensure that they know their customer’s needs, and should structure their business organization towards achieving customer satisfaction. The theory comprises of useful instruments on how to organize a business organization to satisfy the customers. Thus, they involve the followings: managing customer satisfaction, clearing the barriers, building the foundations, using the tools, managing customer satisfaction by managing customer complaints, encourage complaints, and turn the complaints to gift and continuous improvement until the service becomes better. All these tools are useful for business organizations and most especially, the case study of Mariador Palace Hotel.

References

[1]  Alan Clarke & Wei Chen. International hospitality management: concepts and cases, MPG books Ltd, Great Britain, 6(12), 2007. [Online].
In article      
 
[2]  Bradley, N. Marketing Research: tools and techniques, Oxford University Press Inc., New York. (2007).
In article      
 
[3]  Chisnall, P. Marketing Research, 6th ed. McGraw-Hill, Berkshire. (2001).
In article      
 
[4]  Edvardsson, B., Johnson, M. D., Gustafsson, A., & Strandvik, T. The effects of satisfaction and loyalty on profit and growth: products versus services. Total Quality Management, 11, 917 -927. (2000).
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Hart, C.W.L., Heskett, J.L. and Sasser, E.W. Jr. The profitable art of service recovery, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 68 No. 4, (1990).
In article      PubMed
 
[6]  Gale, B. Monitoring Customer Satisfaction and Market Perceived Quality, Worth Repeating Series, No. 922CS01, American Marketing Association, Chicago, IL. (1992).
In article      
 
[7]  [Online].available:http://www.managementstudyguide.com/management_functions.htm.
In article      
 
[8]  Jones, T.O. and Sasser, W.E. Jr. Why satisfied customers defect, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 73, November-December, pp. 88-99. (1995).
In article      
 
[9]  Kothari C.R .Research Methodology: Methods & Techniques, Mcmillan. (2000:149).
In article      
 
[10]  Kotler, P. Marketing Management. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (2000).
In article      PubMed
 
[11]  Levesque, T. and McDougall, G.H.G. Determinants of customer satisfaction, International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 14 No. 7. (1996).
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Lewis, R.C. The measurement of gaps in the quality of hotel services, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 6 No. 2. (1987). [Online].available:Marketingtools.com.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Oliver, R.L. Measurement and evaluation of satisfaction process in retail setting, Journal of Retailing, Vol. 57. (1981).
In article      
 
[14]  Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. and Berry, L.L. SERVQUAL: a multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality, Journal of Retailing, Vol. 64, Spring, pp. 2-40. (1988)
In article      
 
[15]  Parker, C., and Mathews, B.P. Customer satisfaction: contrasting academic and consumers' interpretations, Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 19/1. (2001).
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Patton, M. Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods (3ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication. (2002).
In article      
 
[17]  Ravald, A. and Grönroos, C. The value concept and relationship marketing», European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 30 No. 2, pp. 19-30. (1996).
In article      View Article
 
[18]  Roger Hallowell. The relationships of customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, and profitability: an empirical study, International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 7 No. 4. (1996). [Online].available: Marketingtools.com.
In article      
 
[19]  Werth, J. Customer satisfaction measurement, complying with the ISO 9001:2000 requirement, available at www.ISO-900-2000.com. (2002).
In article      
 
[20]  Zeithaml, V.A. Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: a means-end model and synthesis of evidence”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 52, July. (1988).
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Zeithaml, V., Bitner, M. & Gremler, D. Services Marketing integrating Customer Focus across the Firm, 5th ed. McGraw-Hill International Edition, Singapore. (2009).
In article      
 
  • CiteULikeCiteULike
  • MendeleyMendeley
  • StumbleUponStumbleUpon
  • Add to DeliciousDelicious
  • FacebookFacebook
  • TwitterTwitter
  • LinkedInLinkedIn