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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Impact of Micro-Climate Change on the Forest Vegetation Resources of the Mount Cameroon Region

Mukete Beckline, Vivian Ntoko
American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2022, 10(2), 57-66. DOI: 10.12691/env-10-2-2
Received June 20, 2022; Revised July 25, 2022; Accepted July 31, 2022

Abstract

Over the years, non-timber forest products have become vulnerable to climate change with consequences for their growth, maturity, harvesting and fruiting. As surrounding forest communities continuously depend on forest resources, climate change affects their livelihoods. Based on climate perception data obtained from 200 households, in 4 villages using household surveys, 12 focus group discussions and meteorological data for the period 1990 to 2020, this study examined local perception of climate change, forest vegetation resources and the various climate adaptation strategies in the Mount Cameroon Region. Results showed 73.4%, 37.3% and 68.8% of the respondents had observed an increase in temperature, rainfall and windspeed, respectively. Mean annual rainfall decreased by 1.0541 mm per year while, the mean annual temperature increased by 0.0263°C per year. This study will help policy makers educate local surrounding forest communities on climate adaptation measures, impacts, and the sustainable use of forest vegetation resources.

1. Introduction

Globally, non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are among the most vital forest resources for short and long-term food security contributing to the well-being of about 2 billion people 1, 2, 3. NTFPs are natural resources mainly of biological origin aside from wood and timber, obtained from forests and agroforestry systems, fallows, plantations and woodlots 4.

According to 5, Cameroon harbours over 9000 plant species of which 710 are presently exploited as NTFPs. This extraction annually generates over 124 million USD (76.3 billion FCFA) with about 22 million USD (14 billion FCFA) primarily consumed in monetary value by local households 6. Moreso, 7, espoused that an estimated 38% of vegetal NTFPs are consumed as food in Cameroon. This consumption generates an annual monetary value of about 64.7 million USD (32 billion FCFA).

Over 85% of the rural populations in Cameroon directly or indirectly depend on various climate-sensitive sectors including fisheries, agriculture and forest resources harvesting for livelihood 8. Although forest resources are exposed and susceptible to climate fluxes, they remain a major source of livelihood for surrounding communities. Rural livelihoods include agricultural activities, artisanal logging, fuelwood collection and harvesting of NTFPs 9, 10.

Climate changes have over the years become one of the greatest threats to sustainable development goals and forest resources availability. This is generally likened to its effects on surrounding ecosystems 11, 12. According to 3, 13, 14, the changing availability of NTFPs in the Mount Cameroon Region (MCR) is partly due to climate stresses in relation to the country’s fragile economy, weak resilience and low adaptive capacity.

The vulnerability of surrounding forest communities to the impacts of climate change have been well documented. In Nepal, 2 found surrounding communities to be faced with enormous challenges in coping with the increased incidents of invasive plant species and outbreaks of insect pests. These constraints were further exacerbated by the absence of technical knowledge, limited or no government support, lack of predictability of extreme events and climate related hazards. Similarly, 11 analysed and observed drivers of climate change adaptation on forest resources in West Bengal, India to include forestry income, marital status, family size, age of the household head, ambient temperature and the value of the household’s physical assets.

Furthermore, 15, posited that, most often due to extreme climate events such as floods, droughts, outbreaks of pests and disease, NTFPs, are vital in periods of crop failure. Therefore, the commercialization of various NTFPs serve as sources of household income thus curtailing food and dietary lapses, while contributing to and ensuring household food security. Meanwhile, 16 used a field survey to analyse the effect of climate variability and NTFPs through local community perception across Ohafia Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. The study showed climate variability to drive NTFPs availability with a consequence for food security and household income of surrounding communities.

In a related study in the savannah woodlands of northern Ghana, 17 observed dwindling NTFPs resource base to be driven by agricultural activities, uncontrolled harvesting and climate change. Meanwhile, 18 found the importance of NTFPs across the United States of America to be affected by several factors including climate variability, insects, diseases and drought with consequences for ecosystem and forest health, culture and local income.

In another study, 19 found changing patterns of rainfall and increasing temperatures to impact livelihoods around the New Dabaga-Ulongambi forest reserve in Kilolo District, Tanzania. Their study revealed NTFPs harvesting as a safety net for surrounding communities in order to cope with the impacts of climate change. Relatedly, 20 observed the evidence of climate change impacts on homestead forests resources across the Bandarban hill district of Bangladesh to include landslides, pest infestation and changes in tree phenology. Their study also found that, aside from being related to hill altitudes and associated ecosystems, this variation was also dependent on the household income, and educational level of the household members.

Over the past two decades, the absence of reliable quantitative data on climate change and forest resources has intrigued Cameroonian scientists. From this perspective, various studies have started addressing different aspects of climate change in relation to forest resources, rural livelihoods, adaptation strategies, food security and income. For instance, around the Bamboko forest reserve of Southwest Cameroon, 21 examined local climate perception and NTFPs. Their study found changes in climate to be related to increasing temperatures and change in rainfall patterns with availability consequences for various NTFPs particularly eru (Gnetum africanum).

On the other hand, 22 observed climate stresses, exposures and vulnerabilities as already being felt across two forest communities in Monatele and Yokadouma in Cameroon with observable impacts on livelihood resources. These stresses included seasonal changes, erratic rainfall patterns, drought, strong winds and heavy rainfall. These climate-related disturbances were important constraints to social, ecological and economic processes. According to 23, NTFPs play a vital role in the economy of the Mifi division of west Cameroon. Despite these benefits, several constraints such as seasonality of products and high transportation cost affected the availability of NTFPs at local sale points. Also, 24 reported on the enormous varieties of NTFPs including seeds, nuts, leaves, barks, roots and trees potentials of Nguti Sub-division in southwest Cameroon. According to their study, the quality and quantity of these NTFPs were being constrained and challenged by resources depletion and scarcity due to climate change, overexploitation, deforestation, subsistence farming and institutional dynamics.

Studies that directly address the topic of NTFPs availability in relation to climate changes and adaptation strategies in Cameroon and MCR specifically mainly focus on the vulnerability of biodiversity in relation to unsustainable harvesting and commercialisation 6, 25. These authors have used qualitative methods to heighten knowledge on the vitality of forest resources to local livelihoods and threats to forest products.

The present study bridges that knowledge-gap as it examines climate perception in conjunction with local meteorological data and availability of NTFPs. The study also makes an analysis of the adaptation strategies aimed at enhancing livelihoods and ecosystems. This information may assist in the improvement of macro-level poverty estimates, serve as an input into climate change adaptation and forest conservation policy. It may also serve as a knowledge platform for effective collaboration between policy makers, local surrounding communities and forestry stakeholders to design appropriate community-based rural development and forest conservation initiatives aimed at curbing climate change impacts.

2. Methodology

2.1. Study Area

The Mount Cameroon Region (MCR) (latitude 3°57' to 4°28' N and longitude 8°58'to 92°4' E) is located in the South West Region of Cameroon. The MCR, stretches from the lowlands of about 20 meters to the mountain slopes of Mount Cameroon (4°13' N and 9°10' E) in Fako Division and tipping at over 4,100 meters above sea level, Figure 1 26. The local population is estimated at about 400,000 inhabitants, with 63% living in semi-urban and 37% in rural areas, respectively. This gives an average population density of about 120.4 inhabitants per km2 in the semi-urban areas and about 70.7 inhabitants per km² around the rural areas 27, 28. Covering an estimated total surface area of about 5,695.5km2, MCR consists of mangroves, coastal evergreen, montane, and other lowland forest types 29. These forests contain enormous varieties of biological diversity including endangered and endemic species. About 370 bird species have been identified with three being endemic; Mount Cameroon spurfowl (Pternistis camerunensis), Mount Cameroon rough-winged swallow (Psalidoprocne fuliginosa), and Mount Cameroon Speirops (Zosterops melanocephalus). Similarly, several large tropical montane mammals including the putty-nosed monkey (Cercopithecus nictitans), yellow-backed duiker (Cephalophus sylvicultor), African forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), have been identified 30. Meanwhile, Precambrian sandstones and clays are dominant soil types, both of which may have originated from the various volcanic eruptions witnessed within the area 4. Two seasons, a dry season from November to March and a rainy season from May to October primarily occur within the area. Annual rainfall ranges from 2,000 mm at the peak of Mount Cameroon to about 10,000 mm at the southwestern lower altitudes. Temperature varies throughout the year with mean monthly maximum temperatures in the dry season ranging between 25°C and 35°C and in the rainy season 18.2°C to 27°C. Meanwhile, at the summit of Mount Cameroon, temperatures may drop to 0°C throughout the year. During most of the year, the relative humidity and minimum monthly values range between 78% and 90% 4, 31.

The livelihoods of about 70% of the local population directly or indirectly depends on forests for food and cash crops where spices, vegetables, cocoyams, banana, oil palm and cocoa, are widely cultivated. In the rural areas, the inhabitants mostly depend on the harvesting and extraction of NTFPs mainly as an offseason job when pressures on agricultural activity drops. In the MCR, NTFPs primarily harvested from the different land uses and forests include bush pepper (Piper guineense), bitter cola (Garcinia cola), land snails (Archachatina marginata), njansang (Ricinodendron heudelotii), country onion (Afrostyrax lepidophyllus), bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis), wild animals, spices, medicinal plants, fruits, seeds, nuts, and numerous edible mushroom species 3, 12, 21. The rural population is also employed as labourers by the agro-industrial companies including Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) and Cameroon Tea Estates (CTE), other smallholder plantations and private businesses. In addition, the maritime ports of Limbe, Tiko and Idenau provide access by water to neighbouring Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria, and other regions of Cameroon thus facilitating the ferrying of forest resources 4, 31.

2.2. Data Collection

The study was carried out in four villages including Bova, Bokwango, Mapanja and Likombe, Table 1. These villages form part of the six cluster (Buea 1, Buea 2, Bomboko 1, Bomboko 2, Muyuka and West Coast) conservation zones of the MCR. All the selected villages are predominantly indigenous and exhibit similar climatic and ecological conditions. The villages are also dependent on the surrounding forests for livelihood, and carry out similar social and economic activities. The villages are thus a representation of primary data sources for historical, social, economic and forest inventory. A semi-structured, close and open-ended recall questions and 12 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were employed as the central survey mechanisms for data collection as described by 8. The number of households in each village were obtained from the local village chiefs because reliable and official government population census data are lacking. In villages with less than 25 households, this study used semi-structured and open-ended questionnaires through a door-to-door survey. In villages with more than 25 households, the village was divided into groups for FGDs. The number of respondents in each FGD was limited to 5 randomly selected volunteers and who were at least 18 years old (according to Cameroon Law). Their National Identity Cards were verified and in cases where this was unavailable, reference was requested from the village chief or his representative. In instances where participants were not able to communicate in the English language, Pidgin English and or the Bakweri language was used by the researchers to ensure proper understanding. The interview captured at least 80% of the households per village giving a total of 200 interviews of households across the 4 villages. The basic unit for this research was the household and it refers to a group of people living together in the same house who regularly cook and eat from the same pot 4. The interviews focused on household characteristics (age, marital status, gender etc), forest related activities (collection of forest vegetation resources, NTFPs, importance), climate perception (seasonal variation, availability of NTFPs, impacts on livelihoods) and adaptation strategies employed to enhance livelihoods and ecosystem resilience.

The meteorological data between 1990 and 2020, were obtained from the weather station of Pamol Plantations Plc weather station located in southwest Cameroon. Microsoft Excel Software for Windows 10, was used to examine and analyse people’s experiences, knowledge and perceptions of climate change and coping initiatives. The cumulative responses obtained during the surveys, were used to explore local scientific comprehension of the impacts of climate change on the livelihoods of vulnerable people and adaptation actions.

3. Results

3.1. Household Characteristics

Among the 200 respondents surveyed, 42.74% were males while 57.26% were females, majority of whom were single or married. Majority of the respondents, (86%) were indigenous who have been living in the villages for 20 years and above. Respondent age composition showed 17.62% to fall within the 0-20 years age group, 53.51% in the 21-40 years (the very active age group), 20.39% in the 41-60 years (active age group) and 8.48% in the 61years and above (inactive or retirement age group). In addition, 52% of the respondents had acquired primary education, 19% secondary education while 11% had completed tertiary education. Meanwhile, about 18% of the respondents had no formal education and could neither read nor write, Table 1.

3.2. Socioeconomic Activities of the Households

Cash and food crop farming, are the main household activities primarily as shifting cultivation and agroforestry. In the agroforestry system, fruit trees such as avocado, oranges, African plum and mango; cash crops such as oil palm, rubber and cocoa, and food crops including cocoyams, plantains, corn and groundnuts are grown together. The local populations also rear animals mainly as part of their local culture and tradition. Over 84% of the households rear various types of domestic animals such pigs, fowls, and goats. Furthermore, every household (100%) is involved in NTFPs extraction (wood, rattan, fruits, bamboo and nuts), 77% in artisanal logging and 64% in hunting (birds, and rodents). Other household activities include fishing, small businesses, religious practices, and teaching, Table 1.

3.3. Local Perception of Climate Change

The survey showed about 73.4%, 11.7% and 15.9% of the respondents had observed an increase, decrease and no changes in temperature fluxes. Also, 37.3%, 52.8% and 9.1% had respectively observed an increase, a decrease and no changes in rainfall fluxes. On the other hand, 68.6%, 26.2% and 5.2% had observed an increase, a decrease and no changes in windspeed. In water availability (access to water sources such as springs, rivers, lakes, waterfalls, cataracts etc), 33.8%, 55.4% and 10.8% had observed an increase, a decrease and no changes in patterns of water availability. In addition, 38.5%, 57.6% and 3.9% were of the opinion that the amount of NTFPs had increased, decreased and had not changed around the study area. Similarly, 26.3%, 61.5% and 12.2% thought the number of rainy days had increased, decreased and had not changed, Figure 2.

3.4. Variation in Mean annual Rainfall

Mean annual rainfall decreases by about 1.0541 mm per year with 2010 having the highest mean annual rainfall. The R squared value also shows a 4.7% variation in rainfall indicating that the regression line fits the data, Figure 3.

3.5. Variation in Mean Annual Number of Rainy Days

The number of rainy days from 1990-2020 portrays a slight variability and decreases by about 0.0111days per year with 1993 having the lowest mean annual number of rainy days. The R squared value thus shows a 0.78% variation in the number of rainy days, Figure 4.

3.6. Variation in Mean Annual Temperature Patterns

The mean annual temperature had increased by 0.0263°C per year where 2009 recorded the highest mean annual temperatures. The R squared value shows a 21.3% variation in temperatures, Figure 5.

3.7. Perception of Climate Impacts on Vegetal NTFPs

Results showed that over 84.47%, 9.65% and 5.88% of the respondents had observed an increase, decrease and no changes in stunted growth patterns of vegetal NTFPs. Also, 68.32%, 14.97% and 16.71% had observed a decrease, an increase and no changes in the withering patterns of vegetal NTFPs, respectively. Furthermore, 82.97%, 5.67% and 11.36% of the respondents opined pest and disease infection on vegetal NTFPs had increased, decreased and had not changed, Table 2.

3.8. Seasonality and Availability of Forest Vegetation Resources

Forest vegetation resources are collected from about twenty-two plant species primarily during the rainy season. For instance, wild huckleberry (Solanun nigrum) and mushroom (Agaricus spp) were observed to be abundant during the rainy but unavailable during the dry season. Similarly, most of the households collect, consume and trade forest vegetation resources (leaves, soft stems, tender shoots, stalk and seeds) in the form of vegetables, condiments, and traditional medicines, Table 3. Also, Eru (Gnetum africanum) is available all year round and even during the rainy season. Eru serves as a vegetable, cure for spleen, bed wetting, stomach ache and drunkenness. Meanwhile, it is also harvested and marketed to neighbouring regions and countries including Nigeria, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea and Europe.

3.9. Adaptation Methods against the Impacts of Climate Change on Forest Vegetation Resources

The different climate adaptation methods were use of pesticides, replanting of vulnerable NTFPs, the diversion to processed NTFPs, and adaptation to available NTFPs etc. From this perspective, about 74.85% thought the use of pesticides was important. Meanwhile, 69.86% thought that adaptation to available NTFPs was very important. Similarly, 49.71% believed that adoption of improved NTFPs varieties was not important while 82.18% thought that it was very important to expand the harvesting of forest vegetation resources, Table 4.

  • Table 4. Adaptation methods against climate impacts on vegetal NTFPs based on an intensity gradient (very important, important and not important)

4. Discussion

4.1. Characteristics of the Households and NTFPs Harvesting

There were more female than male headed households probably because female headed households are often more involved in forest vegetation resources harvesting. The dependence of a household on forest vegetation resources is propelled by the available labour force and ability of the household to acquire or pay for extra labour. Most of the population belongs to the productive age group which both make up the youthful and vibrant population. This available vibrant population drives the harvesting of forest vegetation and other forest resources. But as this youthful population ages, the exuberance, energy and ability to engage in agricultural activities reduces due to poor health conditions which spirals into dependence on NTFPs harvesting. These active age groups have the ability to augment forest vegetation resources extraction and also adopt measures which facilitate the mitigation of the impacts of climate change. Majority of the households are not educated enough to drive livelihood decisions. Therefore, these households mainly depend on NTFPs particularly forest vegetation resources harvesting for their livelihood and other forest resources including wood extraction, wild animals and birds. Hence, following these restrictions on the diversification of livelihood, forest vegetation resources and other forest resources harvesting remains the main stay for sustaining the household’s constant food supply.

Moreso, most of these households have little or no labour and capital inputs, dependence on forest vegetation resources and other forest resources for livelihood is their lone outlet. This dependence is further driven by the combined effects from the ever-increasing demand for forest vegetation resources and other forest resources such as bush meat 10. In another study, 32 observed the household size to be significantly and positively related to a household’s decision to depend on forest vegetation resources and other forest resources. In a similar study, education and age were significant in determining a household’s reliance on forest resources. This dependence was found to decrease as the age and educational level of the respondent increased. Therefore, with regards to adults in the 41-60 and above 60 age range, youths were more forest dependent 33. Therefore, the individuals in these active working age groups are more knowledgeable on the better practices of forest vegetation resources extraction. According to 34, these age groups are more willing to bear the risks of adapting better to forest vegetation resources extraction techniques because of their longer planning horizons. As post primary education is quite low, youths adopt vegetal and other forest resources harvesting after completing primary school. This is primarily because the choice of selecting climate adaptation practices is usually compromised as a result of inaccessibility to climate change knowledge and information databases. The respondent’s competence and ability in the efficient use of natural resources is usually enhanced by education because it increases his or her ability to obtain, analyse and interpret information 34.

4.2. Local Perception of Climate Variability

Between 1990 and 2020, rainfall and temperature have been varying probably as a result of a shift in the annual changes of dry and wet seasons across west Africa. Local perception of climate variability shows an increase in average temperature, decrease in rainfall patterns, number of rainy days, water and NTFPs availability with an accompanying increase in winds prevalence, velocity, and occurrence. This observed drift in the beginning of rainfall and a shorter rainy season, consequently influences NTFPs availability and collection calendar. Climate variability and change are affecting forest vegetation resources and local livelihoods due to changes in growth, low productivity, loss of species, drying of leaves and poor seed germination. These effects are directly related to changes in water availability and increasing temperatures particularly during the dry season. The harvesting regimes, poor NTFPs and seed germination are further compounded by blowing down of several NTFPs especially climbers and washing away of seeds as a result of erratic rains, flooding from heavy rains, violent winds and high incidents of pests and diseases. Moreso, variations in amounts of rainfall and patterns affect rates of soil erosion and moisture, both of which constitute primary components for plant growth. Therefore, drivers of intra-seasonal changes including the duration of the rains during the growing season, effectiveness of the rains during each rainy period and the beginning of the first rains would obviously affect the growth of forest vegetation resources. According to 4, 34, 35, the differential changes in rainfall patterns, number of rainy days, amount of rainfall and shifts in thermal regimes all influence local annual and seasonal water fluxes. These fluxes would therefore affect the distribution of periods during which temperature and moisture conditions warrant NTFPs growth, fruit repining and maturity.

4.3. Challenges for Local Livelihoods

The MCR provides a wealth of NTFPs vital for the livelihoods and well-being of local communities. Many of these forest vegetation resources have consumptive, medicinal and economic potentials, and where their occurrence is generally seasonal. For instance, during the dry season, or prolonged dry periods, forest vegetation resources are most often unavailable with availability increasing at the onset and during the rainy season. Climate change influences forest vegetation habitats, depicted by changes in quality, growth, loss of species and low productivity 3. Scarcity and changes in area distribution are due to warm temperatures not favourable to forest vegetables since they do not store enough water. The seasonality of NTFPs could have a destructive effect as scarcity might lead to high demand and unsustainable harvesting. Consequently, the local populations experience shortages for household consumption and commercialisation because forest vegetation resources are a major source of food and income for surrounding communities 3, 36.

4.4. Local Adaptation to Climate Change

Local communities have over the years perceived climate change in terms of alterations in temperature and rainfall patterns. These observed changes in climatic events drives and conditions individual perception and decisions to adapt or mitigate in order to improve on living conditions, diversify livelihood strategies and enhance ecosystems. This perception is therefore a primordial factor which instigates the carrying out of various adaptive measures aimed at curtailing the impacts attributed to long-term and short-term variations in number of rainy days, ambient temperatures and rainfall trends. In order to counter the stresses posed by poor seed germination, stunted tree growth, low productivity, washing away of plants and seeds, the local population engages in new farming strategies and techniques aimed at ameliorating crop productivity and improving household livelihoods. In addition, forest vegetation resources are replanted with several other trees in agroforestry systems and woodlots. The fruit trees planted include bush mango, avocado, mango and African plum which support the climbing crops, serve as wind breaks and as shades to vulnerable and climate prone NTFPs. Also, NTFPs that are more vulnerable to harsh climatic conditions are often replaced by improved varieties. A study by 3 reveals that wild bitter leaf (Gymnanthemum amygdalinum) is mostly substituted by other species not difficult to process. The change is linked to its bitterness, water scarcity and long processing period needed to wash out the bitter taste. Also, wild huckleberry (Solanun nigrum) is rarely consumed because of reduced availability linked to changes in climate and farming techniques.

Furthermore, and to eliminate pests and diseases, local populations apply insecticides, fungicides and pesticides to their woodlots and individual farms. Another common adaptation method is the diversification of livelihood such as off-farm activities which compensate for climate related low NTFPs harvest during both off-season and on-season periods. According to 37, off-farm activities include transportation business, petty trading, casual labour and palm wine taping. Similarly, local communities adopt diversification and thus expand NTFPs harvesting which provides them with a wider choice of harvesting a variety of more NTFPs within a given area. This strategy expands harvesting related activities on various crops, reduces the possible risk of climate variations and enables local populations to change NTFPs types which are available and survive the ensuing climate vagaries.

5. Conclusion

This study has revealed the susceptibility of forest vegetation resources to climate change and adaptation strategies in the Mount Cameroon region. NTFPs play a vital role in the lives of forest dependent people since they provide food, revenue and medicines. The prolonged dry periods and reduced rainfall are problematic to forest vegetation resources since most are very fragile and do not resist warm temperatures. It is important to combine meteorological data and local scale climate perceptions especially in relation to its impacts on the livelihoods of local communities. These local scale perceptions can be employed in assessing the impacts of climate variation on plants particularly forest vegetation resources availability and the adaptation strategies used by these local populations in curtailing the perceived climate variations.

As observed in local climate change perceptions, the local meteorological data showed variations in mean annual rainfall which decreased by 1.0541 mm per year with 2010 having the highest mean annual rainfall. Furthermore, the number of rainy days decreased by 0.0111days per year with 1993 having the lowest mean annual number of rainy days. Similarly, the mean annual temperature increased by 0.0263°C per year with 2009 recording the highest mean annual temperatures. In this study, local populations employed various adaptation measures to mitigate climate effects. These adaptation measures are the use of pesticides, replanting of climate vulnerable NTFPs, diversion to processed NTFPs, and adaptation to available NTFPs. Also, forest vegetation resources in the form of vegetables condiments, and traditional medicines are collected from about twenty-two plant species primarily during the rainy season. They play a significant role in the livelihoods of forest dependent communities. This study further provides evidence for the necessity of combining and including local scale climate change perceptions and meteorological data in studies involving climate change, rural livelihoods and forest conservation as espoused in various published and unpublished scientific works. The study has in addition made available knowledge of major climate adaptation methods employed by the local populations residing around the Mount Cameroon Region to adapt to the effects of changing local climate. Following these adaptation mechanisms and methods, appropriate, adequate and effective policies could be developed, implemented and monitored in order to mitigate, curtail and curb climate change impacts.

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[22]  Youssoufa, B., Tiani, M., Somorin, O and Sonwa, D (2013). Exploring vulnerability and adaptation to climate change of communities in the forest zone of Cameroon. Climatic Change 119(42433):857-889.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Essouman, P., Temgoua, L and Simo, B (2020). Contribution of non-timber forest products bitter kola, njangsang and palm wine to the income of marketers in the Mifi division of the west region of Cameroon. Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry 2021: 27-37.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  Ngambong, B., Njilla, R., Mengnjo, N and Nfor, F (2020). The challenges and management strategies of non-timber forest products for sustainability in Nguti sub division, south west region, Cameroon. Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology 2020: 15-20.
In article      View Article
 
[25]  Lambi, C and Moto, T (2016). Man, and the changing forest landscape in Fako Division. African Journal of Social Sciences 7(3): 11-18.
In article      
 
[26]  Ufoka, B, Molua, E and Fabinin, N (2018). Poultry price and market analysis in the south west region of Cameroon. Journal of Food Security 6 (1): 42-50.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Fonge, B., Bechem, E and Juru, V (2015). Agriculture practice and its impact on forest cover and individual trees in the Mount Cameroon region. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology 6(2): 123-137.
In article      View Article
 
[28]  Mukete, B., Sun, Y., Zama, E and Monono, S (2016a). Paper consumption and environmental impact in an emerging economy. Journal of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering 1(1): 13-18.
In article      
 
[29]  Ngang, D (2015). The contribution of community-based natural resources management to livelihoods, conservation and governance in Cameroon. A comparative assessment of three community forests in Fako division. Postgraduate Diploma Thesis. Pan African Institute for Development West Africa, Buea, Cameroon.
In article      
 
[30]  BirdLife International (2022). Important bird areas factsheet: Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge. Available at http://www.birdlife.org. Accessed, 2nd March 2022.
In article      
 
[31]  Emma, M and Burgess, N (2022). Mount Cameroon and Bioko montane forests. Available at https://www.oneearth.org/ecoregions/mount-cameroon-and-bioko-montane-forests/. Accessed 13th April, 2022.
In article      
 
[32]  Biland, M., Zeb, A., Ullah, A and Kaechele, H (2021). Why do households depend on the forest for Income? Analysis of factors influencing households’ decision-making behaviors. Sustainability 2021(13): 9419.
In article      View Article
 
[33]  Garekae, H., Tsompie, O and Lepetu, J (2017). Socio-economic factors influencing household forest dependency in Chobe enclave, Botswana. Ecological Processes 6: 40 (2017).
In article      View Article
 
[34]  Ngoe, M., Zhou, L., Mukete, B and Enjema, M (2019). Perceptions of climate variability and determinants of farmers’ adaptation strategies in the highlands of southwest Cameroon. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 17(6):15041-15054.
In article      View Article
 
[35]  Mongi, H., Majule, E and Lyimo, G (2010). Vulnerability and adaptation of rainfed agriculture to climate change and variability in semi-arid Tanzania. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 4 (6) 371-381.
In article      View Article
 
[36]  Defang, J., Manu, I., Bime, J., Tabi, O and Defang, F (2014). Impact of climate change on crop production and development of Muyuka Subdivision – Cameroon. International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 2(2): 40-45.
In article      
 
[37]  Darota, N., Ngwe, S and Fomekong, L (2017). Comparative perception and knowledge of smallholder farmers on climate change and variation: case of Kaka (A) and Bulu (B) tribes eastern Meyomessala sub-division of Cameroon. Biodiversity 1(3): 00014.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2022 Mukete Beckline and Vivian Ntoko

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Normal Style
Mukete Beckline, Vivian Ntoko. Impact of Micro-Climate Change on the Forest Vegetation Resources of the Mount Cameroon Region. American Journal of Environmental Protection. Vol. 10, No. 2, 2022, pp 57-66. http://pubs.sciepub.com/env/10/2/2
MLA Style
Beckline, Mukete, and Vivian Ntoko. "Impact of Micro-Climate Change on the Forest Vegetation Resources of the Mount Cameroon Region." American Journal of Environmental Protection 10.2 (2022): 57-66.
APA Style
Beckline, M. , & Ntoko, V. (2022). Impact of Micro-Climate Change on the Forest Vegetation Resources of the Mount Cameroon Region. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 10(2), 57-66.
Chicago Style
Beckline, Mukete, and Vivian Ntoko. "Impact of Micro-Climate Change on the Forest Vegetation Resources of the Mount Cameroon Region." American Journal of Environmental Protection 10, no. 2 (2022): 57-66.
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  • Table 1. Characteristics of the households as described by respondents across the 4 surveyed villages around the MCR
  • Table 2. Perception of climate impacts on vegetal NTFPs based on an intensity gradient (increase, decrease and no change)
  • Table 4. Adaptation methods against climate impacts on vegetal NTFPs based on an intensity gradient (very important, important and not important)
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[2]  Gurung, L., Miller, K., Venn, S and Brett, B (2021). Climate change adaptation for managing non-timber forest products in the Nepalese Himalaya. Science of the Total Environment 796 (2021): 148853.
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[3]  Ntoko, V and Schmidt, M (2021). Indigenous knowledge systems and biodiversity conservation on Mount Cameroon. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods 30 (4): 227-241.
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[4]  Mukete, B., Sun, Y., Etongo, D., Ekoungoulou, R., Folega, F., Sajjad, S., Ngoe, M and Ndiaye, G (2018c). Household characteristics and forest resource dependence in the Rumpi hills of Cameroon. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 16(3): 2755-2779.
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[7]  Awono, A., Ebia-Atyi, R., Foundjem-Tita, D and Levang, P (2016). Vegetal non-timber forest products in Cameroon, contribution to the national economy. International Forestry Review 18 (1): 66-77.
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[10]  Mukete, B., Yujun, S., Etongo, D., Saeed, S and Mannan, A (2018b) Assessing the drivers of land-use change in the Rumpi hills forest protected area, Cameroon. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 37: 592-618.
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[11]  Basu, J (2019). Adaptation to climate change and non-timber forest products. A study of forest dependent communities in drought prone areas of West Bengal, India. 30th International Conference of Agricultural Economists, 28th August-2nd September, 2018. Vancouver, Canada.
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[12]  Ntoko, V and Schmidt, M (2021). Indigenous knowledge systems and biodiversity conservation on Mount Cameroon. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods 30 (4): 227-241.
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[13]  Brown, H., Nkem, J., Sonwa, D and Bele, Y (2010). Institutional adaptive capacity and climate change response in the Congo Basin Forests of Cameroon. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 15(3): 263-282.
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[14]  Mukete, B., Sun, Y., Etongo, D., Sajjad, S., Ngoe, M and Tamungang, R (2018a). Cameroon must focus on SDGs in its economic development plans. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development 60(2): 25-32.
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[15]  Shackleton, S (2014). Impacts of climate change on food availability: non-timber forest products. In: Freedman B. (eds) Global Environmental Change. Handbook of Global Environmental Pollution volume 1. Springer, Dordrecht.
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[16]  Ibe, G (2018). Climate variation, its impact on non-timber forest products and livelihood of Ohafia people, Abia State. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences 17, 2018: 91-107.
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[17]  Balma, Y and Yeboah, R (2016). Non-timber forest products and climate change resilience: the case of the savannah woodlands northern Ghana. Developing Country Studies 5 (6):31-38.
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[18]  Chamberlain, L., Emery, R and Patel-Weynand, T (2018). Assessment of nontimber forest products in the United States under changing conditions. General Technical Report SRS-GTR-232. USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 268p.
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[19]  Msalilwa, U., Augustino, S and Gillah, P (2013). Community perception on climate change and usage patterns of non-timber forest products by communities around Kilolo District, Tanzania. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management 6(5): 507-516.
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[20]  Tarit, K., Tajkera, A., Rajasree, N., Shiba, K and Mohiuddin, M (2021). Composition of homestead forests and their contribution to local livelihoods and environment: A study focused on Bandarban hill district, Bangladesh. Trees, Forests and People 5 (2021): 100117.
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[21]  Tieminie, R., Chia, E., Tieguhong, J., Nghobuoche, M., Mandiefe, S and Mamboh, R (2021). Non-timber forest products and climate change adaptation among forest dependent communities in Bamboko forest reserve, southwest region of Cameroon. Environmental Systems Research 10: 20 (2021).
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Youssoufa, B., Tiani, M., Somorin, O and Sonwa, D (2013). Exploring vulnerability and adaptation to climate change of communities in the forest zone of Cameroon. Climatic Change 119(42433):857-889.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Essouman, P., Temgoua, L and Simo, B (2020). Contribution of non-timber forest products bitter kola, njangsang and palm wine to the income of marketers in the Mifi division of the west region of Cameroon. Asian Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry 2021: 27-37.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  Ngambong, B., Njilla, R., Mengnjo, N and Nfor, F (2020). The challenges and management strategies of non-timber forest products for sustainability in Nguti sub division, south west region, Cameroon. Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology 2020: 15-20.
In article      View Article
 
[25]  Lambi, C and Moto, T (2016). Man, and the changing forest landscape in Fako Division. African Journal of Social Sciences 7(3): 11-18.
In article      
 
[26]  Ufoka, B, Molua, E and Fabinin, N (2018). Poultry price and market analysis in the south west region of Cameroon. Journal of Food Security 6 (1): 42-50.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Fonge, B., Bechem, E and Juru, V (2015). Agriculture practice and its impact on forest cover and individual trees in the Mount Cameroon region. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology 6(2): 123-137.
In article      View Article
 
[28]  Mukete, B., Sun, Y., Zama, E and Monono, S (2016a). Paper consumption and environmental impact in an emerging economy. Journal of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering 1(1): 13-18.
In article      
 
[29]  Ngang, D (2015). The contribution of community-based natural resources management to livelihoods, conservation and governance in Cameroon. A comparative assessment of three community forests in Fako division. Postgraduate Diploma Thesis. Pan African Institute for Development West Africa, Buea, Cameroon.
In article      
 
[30]  BirdLife International (2022). Important bird areas factsheet: Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge. Available at http://www.birdlife.org. Accessed, 2nd March 2022.
In article      
 
[31]  Emma, M and Burgess, N (2022). Mount Cameroon and Bioko montane forests. Available at https://www.oneearth.org/ecoregions/mount-cameroon-and-bioko-montane-forests/. Accessed 13th April, 2022.
In article      
 
[32]  Biland, M., Zeb, A., Ullah, A and Kaechele, H (2021). Why do households depend on the forest for Income? Analysis of factors influencing households’ decision-making behaviors. Sustainability 2021(13): 9419.
In article      View Article
 
[33]  Garekae, H., Tsompie, O and Lepetu, J (2017). Socio-economic factors influencing household forest dependency in Chobe enclave, Botswana. Ecological Processes 6: 40 (2017).
In article      View Article
 
[34]  Ngoe, M., Zhou, L., Mukete, B and Enjema, M (2019). Perceptions of climate variability and determinants of farmers’ adaptation strategies in the highlands of southwest Cameroon. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 17(6):15041-15054.
In article      View Article
 
[35]  Mongi, H., Majule, E and Lyimo, G (2010). Vulnerability and adaptation of rainfed agriculture to climate change and variability in semi-arid Tanzania. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 4 (6) 371-381.
In article      View Article
 
[36]  Defang, J., Manu, I., Bime, J., Tabi, O and Defang, F (2014). Impact of climate change on crop production and development of Muyuka Subdivision – Cameroon. International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 2(2): 40-45.
In article      
 
[37]  Darota, N., Ngwe, S and Fomekong, L (2017). Comparative perception and knowledge of smallholder farmers on climate change and variation: case of Kaka (A) and Bulu (B) tribes eastern Meyomessala sub-division of Cameroon. Biodiversity 1(3): 00014.
In article      View Article