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Reality of Developing Communication and Cooperation Capacity for Students by Organizating Experiential Activities in Primary School in Vietnam

Dao Thanh Nga
American Journal of Educational Research. 2021, 9(10), 607-611. DOI: 10.12691/education-9-10-1
Received September 11, 2021; Revised October 05, 2021; Accepted October 08, 2021

Abstract

The ability to communicate and cooperate is one of the most important competencies in life. In addition, experiential activities play a great role in developing students' competencies and qualities, including the ability to communicate and cooperate. However, the development of cooperative communication capacity in primary schools still faces many limitations in both management and educational work. The article presents the results of a survey analysis on 56 teachers and 660 students at Greenfield Inter-level High School on the situation of developing communication and cooperation capacity for students in organizing experiential activities in primary schools. Research results shows the current situation as a scientific basis to propose measures to develop communication and cooperation capacity for students in organizing experiential activities at the primary level.

1. Introduction

The ability to communicate and cooperate is one of the most important competencies in life. Through experiential education, communication and cooperation capacity will be strongly promoted. Many research works around the world have confirmed the importance of experiential activities in forming specific competencies for students, which is the ability of students to communicate and cooperate. J.A. Komensky (1592 - 1670) is considered the "father of modern education", has made many great contributions to the education of mankind. He affirmed that "learning is not the acquisition of knowledge in books but also the acquisition of knowledge from the sky, the earth, from oak trees and chestnut trees" [ 1, p.89].

Experiential learning has been playing a central role in modern education, considered as the trend and foundation of 21st century education (Itin, 1999) 2. Experiential learning is geared towards intense personal learning experiences and competence development. Experiential learning only brings positive results when there are changes in learners' judgment, emotions, knowledge and abilities through life events, that is, there is a change in knowledge, behavior and attitudes of learners [Chickering, A, 1977] 3. Learner involvement includes intellectual, emotional, sensory and active participation in learning activities (Boud, D., & Cohen, R., 2000) 4. Experiential learning places great importance on encouraging the connection between abstract lessons and concrete educational activities in order to optimize learning outcomes (Sakofs, 1995) 5; as well as learning from reflection and analytical processes from learners' experiences (Chapman, McPhee and Proudman, 1995) 6.

In addition, experiential learning is a theory of learning and human development that provides models of experiential learning. Educators see experiential learning as a remedy for a shift away from traditional learning that focuses solely on the transmission of knowledge from teacher to student; model where learners actively learn by feeling, trust, cooperation, sharing experiences and values, as well as real living and working conditions. Teaching is not only about forming knowledge for students, but more importantly, applying knowledge into practice. develop creative thinking. Experiential learning that requires students to practice this helps improve communication and collaboration skills for students. Maximizing the capacity of learners is to organize experiential activities in cognitive and practical situations, by encouraging students to participate in real experiences, learners will have the opportunity to see receive the subject from many different angles and approaches Andresen, L., Boud, D., and Cohen, R., Experience-Based Learning, in Foley, G., (2000) 7, Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E., & Ecclestone, K. (2004) 8, Linda H. Lewis & Carol J. Williams (1994), 9, Miettinen, R. (2000) 10, Stavenga de Jong, JA, Wierstra, RFA, and Hermanussen, J. (2006) 11. Interaction between students in groups helps to encourage and celebrate each other's efforts to accomplish a common task, and personality diversity helps students to spontaneously interact and adapt 12. Students need to experience positive interdependence with their peers, realize personal accountability through group learning, and encourage their peers to interact directly in the classroom. group environment and reflect on their group dynamics. Furthermore, some conditions, such as group composition, group size, and learning tasks, support communication and cooperation among students in groups Cohen, E. G. (1994) 13, Gillies, R. M. (2003) 14, Gillies and Ashman (1995) 15 found that students who were trained in how to cooperate with others were more confident and cooperated better than those who did not Furthermore, Gillies (2002) 16 suggests that students who have been trained in specific skills are more cooperative and supportive of each other than their untrained peers. This helps students to be more confident and dynamic when expressing themselves.

Many Research in Vietnam have confirmed that experiential education plays an important role in capacity building for students. Creative experience is one of the educational paths to effectively develop students' abilities and qualities, which is a requirement of current educational innovation to realize the goal of educating dynamic people, autonomy, humanity and creativity 17. Educational methods must create conditions for children to experience, explore and discover the surrounding environment in various forms, meeting the needs and interests of children according to the motto "playing to learn, learning by playing" 18. Experiential activities are one of the educational activities that schools are currently paying great attention to. It can be said that experience is the only form to develop qualities and capacities for learners. Experiential activities in school will help promote positive social behaviors for learners; at the same time, creating good impacts on the relationships between teachers and students, between students and students, helping to create interest in learning for children 19.

Through experiential education, students will get acquainted with the world around them, experience and transform new knowledge into their own capacity so that they can easily adapt to life. In fact, the ability to communicate and cooperate is almost the main ability to help learners gain knowledge and develop personal capacity, many research works have confirmed the importance of experiential education for students. students in the formation of individual capacity for students, however, the researches do not focus on developing communication and cooperation capacity for learners. It also shows that education to develop cooperative communication capacity in experiential activities is not really effective. This article has been built from the research idea of assessing the current situation of developing communication and cooperation capacity for primary school students through experiential activities to clarify the shortcomings as a scientific basis. Students propose appropriate solutions to improve the quality of experiential education in order to form necessary competencies for learners.

2. Content

In order to find out how to develop communication and cooperation capacity for students in the organization of experiential activities in primary schools, the study conducted a survey of 56 teachers and students, 660 students.

2.1. The Reality of Developing Communication and Cooperation Capacity for Students in Organizing Experiential Activities at Primary School Level
2.1.1. The Reality of Teachers' Awareness about Developing Communication and Cooperation Capacity for Students in Organizing Experiential Activities at Primary School level

Among the 6 general and specific competencies mentioned in the survey, the ability to communicate and cooperate has 66% of teachers rated "very important". This shows that the majority of teachers have a correct perception of the importance of communication skills. Besides, there are still 53% rated at "normal" because although they know this capacity is important, they have not implemented much because they think the development of other competencies is more necessary such as self-control, self-study; problem solving and creativity. On the other hand, teachers face difficulties in developing communication and cooperation capacity through Experiential Activities because they do not know the indicators in the goals, do not know how to evaluate, and do not know how to organize suitable activities. When it comes to communication and cooperation capacity, teachers often think of developing communication and cooperation capacity through Vietnamese, which is reflected in two successive aspects. receive and create texts, with many different forms of linguistic communication: oral (conversation, monologue), writing. On the other hand, according to teachers, students have often communicated with each other in class. Teachers helped when students had conflicts with friends, argued with friends or students had difficulty in integrating with friends... Organizing experiential activities to improve communication ability for students. Students cause loss of time and effort while just forming this skill for students by training and reminding when relevant situations occur.


2.1.2. Actual Situation of the Goal to Meet the Required Requirements of Experiential Activities for Learning in Primary School

The well-regarded goal is "Experience activities to form positive, hard-working habits for students" with the percentage of "Good completion" is 91.07%, "Complete" is 8.92%. To achieve this assessment, teachers pay great attention to organizing experiential activities with diverse, rich, practical content and forms, close to students, forming many qualities for students. In the assessment content "Knowing self-assessment and self-regulation", 71.4% of teachers rated "Good completion", 28.5% of teachers rated completion. To achieve this rating, the school has made a habit of starting with a goal and checking the goal as a daily habit of teachers and students and is a mandatory content in the book. Most students know how to self-assess themselves when compared to the given rating scale. The content “sense of teamwork” was assessed with 69.6% of students “completed” and 7.14% of students not completed. Teachers said that group activities are not effective due to lack of communication and cooperation skills, and the connection between group members is still limited.


2.1.3. Actual Situation of Content of Experiential Activities for Students In Primary School

From Table 1, it can be seen that the majority of teachers rated "Content of social-oriented experiential activities (family care, school building, community building)" lowest with 5.6% rating. "excellent"; 8.9% rated “Good”; 62.5 rated “fair”; 10.7% rated “Average”; ranked 3rd, ie the lowest of the 4 contents. The content circuit "social-oriented activities" includes such contents as: Caring for relatives and family relationships; building and developing relationships with friends and teachers; participate in building and promoting the school's tradition; building and developing relationships with people; participate in social activities. All of these topics develop communication and collaboration capabilities. From that, it can be seen that, through the assessment of the content of experiential activities, the development of communication and cooperation capacity is still limited.

When conducting more interviews about why the social-oriented content circuit has the lowest rating of the four content circuits, the teachers shared that: although guiding students to improve their communication ability and cooperate through very interesting and practical experiences; The teachers thought about it but were "afraid" to implement it due to lack of experience in organizing, lack of references, fear of losing time due to the large number of students in the class, when organizing advanced activities. Interoperability, communication is disorderly and time-consuming, difficult to manage.


2.1.4. Actual Situation of Implementing Various Types of Experiential Activities in Primary School

Activity hours under the flag are assessed by 100% of the teachers on a regular basis. However, the quality is still not high. The teachers said that the time to salute the flag was still perfunctory, formal and somewhat boring. The evaluation of competition scores between classes does not have much effect in changing the class's routine because the competition score depends on the Red Star team. The grading method is also not fair between classes. The task of the subject is sometimes not assigned properly because it is difficult for the lower class and easy for the older class.

For class activities, 41% of teachers always organize full class activities, 35% regularly and 23% regularly. Some teachers do not organize class activities according to the correct procedure. The activities are still boring and unattractive. Students do not have the opportunity to participate in the administration of class time. The content of classroom activities is dry, repetitive, lacking in variety, and has not met the actual needs of students. The form of organizing class hours is monotonous.


2.1.5. Actual Situation of Implementing Methods of Organizing Experiential Activities for Students in Primary Schools in the Direction of Developing Communication and Cooperation Capacity

Through Table 2, we got the following results: For "Exploratory form", the frequency is 54% because it is easy to implement, creating opportunities for students to experience the world. nature, real life and work, helping students discover new things, learn, detect problems from the surrounding environment, foster positive emotions and love for the homeland. In addition, teachers who chose the normal level (accounting for 45%) said that to achieve high efficiency, teachers need to prepare enough real tools. This takes time and effort.

Through the survey, the experimental and interactive method was assessed by teachers as the most effective use for first graders. This method is loved by the children, is easy to implement and receives positive feedback from the children. At primary school age, children love to compete, so they often organize contests, games, plays, etc. Besides the positive feedback about the discovery method and the interactive experiment method, there are other methods as well. The method is less interested, used as a method of dedication, a method of research. Specifically, for the mode of dedication (volunteer, humanitarian campaign), the percentage of teachers choosing 36% for the normal level, 64% for the occasional level because the organization is still inadequate because it has to invest a lot of time and effort of many resources such as school, family, society; must wait for the right time to call. For example, the Tet Nhan Dan fair, donate money to charity every year once a year. For the research method, the number of teachers rated it quite low with 90% sometimes and 10% never because this method includes survey activities, investigation, research projects. Research… requires the ability to collect, synthesize, and analyze information.


2.1.6. The reality of Assessing the Level of Communication and Cooperation Capacity Development for Students through Experiential Activities in Primary School

The survey results show that the target group "Determining the purpose, content, means and attitude of communication" is the highest rated with 94%. Lowest in the target group “Establish and develop social relations; adjust and resolve conflicts with”. With the goal of “Recognizing disagreements and frictions between yourself and you or between you; know how to yield to you or convince you” only 34% of teachers rated it as Good; 20% of the assessment is complete and 30.35 is incomplete. In addition, the teacher rated the content "Know how to make friends and keep friendships" as 80% Completed and 20% incomplete because many students did not know how to make friends even though the teacher tried to support. When they have friendship, they do not know how to maintain friendship. To solve this situation, many teachers only mediate but do not know how to organize activities in the subject Experiential activities to increase interaction, improve communication and cooperation capacity. Content "Know how to try to complete the assigned work and share to help other members complete the assigned work." Rated not very well with 17.8 "well done"; 59% complete and 23% incomplete. Group discussion is one of the most popular and popular forms and methods of teaching and can be used in many different subjects. However, in teaching at the primary level, especially for first grade students, it only takes about 35-40 minutes. Teachers said that using group activities takes time, takes a lot of effort, causes disorder, and the product is not collective.

2.2. Status of Implementation Conditions
2.2.1. Actual Condition of School Facilities

89% of staff and teachers rated the school's physical facilities as good, regularly checked and replaced. The school is fully equipped, suitable for the requirements of experiential activities such as vegetable garden, diverse fruit trees grown on campus, gymnasium, stage, library, STEAM room, tables and chairs. can be portable for group activities and outdoor activities…


2.2.2. Current Status of Capacity of Teachers to Carry Out Experiential Activities

Through the survey, only 8.9% of teachers rated "very often" in developing a plan to develop communication capacity through experiential activities. This is a very modest number. Most teachers only teach according to available activities, do not build their own plans to develop students' communication and cooperation capacity because of limited time. Although improving communication capacity, Communication and cooperation through experience is very necessary, teachers have thought about but are "afraid" to implement due to lack of experience in organizing. There are few references, teachers are confused in designing lessons, observation sheets,... to improve communication and cooperation capacity for students through experiential activities.


2.2.3. Students' Ability Conditions

The survey shows that the frequency of students promoting their ability to work in groups, share with friends, and promote cooperation is at "normal" (56%). Through interviews with managers, this method has not been used by the majority of teachers on a regular basis or has also been used casually and perfunctorily as it is only done when there are people attending; in the lecture class.

3. Conclusion

Through conducting research and clarifying a number of issues related to "development of communication and cooperation capacity for students through organizing experiential activities in primary school". Most elementary school students still lack the ability to communicate and cooperate, only care about grades, and ignore important skills to adapt to an ever-changing life.

Through the survey, I have noticed the effectiveness achieved in the development of communication and cooperation capacity for students through the organization of experiential activities in primary schools. In addition, there are shortcomings and limitations that need to be overcome. The studied situation is the basis for developing measures to develop communication and cooperation capacity for students through organizing experiential activities in primary schools more effectively.

References

[1]  Druce, G., 1941, J. A. Komensky (Comenius); 1592–1670, Nature, 148, 610-612.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Itin, C. M., 1999, Reasserting the philosophy of experiential education as a vehicle for change in the 21st century, Journal of Experiential Education, 22(2), 91-98.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Chickering, A., 1977, Experience and Learning: An Introduction to Experiential Learning, New Rochelle, NY: Change Magazine Press. p. 63.
In article      
 
[4]  Andresen, L., Boud, D., and Cohen, R., 2000, Experience-Based Learning, in Foley, G., Understanding Adult Education and Training, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, second edition, 225-239.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Sakofs, M., 1995, Opinion: Opportunity and adversit, In K. Warren, M. Sakofs & J. Hunt. (Eds.), The theory of experiential education, Dubuque, IO: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 441-443.
In article      
 
[6]  Chapman, S., McPhee, P., & Proudman, B., 1995, What is Experiential Education? In Warren, K. (Ed.), The Theory of Experiential Education, Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 235- 248.
In article      
 
[7]  Andresen, L., Boud, D., and Cohen, R., 2000, Experience-Based Learning, in Foley, G., Understanding Adult Education and Training, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, second edition, 225-239.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E., & Ecclestone, K. 2004, Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: a systematic and critical review, http://evidence.thinkportal.org/handle/123456789/62.
In article      
 
[9]  Linda H. Lewis & Carol J. Williams, 1994, Experiential Learning: Past and Present.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Miettinen, R., 2000, The Concept of Experiential Learning and John Dewey's Theory of Reflective Thought and Action, International Journal of Lifelong Education.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Stavenga de Jong, JA, Wierstra, RFA, and Hermanussen, J., 2006, An exploration of the relationship between academic and experiential learning approaches in vocational education.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[12]  Johnson and Johnson, 1999, The power of teacher-student relationships in determining student success. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/62770657.pdf.
In article      
 
[13]  Cohen, E. G, 1994, Restructuring the Classroom: Conditions for Productive Small Groups. Review of Educational Research, 64, 1-35.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Gillies, R. M., 2003, The behaviors, interactions, and perceptions of junior high school students during small-group learning, Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 137-147.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Gillies and Ashman, 1995, The effects of gender and ability on students' behaviours and interactions in classroom-based work group, Britis Journal of Clinical Psychology.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Robyn Gillies, 2002, The Long-term Effects of Cooperative Learning on Children's Behaviour and Interactions, Asia Pacific Journal of Education.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Tran Thi Mai Phuong, 2015, Management of creative experiences for students in primary schools in Thuy Nguyen district, Hai Phong city, Master thesis in educational management, Academy of Educational Management, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[18]  Cao Thi Hong Nhung, 2017, Management of experiential activities in preschool to meet the requirements of educational innovation, Vietnam Journal of Education, Special issue, December. 2017, 2-4.
In article      
 
[19]  Pham Thi Thanh Hai, Nguyen Thi Thanh Huong, 2019, Proposing some measures to manage experiential activities for students at Kien Khe junior high school, Thanh Liem district, Ha Nam province, Journal of Education, Special issue, July 2019, 66-70.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Dao Thanh Nga

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Normal Style
Dao Thanh Nga. Reality of Developing Communication and Cooperation Capacity for Students by Organizating Experiential Activities in Primary School in Vietnam. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 9, No. 10, 2021, pp 607-611. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/9/10/1
MLA Style
Nga, Dao Thanh. "Reality of Developing Communication and Cooperation Capacity for Students by Organizating Experiential Activities in Primary School in Vietnam." American Journal of Educational Research 9.10 (2021): 607-611.
APA Style
Nga, D. T. (2021). Reality of Developing Communication and Cooperation Capacity for Students by Organizating Experiential Activities in Primary School in Vietnam. American Journal of Educational Research, 9(10), 607-611.
Chicago Style
Nga, Dao Thanh. "Reality of Developing Communication and Cooperation Capacity for Students by Organizating Experiential Activities in Primary School in Vietnam." American Journal of Educational Research 9, no. 10 (2021): 607-611.
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  • Table 1. Assessment of students according to the content of experiential activities in elementary school
[1]  Druce, G., 1941, J. A. Komensky (Comenius); 1592–1670, Nature, 148, 610-612.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Itin, C. M., 1999, Reasserting the philosophy of experiential education as a vehicle for change in the 21st century, Journal of Experiential Education, 22(2), 91-98.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Chickering, A., 1977, Experience and Learning: An Introduction to Experiential Learning, New Rochelle, NY: Change Magazine Press. p. 63.
In article      
 
[4]  Andresen, L., Boud, D., and Cohen, R., 2000, Experience-Based Learning, in Foley, G., Understanding Adult Education and Training, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, second edition, 225-239.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Sakofs, M., 1995, Opinion: Opportunity and adversit, In K. Warren, M. Sakofs & J. Hunt. (Eds.), The theory of experiential education, Dubuque, IO: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 441-443.
In article      
 
[6]  Chapman, S., McPhee, P., & Proudman, B., 1995, What is Experiential Education? In Warren, K. (Ed.), The Theory of Experiential Education, Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 235- 248.
In article      
 
[7]  Andresen, L., Boud, D., and Cohen, R., 2000, Experience-Based Learning, in Foley, G., Understanding Adult Education and Training, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, second edition, 225-239.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E., & Ecclestone, K. 2004, Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: a systematic and critical review, http://evidence.thinkportal.org/handle/123456789/62.
In article      
 
[9]  Linda H. Lewis & Carol J. Williams, 1994, Experiential Learning: Past and Present.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Miettinen, R., 2000, The Concept of Experiential Learning and John Dewey's Theory of Reflective Thought and Action, International Journal of Lifelong Education.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Stavenga de Jong, JA, Wierstra, RFA, and Hermanussen, J., 2006, An exploration of the relationship between academic and experiential learning approaches in vocational education.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[12]  Johnson and Johnson, 1999, The power of teacher-student relationships in determining student success. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/62770657.pdf.
In article      
 
[13]  Cohen, E. G, 1994, Restructuring the Classroom: Conditions for Productive Small Groups. Review of Educational Research, 64, 1-35.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Gillies, R. M., 2003, The behaviors, interactions, and perceptions of junior high school students during small-group learning, Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 137-147.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Gillies and Ashman, 1995, The effects of gender and ability on students' behaviours and interactions in classroom-based work group, Britis Journal of Clinical Psychology.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Robyn Gillies, 2002, The Long-term Effects of Cooperative Learning on Children's Behaviour and Interactions, Asia Pacific Journal of Education.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Tran Thi Mai Phuong, 2015, Management of creative experiences for students in primary schools in Thuy Nguyen district, Hai Phong city, Master thesis in educational management, Academy of Educational Management, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[18]  Cao Thi Hong Nhung, 2017, Management of experiential activities in preschool to meet the requirements of educational innovation, Vietnam Journal of Education, Special issue, December. 2017, 2-4.
In article      
 
[19]  Pham Thi Thanh Hai, Nguyen Thi Thanh Huong, 2019, Proposing some measures to manage experiential activities for students at Kien Khe junior high school, Thanh Liem district, Ha Nam province, Journal of Education, Special issue, July 2019, 66-70.
In article