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Research Article

Open Access Peer-reviewed

Syahrida Khairani^{ }, Edi Syahputra, Mara Bangun Harahap

Received September 10, 2019; Revised October 15, 2019; Accepted October 28, 2019

This study aims to analyze the effectiveness of learning media using a *Geogebra*-assisted realistic approach to improve the mathematical spatial abilities of junior high school students. This type of research is a research development using a modification of the development model of Thiagarajan, Semmel and Semmel (1974). The stages of this research are define, design, develop, and disseminate. In this study compiled learning tools and instruments, namely: RPP, LAS, *geogebra*-assisted learning media, spatial ability tests. Try out conducted at student of class VIII-7 as much 40 people and VIII-6 as much people at MTsN 2 Medan. The results showed that learning media using a *Geogebra*-assisted realistic approach met the effective criteria of completeness spatial ability reaching 87.5% and learning time not much different from the usual learning time.

Improving learning outcomes, as planned, requires an improved learning process ^{ 1}. Media can be interpreted as an intermediary or messenger message from educators to students. Learning media have a big role in determining learning outcomes. This is in accordance with research ^{ 2} multimedia learning is able to simplify complex material into simple, visualizing abstract events into concrete helps students more easily understand the material so that it can improve learning outcomes. Multimedia learning presents teaching materials in the form of text, visuals, graphics, animation and video (movie) can arouse student motivation to improve learning outcomes ^{ 3}.

Spatial thinking is a collection of cognitive skills, which consists of a combination of three components, namely the concept of space, a tool of representation, and the process of reasoning ^{ 4}. Components of spatial thinking include spatial visualization, spatial perception, spatial orientation, spatial rotation, spatial relations ^{ 5}. ^{ 6} argues that spatial ability is the ability that involves discovery, retention and visual transformation in the context of space

^{ 7} who found that spatial ability was a major intelligence factor that was not only important for mathematics and science, but also needed for success in many professions. Spatial skills are needed to solve problems in several fields of study such as computer graphics, engineering and architecture ^{ 8}, industrial technology ^{ 9} and astronomy, education, geography, geosciences and psychology ^{ 4}.

The PISA survey results in 2012 showed that Indonesian students were weak in Space and Shape content, answering 69.2% (OECD average 25.8%) at level one, 19.8% (average 22.3%) on level two, 7.8% (average OECD 22.2%) at level three, 0% (average 29.7%) at high level (National Center for Education Statistics USA, 2014). This is also consistent with research ^{ 10} and ^{ 11} which states that the spatial ability of students in Indonesia is still very weak.

*Geogebra* is a dynamic mathematics learning software developed by Markus Hohenwarter for learning mathematics in schools. *Geogebra* is freely and widely available on the internet from the webpage www.GeoGebra.org for various types of operating systems. According to ^{ 12} states that *G**eogebra* software can help teachers to convey abstract mathematical material to be more easily understood because geogebra can visualize it in addition to that *G**eogebra* can also train students' creativity and critical power. ^{ 13} stated that *Geogebra* can provide students with various levels of visualization skills to learn geometric concepts and to explore relationships easily.

^{ 14} in his research results in Medan city junior high school said that the spatial ability of students who were taught using a realistic approach was better than the spatial abilities of students who were taught with conventional approaches. ^{ 15} in their research in high school with students' realistic approaches more active than using conventional approaches. ^{ 16} stated in their research that students who are taught with a realistic approach are much higher in learning outcomes than with conventional learning

This research includes development research (Development Research) using the ^{ 17} development model which consists of 4 stages namely define, design, develop and disseminate. In this study, developed in the form of learning media using a realistic approach assisted by *Geogebra*.

This research was conducted in MTsN 2 Medan class VIII in the even semester of the 2018/2019 school year with the first trial conducted in class VIII-7 and the second trial conducted in class VIII-6 on cube and beam material. The instrument used was a spatial ability test.

Data Analysis Techniques for Learning Media Effective

1. Achievement of Student Learning Completeness

In this study, student learning outcomes are viewed from their spatial ability using spatial ability tests. This test is given at the end of each learning meeting, to find out how the level of mastery and completeness of students on the material they have learned.

The effectiveness of learning devices related to students 'mathematical spatial ability is determined based on the achievement of students' mastery learning classically. According to ^{ 22} based on the KTSP provisions the determination of the learning provisions is determined solely by each school known as the minimum completeness criteria (KKM), based on three considerations, namely: the ability of each learner to differ, the facilities (facilities) each school is different and the carrying capacity of each student is different. So in this study, according to the KKM in the school where the researcher conducted the research, the individual completeness was 70 and classical completeness was 85%.

Based on the explanation above, to find out the percentage of students' abilities obtained each cycle used the formula:

To see the completeness classically used the formula:

The action is considered successful if classically at least 85% of students complete. If it is less than 85%, the action is deemed unsuccessful then retrying.

2. Time Achievement Data Analysis

This data is obtained by looking at the achievement of the time used in the learning process. If the achievement of the time spent during learning is less or equal to the usual learning time, the achievement of time is said to be good.

To analyze the improvement of students’ mathematical spatial ability, data were obtained from the results of students’ pre-test and post-test. Increasing students’ mathematical spatial ability can be obtained from normalized gain index data Hake (1999), as follows:

In this study, learning media met the effective criteria in trial II or in other words, the draft final was obtained in trial II. The results of the development of learning media using the Thiagarajan 4-D model are explained as follows:

Based on interviews with grade VII mathematics teachers at MTsN 2 Medan, information was obtained that the target students in class VIII were students who were quite heterogeneous, both in terms of their sex and their cognitive abilities. Furthermore, the learning process in the classroom using only printed books as the only source of learning was felt to be very unfortunate given the adequate school facilities. The problem that arises is the absence of adequate learning media to explain a concept outside of practicum.

At this stage an initial draft of the lesson plan is produced for 6 meetings student worksheet, media assisted by *Geogebra* and spatial ability test. All results at this design stage are called draft I.

At this stage validates draft I to experts and then conduct field trials. The aim is to see weaknesses in draft I so that it can be revised and refine the learning material developed. Based on the calculation, the reliability of the mathematical spatial ability test is 0.77 (very high category).

After the learning device developed has fulfilled the valid criteria, then the learning device in the form of draft II is tested at the research site in MTsN 2 Medan as a trial I. Based on the results of the data analysis trial, it was found that the learning device developed did not meet all the effective criteria, so that improvements are made to produce learning materials that meet all the effective criteria set. The revision is based on the findings of the weaknesses of the learning device in the trial I, namely for the learning implementation plan related to the allocation of learning time, as well as the student books and worksheets related to the material being taught. After the revision was completed, the second trial was conducted to produce learning materials that met good effectiveness and increased mathematical spatial ability.

The development of learning media reaches the final stage if it has obtained positive ratings from experts and through development tests. Then learning media are then packaged, distributed and determined for a wider scale. But in this study the disseminate stage was not carried out, so the fourth stage was not explained.

The validity of Geogebra-assisted mathematics learning media developed is seen from the assessment of media experts and learning material experts meeting the minimum valid criteria, where the results say that the developed learning media is declared valid with an average value of for learning media experts and for learning material experts to be clearer , consider this Table 2.

Based on the data in Table 2, the interpretations of each media expert and expert in learning mathematics are in the Valid category. Thus, *Geogebra*-assisted learning media can be said to be feasible to use.

Effectiveness of *Geogebra* Assisted Mathematics Learning Media Developed in Trial I

1. Classical Learning Completeness of Students in Trial I

The spatial mathematical ability test is done once at the beginning before learning activities are called Pre-Test and once at the end of learning after carrying out three teaching and learning meetings called the Post-Test. Giving Pre-Test and Post-Test aims to find out the increase in mathematical spatial abilities obtained by students after being given learning treatment using *Geogebra*-assisted media using a realistic approach to cube and beam material. The data from the field trial results for mathematical spatial ability are presented in Table 3 as follows

In general, bar charts describing pre-test class average, post-test mathematical spatial ability in trial I are presented in the following Figure 1.

From Figure 1, the diagram can be seen that the average class of students 'mathematical spatial abilities in the pre-test I trial was 55 while the average class of students' spatial mathematical abilities in the post-test I trial was 74.67. The following is a bar diagram of the classical completeness of students' mathematical spatial abilities in trial I.

2. Trial Learning Time Achievement I

Based on research that has been done on the Occa I test in the MTsN 2 Medan class, the use of time to teach cube and beam material using *Geogebra*-assisted media is in accordance with the learning implementation plan made by researchers, namely the learning time carried out the same as the learning time as usual, so it can be said that research using *Geogebra*-assisted mathematics learning media that has been developed has a good time achievement.

Increased mathematical spatial ability in the first trial will be seen through the N-Gain from the results of the pre-test and post-test mathematical spatial ability in the first trial.

Based on Table 4 it can be seen that 5 students got an N-Gain score in the range> 0.7 or experienced an increase in mathematical spatial ability in the "High" category. For students who experienced an increase in mathematical spatial ability with the category "Medium" or received an N-Gain score of 0.3 <g ≤ 0.7 totaling 23 people and 12 people who received an N-Gain score of g ≤ 0.3 or experienced an increase in mathematical spatial abilities with the "Low" category.

Description of the Effectiveness of *Geogebra*-Assisted Mathematics Learning Media Developed in Trials II

1. Classical Learning Completeness of Students in Trial II

The spatial mathematical ability test is done once at the beginning before learning activities are called Pre-Test and once at the end of learning after carrying out three teaching and learning meetings called the Post-Test. Giving Pre-Test and Post-Test aims to find out the increase in mathematical spatial abilities obtained by students after being given learning treatment using Geogebra-assisted media using a realistic approach to cube and beam material. The data from the field trial results for mathematical spatial ability can be seen in Table 5

In general, bar charts describing the pre-test class average, post-test mathematical spatial ability in trial II are presented in the following figure:

From picture 2 can be seen that the average class of students 'mathematical spatial abilities in the pre-test II try out was 51.83 while the average class of students' mathematical spatial abilities in the post-test II try out was 83.83.

From Table 5 it can be seen that the classical completeness of students 'mathematical spatial ability in the pre-test II trial is 27.5% while the classical completeness of students' mathematical spatial ability in the post-test II trial is 87.5%. In accordance with the criteria of completeness of student learning classically, i.e. a minimum of 85% of students who take the students' spatial ability test are not yet classically complete. So it can be concluded that in the second trial the application of *Geogebra*-assisted learning media that was developed fulfilled the classical achievement completeness criteria.

Increased mathematical spatial ability in the second trial will be seen through the N-Gain from the results of the pre-test and post-test mathematical spatial abilities in the second trial.

Based on Table 6 it can be seen that 18 students received N-Gain scores in the range> 0.7 or experienced an increase in mathematical spatial abilities in the "High" category. For students who experienced an increase in mathematical spatial abilities in the "Medium" category or received an N-Gain score of 0.3 <g ≤ 0.7, there were 22 people.

Based on the results of the analysis in trials I and II it was found that the spatial ability of sisea had met the classical completeness criteria. This is due to the material and problems that exist in the mathematics learning media developed from student activity sheets in accordance with the conditions of the student learning environment. By using instructional media in the classroom, students will better understand all forms of building cubes and blocks, because as explained by ^{ 18} which says that learning media can overcome the limitations of the senses, space and time. For example, by using learning media students do not need to imagine objects in the shape of cubes and blocks, because these objects can be visualized using learning media, so students can see firsthand how the shapes of the objects are. This is in line with research ^{ 19} also revealed that learning by using multimedia is able to solve problems related to daily life that can improve students' spatial abilities.

The mathematical spatial ability of students can be increased due to *geogebra*-assisted learning media that is applied to students who have met the criteria of good learning media quality, with good learning media used and with the application of learning models of *G**eogebra*-assisted realistic approaches to learning, the students' mathematical spatial ability increases.

Likewise mentioned in the research ^{ 20} states that the spatial ability of students who are taught using learning media is better than students who are taught without using learning media. The same thing was also expressed in ^{ 21} which states that learning using media can improve students' spatial abilities. In line with the study, the results of ^{ 14} study stated that using instructional media can improve students' spatial abilities at school. This means that using learning media when the teaching and learning process takes place can improve students' spatial abilities. Based on the results of research that has been done also based on previous studies can be submitted that the *G**eogebra*-assisted mathematical learning media developed positis positive impact on students' spatial ability.

The results showed that learning media using a *Geogebra*-assisted realistic approach met the effective criteria of completeness spatial ability reaching 87.5% and learning time not much different from the usual learning time.

[1] | Syahputra, E and Utami, DR. 2019. The Design of IQF-oriented ARCS-based learning model. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[2] | Gilbert, J. K. (2008). Visualization:Theory and Practicein Science Education. Netherlands: Springer. | ||

In article | |||

[3] | Korakakis, G., Paylatou, E. A., Palyvos,J. A., &Spyrellis, N. (2009). 3-D visualisation types in multimedia applications for science learning: A case study for 8th grade in Greece. Computer and Education. 52(2), 390-401. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[4] | National Academy of Science.2006. Learning to Think Spatially. Washington DC. The national Academy Press | ||

In article | |||

[5] | NCTM. 2000. Principles and Standards For School Mathematics. ISBN : 0-87353-480-8. America : The United Stated Of America. | ||

In article | |||

[6] | Velez, M. C., Silver, D., and Tremaine, M. 2005. Understanding Visualization Through Spatial Differences IEEE Xplore Digital Library. Vio 05. Page 511-518. Ritgers University. | ||

In article | |||

[7] | Potter, Charles, and Errol van der Merwe., 2001. Spatial Ability, Visual Imagery and Academic Performancein Engineering Graphics. International Conference on Engineering Education. | ||

In article | |||

[8] | Kosa, T. 2008. The Effects Of Virtual And Physical Manipulatives On Student’s Spatial Visualization Skills. 8^{th} International Educational Technology Conference. Eskisehir, Turkey. | ||

In article | |||

[9] | Strong, S and Roger, S. 2002. Spatial Visualization : Fundamental and Treand In Engineting Graphics. Journal Of Industrial Technology. Volume 18, Number 1. Edisi November 2001 to January 2002. | ||

In article | |||

[10] | Zulfahmi, Syahputra, E. Fauzi, KMS, A. 2017. Develpoment of Mathematics Learning Tools Based on Van Hiele Model to Improving Spatial Ability and Self – Concept Student’s of MTsS Ulumuddin. American Journal of Education Research. Vol 10, pp 1080-1086. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[11] | Sari, P. D., Syahputra, E., dan Surya, E. 2018. An Analysis of Spatial Ability and Self – efficacy of Students in Cooperative Learning by Using Jigsaw at Smas Muhammadiyah 8 Kisaran. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol 6. No. 8, 1238-1244. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[12] | Ekawati, A. 2016. Penggunaan Software Geogebra dan Microsoft Mathematic Dalam Pembelajaran Matematika. Math Didactic Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika. Vol 2. No.3. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[13] | Saha, A, R,. Ayub, M,F,A., dan Tarmizi, A, R. 2010. The Effects of GeoGebra on Mathematics Achievement: Enlightening Coordinate Geometry Learning. Elsevier: Procedia Social and Behavioral Science 8. pp 686-693. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[14] | Syahputra, E. 2013. Peningkatan Kemampuan Spasial Siswa Melalui Penerapan Pembelajaran Matematika Realistik. Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan. No.3. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[15] | Safitri, A. Surya, E. Syahputra, E. Simbolon, M. 2017. Impact of Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Approach to Students Mathematic Disposition on Chapter Two Composition Function and Invers Function in Grade XI IA -1 SMA Negeri 4 Padang Sidimpuan. Novelty Journal Vol 4.Issue 2. pp 93-102. | ||

In article | |||

[16] | Sanusi, S. Surya, E. Syahputra, E. 2017. The Improving Mathematical Communication Ability and Studen’s Self – Regulation Learning through Realistic Mathematical Approach Based on Batak Toba Culture. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol 6. No. 10, pp 1397-1402. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[17] | Thiagarajan, S. Semmel, D. S & Semmed, MI. 1974. Instuctional Development for Training Teachers of Exceptional Children. Indiana University Bloomingtoon. | ||

In article | |||

[18] | Arsyad, A. 2013. Media Pembelajaran. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada. | ||

In article | |||

[19] | Nazir, et. All. 2012. Skill Development in Multimedia Based Learning Environment in Higher Education: An Operational Model. International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Research. Vol 2 No.1, page 19-31. | ||

In article | |||

[20] | Ristontowi. 2013. Kemampuan Spasial Siswa melalui Pendekatan Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia dengan Media Geogebra. Makalah disajikan dalam SeminarNasional Matematika dan Pendidikan Matematika dengan tema “Penguatan Peran Matematika untuk Indonesia yang Lebih Baik”, UNY, Yogyakarta 9 November. | ||

In article | |||

[21] | Lee, Elinda, et all. 2009. Educational Values of Virtual Reality: The Case of Spatial Ability.World Academy of Science Engineering and Technology. Page 1157-1161. | ||

In article | |||

[22] | Trianto, 2013. Mendesain Model Pembelajaran Inovatif- Progresif: Konsep Landasan dan Implementasinya Pada Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP). Jakarta : PT Kencana Prenada Media Grup. | ||

In article | |||

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2019 Syahrida Khairani, Edi Syahputra and Mara Bangun Harahap

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Syahrida Khairani, Edi Syahputra, Mara Bangun Harahap. Development of *Geogebra* Learning Media on Realistic Approach to Improve Spatial Ability Student. *American Journal of Educational Research*. Vol. 7, No. 10, 2019, pp 737-741. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/7/10/10

Khairani, Syahrida, Edi Syahputra, and Mara Bangun Harahap. "Development of *Geogebra* Learning Media on Realistic Approach to Improve Spatial Ability Student." *American Journal of Educational Research* 7.10 (2019): 737-741.

Khairani, S. , Syahputra, E. , & Harahap, M. B. (2019). Development of *Geogebra* Learning Media on Realistic Approach to Improve Spatial Ability Student. *American Journal of Educational Research*, *7*(10), 737-741.

Khairani, Syahrida, Edi Syahputra, and Mara Bangun Harahap. "Development of *Geogebra* Learning Media on Realistic Approach to Improve Spatial Ability Student." *American Journal of Educational Research* 7, no. 10 (2019): 737-741.

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[1] | Syahputra, E and Utami, DR. 2019. The Design of IQF-oriented ARCS-based learning model. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[2] | Gilbert, J. K. (2008). Visualization:Theory and Practicein Science Education. Netherlands: Springer. | ||

In article | |||

[3] | Korakakis, G., Paylatou, E. A., Palyvos,J. A., &Spyrellis, N. (2009). 3-D visualisation types in multimedia applications for science learning: A case study for 8th grade in Greece. Computer and Education. 52(2), 390-401. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[4] | National Academy of Science.2006. Learning to Think Spatially. Washington DC. The national Academy Press | ||

In article | |||

[5] | NCTM. 2000. Principles and Standards For School Mathematics. ISBN : 0-87353-480-8. America : The United Stated Of America. | ||

In article | |||

[6] | Velez, M. C., Silver, D., and Tremaine, M. 2005. Understanding Visualization Through Spatial Differences IEEE Xplore Digital Library. Vio 05. Page 511-518. Ritgers University. | ||

In article | |||

[7] | Potter, Charles, and Errol van der Merwe., 2001. Spatial Ability, Visual Imagery and Academic Performancein Engineering Graphics. International Conference on Engineering Education. | ||

In article | |||

[8] | Kosa, T. 2008. The Effects Of Virtual And Physical Manipulatives On Student’s Spatial Visualization Skills. 8^{th} International Educational Technology Conference. Eskisehir, Turkey. | ||

In article | |||

[9] | Strong, S and Roger, S. 2002. Spatial Visualization : Fundamental and Treand In Engineting Graphics. Journal Of Industrial Technology. Volume 18, Number 1. Edisi November 2001 to January 2002. | ||

In article | |||

[10] | Zulfahmi, Syahputra, E. Fauzi, KMS, A. 2017. Develpoment of Mathematics Learning Tools Based on Van Hiele Model to Improving Spatial Ability and Self – Concept Student’s of MTsS Ulumuddin. American Journal of Education Research. Vol 10, pp 1080-1086. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[11] | Sari, P. D., Syahputra, E., dan Surya, E. 2018. An Analysis of Spatial Ability and Self – efficacy of Students in Cooperative Learning by Using Jigsaw at Smas Muhammadiyah 8 Kisaran. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol 6. No. 8, 1238-1244. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[12] | Ekawati, A. 2016. Penggunaan Software Geogebra dan Microsoft Mathematic Dalam Pembelajaran Matematika. Math Didactic Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika. Vol 2. No.3. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[13] | Saha, A, R,. Ayub, M,F,A., dan Tarmizi, A, R. 2010. The Effects of GeoGebra on Mathematics Achievement: Enlightening Coordinate Geometry Learning. Elsevier: Procedia Social and Behavioral Science 8. pp 686-693. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[14] | Syahputra, E. 2013. Peningkatan Kemampuan Spasial Siswa Melalui Penerapan Pembelajaran Matematika Realistik. Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan. No.3. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[15] | Safitri, A. Surya, E. Syahputra, E. Simbolon, M. 2017. Impact of Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Approach to Students Mathematic Disposition on Chapter Two Composition Function and Invers Function in Grade XI IA -1 SMA Negeri 4 Padang Sidimpuan. Novelty Journal Vol 4.Issue 2. pp 93-102. | ||

In article | |||

[16] | Sanusi, S. Surya, E. Syahputra, E. 2017. The Improving Mathematical Communication Ability and Studen’s Self – Regulation Learning through Realistic Mathematical Approach Based on Batak Toba Culture. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol 6. No. 10, pp 1397-1402. | ||

In article | View Article | ||

[17] | Thiagarajan, S. Semmel, D. S & Semmed, MI. 1974. Instuctional Development for Training Teachers of Exceptional Children. Indiana University Bloomingtoon. | ||

In article | |||

[18] | Arsyad, A. 2013. Media Pembelajaran. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada. | ||

In article | |||

[19] | Nazir, et. All. 2012. Skill Development in Multimedia Based Learning Environment in Higher Education: An Operational Model. International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Research. Vol 2 No.1, page 19-31. | ||

In article | |||

[20] | Ristontowi. 2013. Kemampuan Spasial Siswa melalui Pendekatan Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia dengan Media Geogebra. Makalah disajikan dalam SeminarNasional Matematika dan Pendidikan Matematika dengan tema “Penguatan Peran Matematika untuk Indonesia yang Lebih Baik”, UNY, Yogyakarta 9 November. | ||

In article | |||

[21] | Lee, Elinda, et all. 2009. Educational Values of Virtual Reality: The Case of Spatial Ability.World Academy of Science Engineering and Technology. Page 1157-1161. | ||

In article | |||

[22] | Trianto, 2013. Mendesain Model Pembelajaran Inovatif- Progresif: Konsep Landasan dan Implementasinya Pada Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP). Jakarta : PT Kencana Prenada Media Grup. | ||

In article | |||