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Higher Education Development Policies in the Northern Region of Vietnam from 1954 to 1965 and the Impacts of these Policies on Vietnamese Education Today

Nguyen Thi Thanh Tung
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(9), 1271-1277. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-9-5
Received August 15, 2018; Revised September 12, 2018; Accepted September 17, 2018

Abstract

In the period of 1954-1965, Vietnamese higher education was developed in a very special historical context, which was the context of the country divided into two regions: The North was liberated, and entered the construction period of Socialism, while the South continued the people's democratic revolution. In the context of fierce war and starting point of difficult material foundations, with the proper policies and innovations of the Vietnam Labor Party and the Government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, the higher education in the North achieved tremendous achievements that we could call wonders. In this process, although there were limitations, universities and professional secondary institutions built up good traditions of self-reliant spirit, linking theory with practical labor production, patriotism and the fighting to protect the educational achievements made by the teachers and pupils of institutions... It showed that the education in the North was still young but contributed significantly to the cause of training the successors of the revolutionary cause of the Party and people of Vietnam.

1. Introduction

In the 8th Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam (1996), The Party confirmed “along with science and technology, education and training are put in the top national policies to improve people's knowledge, train human resources and foster talents” 1. Therefore, appreciation and development of a national education is an urgent requirement for all countries in the world in the process of developing knowledge economy and global integration. In the education system, higher education plays a particularly important role, contributing to the training of high-level professionals in various fields, contributing to the national construction and defense. Developing higher education is the “golden key” so that any country in which Vietnam opens its doors to the 21st century, which is the basis of developing the human factor - the most important resource of the national development in today's era.

In the period of 1954-1965, the Vietnamese Labor Party (the name of the Communist Party of Vietnam from 1951 to 1976), the Government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam had the right lines, guidelines, policies in a timely manner in leading the cause of building the socialism in the North, liberating the South, and unifying the Fatherland. In the past 10 years of such turbulent history, the higher education of the north in our country has achieved tremendous achievements, serving for the cause of revolution and leaving valuable lessons for the next period. Up to now, the glorious history of Vietnam's Northern higher education in its wartime wars, reform and construction of socialism as well as in the fight against the destructive wars of American imperialism ... seems to still have the same value. Many Vietnamese scientists and educators were born, grew up and developed in the war-effected education system. Therefore, study of the history of the higher education in Vietnam, we can not ignore the study of the panorama of higher education in the North from 1954-1965 from the perspective of policy, and policy of the ruler.

Up to now, due to limited resources, the issue of higher education history in the North in the period 1954-1965 is only engaged in a few researches. The 30 years of tertiary education and professional secondary education (1945-1975) writing was considered as the first research on our higher education in our country, including higher education in the North in 1954-1965.This work outlines the major policies of the Party in the higher education after 1945, which outlines the stages of development, achievements and limitations of the higher education during the anti-French and anti-American wars 2. In addition, during this period, there were also a number of articles published in the university and secondary professional journals aimed at updating contents related to Vietnamese higher education. Typically, the writings "The whole of higher education and secondary professional follow words of the President Ho Chi Minh", "Trying to perform well the tasks of 1969", "Redirecting higher education tasks" ...The articles deal with several specific policies in the education sector to attract and promote students’ learning, including a new policy on the issuance of scholarships. All university students received scholarships for free. The new scholarship policy is “a one-step moves on the path of implementing the guideline, the educational principle of the Party” 3.

After 1975, due to the need for building the country in the peaceful period, the higher education has also been strengthened. The study of heritage, achievements of higher education to apply to the new historical context has been considered. Therefore, the research works, topics on the history of education in the country in general, the history of higher education came out, typically the writing titled “50years of development of education and training (1945-1995)”. The writing provided valuable scientific literature related to the development of Vietnamese education in 50 years since the August Revolution successful until the 1990s of the 20th century, including higher education and secondary professional education 4.

Generally, the above-mentioned studies only reflect the generalization of the activities of the education sector in general or refer to the higher education only at the level of generalizing the typical events. Up to now, there has been no scientific study aimed at finding out the specific causes leading to the success of the higher education in 1954-1965, more importantly, the correct, timely, creative guidelines and policies of the Party, the State of Vietnam. Based on a selective inheritance of prior studies combined with research into original sources, the paper aims to clarify changes in the historical context, analyze and present the formation, develop the Party's policies and policies towards the development of the higher education in the North through small phases from 1954 to 1965 regarding the organization of the education system, training and scientific research, political affairs, ideology, the assignment of students to study abroad...

2. Content

2.1. Advantages, Disadvantages and the Shift in Policy and Development Policy of the Higher Education in the North of Vietnam in the Period of 1954-1960

In 1954, the historic victory of Dien Bien Phu and the Geneva Agreement were signed, which created the basic advantages for the Vietnam revolution. Firstly, the North was completely liberated, the whole Party, the whole people tirelessly entered labor, and production, overcame the consequences of the war. All activities of all branches and levels of higher education took place in the context of peace, under the unified leadership of the Party and the concern of the whole society. The transformation of dispersed wartime education into centralized education and closely linked with other disciplines was a great condition for the development of the higher education. This is also an important basis for the Party to plan guidelines for the higher education in the new period. Secondly, after the Geneva Agreement, we took over the new countryside and large cities, including the capital, Hanoi which is an economically, politically, socially developed and densely populated. This change created a favorable condition for the Party to adopt the policy of transferring universities to major centers and developing the scale of higher education in the North.

Along with the advantages, the higher education in the North also faced many difficulties, challenging the leadership of the Party. First of all, the French colonialism resistance war ended successfully but the country was divided into two regions, with two different political regimes. Secondly, the consequences of war and colonial rule left in the north in terms of the economy, culture, and education were extremely heavy. The career of developing higher education, training professional cadres who were skillful in their profession and firmly in the political and ideological domains to serve practical tasks for remedying war consequences, the socio-economic development of the country was not an easy task to accomplish in a short-term period.

In the context of such a favorable and difficult history, "To keep the independence, to make the people strong, to make the country rich, all Vietnamese must know their rights and obligations, to have new knowledge to be able to participate in the construction of the country..." [ 5; 36]. That means, the Party and the State should have new policies and guidelines to develop higher education that could keep up with the national and international movement, to perform the task of "uniting and leading the people to fight for the implementation of the Armistice Agreement; to take efforts to complete the land reform, restore and enhance production... to implement unified, complete independence and democracy in the whole country" [ 6; 287].

After 1954, the first task for the higher education was to "reorganize the higher education sector, and open more necessary college commissions" [ 7; 213]. The Resolution of the 8th the Central Standing Committee (August/1955) also emphasized the development of the higher education, the training of professional staff "have a comprehensive, immediate and long-term plans, including the training of managers and technical staff at all levels... to be in line with the immediate economic recovery program and future economic development plan" [ 7; 550].

In order to prepare a comprehensive plan for the development of the higher education, the next task of higher education was defined by the Party and State to be the opening of an institution of economic and financial staff at the People's University, including such majors as finance, banking, trade, cooperatives, statistics, accounting, enterprise management, industrial production, economic planning. The development of comprehensive, multi-disciplinary higher education requires the preparation of time, so in the years of 1954-1957, the Party focused on human strength, the strength of education development in the narrow direction, in order to train cadres to serve essential occupations, and industries.

Moving on to the period 1958-1960, after fulfilling its economic recovery mission, the Vietnam Labor Party proposed a three-year plan for economic and cultural development (1958-1960), therefore, the higher education also raised higher requirements in terms of quantity and quality. During this time, the higher education development plan served not only the immediate needs but also the long-term plans. The issue of professional training was pushed up one step further. The Party's cadre training policy “was implemented to partly ensure the implementation of the 1957 plan, but the major part was to prepare for the economic and cultural construction of the country for years to come” [ 8; 173].

On the issue of improving the quality of higher education in the North, the Party was also interested and guided closely. The Resolution of the Twelfth Party Central Committee (March 1957) and the Fourteenth (November 1958) clearly demonstrated the Party's role in improving the quality of education. Our policy is to “improve the quality of training technical staff in universities and technical secondary institutions” [ 8; 140]. In the period of socialist reform, our Party continued to affirm the above point. “The development and reform of the national economy requires a good staff qualified, and loyal to the revolutionary cause of socialism. All measures should be taken to increase the number and improve the level of economic, technical and scientific researchers, especially in the fields of agriculture, forestry, irrigation, industry and construction” [ 9; 287]. Measures to train qualified personnel were to consolidate universities, improve the quality of teaching and learning, strengthen the leadership of the Party in institutions, select students in accordance with standards, properly and timely distribute new graduates.

The task of assigning students, overseas students and cadres to study abroad, especially in socialist countries, was highly appreciated by the Party. This was an extremely right policy in the context of the North building socialism, therefore, the North really needed highly specialized and qualified staff towards the development of a modern higher education which could keep up with the education of advanced countries.

So, from the moment of gaining peace in the North, the Party headed by President Ho Chi Minh always paid due attention to the development of a national higher education of the country - science - mass. All the Party's policies set out in the conferences were aimed at training human resources, healing the wounds of the war, and restoring the economy. However, the development of higher education in the North was always put in the overall relationship with socio-economic development, so the interest in education was very important but the guidelines and policies could not be mentioned in a comprehensive, and synchronous manner.

2.2. Guidelines and Policies for the Development of Higher Education in the North during the Implementation Period of 5-year Plan for the First Time (1961-1965)

The development of higher education in the North of Vietnam during this period followed the viewpoint of the Resolution of the 3rd Party Congress (September/1960) and the Resolution of the 8thIIIterm Party Central Committee (March/1963).

In September 1960, the third National Congress of the Party took place in Hanoi. This was an important event marking the development of the revolutionary process in Vietnam in general and the training of university officials. The Congress proposed two revolutionary strategies: to promote the socialist revolution in the North and to carry out the national democratic revolution of the people in the South to realize the unification of the country. In order to realize the goal of the Northern revolution, the Congress set out the first five-year plan (1961-1965) with the task of undertaking a socialist industrialization and building the first step towards the quality and technique of socialism and the completion of the socialist reform, making the economy of our country to become a socialist economy. Thus, the socialist construction in the North posed an urgent need for education in general and for higher education for human resource training - a decisive factor in the industrialization of the country.

Staff training must focus on “professional, political and cultural” development [ 10; 181] for them to be “politically stable, professional in their health”, “fidelity to the Fatherland, socialism and communism, ready to bring youthful enthusiasm to the building of new society” [ 11; 607]. To achieve the above objectives and contents, education must master and implement well the principle of education combined with labor production, theory attached to reality, learning along with education of the institution is associated with the education of the society.

The government always considered the development of education to be in the overall relationship with socio-economic development and related industries, to develop education to train human resources, serve the socio-economic development and socio-economic development, thus boosting the development of education. Therefore, “in parallel with economic development and to serve the economic development, the cultural, educational, cultural, medical sciences and sports should be strongly promoted” [ 11; 587-588]. With the specificity of training high-level human resources, higher education must be strengthened to train economic and cultural cadres on a large scale, train professional and short-term professional staff, not only for the first five-year plan, but also for the next five-year plan.

The target of training in universities, colleges and professional secondary institutions was defined as the training of tens of thousands of professional cadres in the fields of natural sciences, technology and social sciences, and technical staff to serve important industries such as industry, agriculture, capital construction, irrigation and land reclamation, transportation. In the immediate future, large-scale training and education for economic workers “should be made to expand the system of technical institutions and professional institutions to provide intensive and long-term training for farmers, veterinary, irrigation, transportation, architecture, planning, statistics, finance and accounting”... [ 10; 457]. Thus, the mission of higher education was to keep abreast of the political tasks, based on the socio-economic development strategy and the tasks of each stage, to focus on the training of personnel in service of the cause of socialist industrialization in the North.

In 1963, the Resolution of the 8th Central Committee of the Communist Party (1963) added specific perspectives on higher education in the North during the implementation of the First Five-Year Plan (1961-1965) with the basic contents of staff development, scientific research and training. With the aim of serving the implementation of the plan for socialist construction in the North, the Resolution of the Eighth Plenum of the Party Central Committee (1963) set the target that “until the beginning of 1965 the number of university students at the beginning of the institution year, there were 36,830 people, an increase of 236% compared to 1960” [ 12; 395]. In addition, the Party advocated “supplementing culture for individuals, workers and peasants to open socialist institutions for peasants and ethnic minorities as well as women, create favorable conditions for them to study well” [ 11; 553]. Along with the policy of promoting the scale, the Party also attached great importance to improving the quality of training, to develop both the high and the rapid education, while attaching importance to improving the quality of education. The quality of the professional staff was well defined: not only must be professional, but also of good political quality, a socialist heart, and communism, having the capacity of independent research but must be combined with many working people.

To accomplish that task, the Party set out eight major measures: Firstly, to strengthen the university, to develop a high-level industry, to study the improvement of learning content and to short-term, it is necessary to shorten study time in necessary places and to quickly provide Many cadres, timely meet the needs of economic development in the immediate future. Secondly, extending the forms of in-service training, in the evening, in the lecture, increasing the proportion of in-service training staff, have a guaranteed mode for students and faculty in teaching and learning... Thirdly, send students, researchers to study abroad, strive to complete the target: from 1963 to 1965, on average every year would try to bring about 300-400 students graduated from the university, overseas students studying to improve their PhD, Chief Engineer, General Engineer. Fourthly, strengthen the organizational apparatus, strengthen the management, which must first strengthen the Ministry of Education, especially the higher education and professional. Fifthly, to build a contingent of teaching staff to ensure the number and improve quality. Students enrolled in universities, focusing on three aspects: thought, culture and health. To further strengthen the composition of production workers, women cadres, ethnic minority cadres, students and students from the South. Seventhly, the training associated with good use “of the graduates, boldly assigned work, promote their ability, while paying special attention to them. Resolve the use of officials in an arbitrary, wasteful way: learning in this profession turns to other occupations, not related to what was learned” [ 12; 397]. Eighthly, mobilize people's participation in building education “combining forces of the State and people's forces”; “implementing a reform of the content, methods and organization of education in the socialist institution” [ 11; 553].

Thus, in the years 1961-1965, higher education in the North of Vietnam had to solve a difficult problem, medium development, large scale, just improve quality. But with the right policy and development policy, the creative and comprehensive direction for the development of higher education and training of professional cadres of the Party clearly developed, it became “a systematic organ of socialist revolution” [ 13; 38].

2.3. The Initial Transformation of the Higher Education Picture in the North during the period of 1954-1965

In pursuit of the Party's policies and policies of the Government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, headed by President Ho Chi Minh, higher education in the North during 1954-1965 strongly developed in terms of digging scale. Of the total of 15 long-term institutions, there is one general institution; 3 industrial fields; 2 institutions of agriculture, forestry and fishery; 2 institutions of economics and finance; 3 institutions of pedagogy, foreign languages; 3 institutions of sports medicine and pharmacy; 1 institution of arts and culture. The institution was established between 1960 and 1965 as: Foreign Trade University was separated from University of Economics - Finance; Establishment of Forestry University; Establishment of Finance - Accounting Institution.

Along with the establishment of many new universities, the Ministry of Education and other relevant ministries were also interested in investing in facilities, equipment for teaching, learning and living conditions. student. The focal institutions had been invested by the Government and received many supports from other countries, so the facilities for teaching and learning were relatively good, such as the Polytechnic University, the University of Agriculture. The government and the ministry of investment built quite spacious campus for University of Economics - Finance and University of Water Resources.

In 1960, higher education had 21 branches and 46 majors. In 1965, there were 22 branches and 97 majors (increase 1 branch and 51 majors). In the academic year 1964-1965, there were 22,374 long-term students studying at universities, of which the number of students studying in the industry sector “accounted for 34.1%, the pedagogical sector, foreign languages accounted for 19.6%, Agriculture, forestry and fisheries accounted for 15.3%, industry and finance accounted for 12.5%, medical and pharmaceuticals, sport” accounted for 12.1%, mechanics accounting for 5.8%, arts and culture accounted for 0.27% [ 14; 21]. In the context of both construction and anti-sabotage warfare, the training method manifested itself in a great variety. The University of Technology, Agriculture and Forestry, Economic Planning planned to expand in-service training courses, training courses for technical and economic cadres for production establishments and cultural establishments.

Along with the expansion of domestic training, due to requirements of Vietnam, the assignment of sending overseas students to training was promoted. If before 1954, we sent students to train in the three countries of the Soviet Union, China and the German Democratic Republic, in this period, the Government of Vietnam sent overseas students for training in most countries in the socialist system.

The development of teaching staff ensured quality and quantity to become an urgent requirement of a higher education. In this period, the higher education sector had taken measures to develop teaching staff: graduates from Polytechnics University, University of Economics, University of Economics - Finance, Academy of Agriculture - Forestry to teach basic technical subjects of institutions; to recruit graduated students abroad; selected the number of excellent graduates from universities in the country; Inviting professional staff in the fields and experts of countries working in the production facilities of our country to teach; Invite qualified experts of the country to help our teaching staff in terms of: scientific level, the method of organizing the subject. Especially at this time, we started to plan to send teachers to train abroad, mainly in the Soviet Union. By the academic year of 1964-1965, more than 500 teaching staff were appointed, of which nearly 50% were graduate students. Major universities in the country such as the General University, the University of Pedagogy, the Polytechnic University had opened postgraduate training courses, fostered teaching staff at postgraduate level, the combination between domestic and foreign, mid-term and long-term. With the above measures, the teaching staff had increased rapidly in quantity and quality.

In order to strengthen political, ideological and moral education in institutions, in December 1961, the Ministry of Education and the Party Secretary of the institutions held a conference on political ideology. These activities had contributed to raising the ideological position, revolutionary morality, training the sense of organization and discipline, awakening the national spirit and professional passion among cadres and students.

The most important activity in the higher education system was training and scientific research. Universities had made great strides in defining their specific training objectives. Based on the objective, institutions developed study plans and curricula based on the learning experience of the universities of the Soviet Union and socialist countries to develop the study plan and Compile the course syllabus, but there were adjustments to the level of students and training requirements of our country. Some institutions such as the University of Pedagogy and the University of the University also translated the materials in Russian, French, English... to improve the quality of teaching for teachers, students and the scientists. Scientific research was encouraged to serve the teaching, study and production work in order to effectively serve the country's educational principles and mantra and to respond to President Ho Chi Minh: "The education sector must teach well and study well". At the beginning of the academic year of 1961-1962, the universities launched the "two good" emulation movement, striving to improve the quality of comprehensive training, promote the spirit of self-reliance, building materials for the institution. The movement to improve teaching and learning methods in universities had contributed to improving the quality of teaching and learning. For students who had had “good morale, motivation and academic learning, and have become aware of the characteristics of college learning methods” [ 15; 2].

This shows that, in more than 10 years of achieved peace in the North, the undertakings and policies for restoring, consolidating and developing higher education had been concretized in all aspects, make changes, initial results, creating momentum changes in the later stages of the war.

2.4. The Impacts of the Policies, Vietnamese Education Development Policy (1954-1965) on the Issuance of Higher Education Reform in Vietnam Today

Firstly, higher education in the North of 1954-1965 was a glorious history of Vietnam's higher education tradition, contributing to the development of an independent higher education ethno-scientific-mass education, integration of regional and world education. Vietnamese higher education emphasizes the national spirit and traditional education of the nation. Vietnamese was the official language in institutions. Through political-ideological education, content of lessons, extracurricular activities, patriotic traditions, sense of territorial sovereignty, indomitable spirit against aggression, solidarity, Mutual affection, self-reliance... Be inspired and promote strongly, serve the aspirations “Nothing is more precious than independence and freedom”, the struggle to unify the country. Northern education always educates the spirit of national unity, the sense of national equality, mutual assistance for brothers ethnic in Vietnam ethnic communities, had policies to prioritize the training of ethnic minority cadres and train cadres in service of socio-economic development in remote and deep-lying areas. Therefore, a prominent feature of higher education in the North of Vietnam was education by the people, of the people and for the people.

At present, Vietnam's higher education is in the process of implementing reforms, gradually giving autonomy and self-responsibility to institutions. The Party and the State advocate diversification of forms of training, in addition to the formal system also open other systems (in-service, remote) to facilitate all levels of society in the university lecture. Thus, continuing to grasp President Ho Chi Minh's view that the cause of education is the cause of the entire Party, the whole people, mobilizing the people to participate in building an education is a valuable lesson learned that higher education in the North during 1954-1965 left for the later revolutionary cause.

Secondly, higher education in the north of the years 1954-1965 harmonized the relationship between the number, size and quality of higher education. The consistent view of the Party and Government was that scale is enhanced with quality. At certain times, higher education in the North of 1954-1965 pushed the scale of the training one step ahead. Faced to the lack of serious professional staff, this was the right policy because first of all, it must ensure the quantity and training of human resources not only for the immediate future, but also for the long term. On the other hand, quality improvement could not be solved in a short time but must have a process. The lesson here is to accelerate the scale development to a reasonable level, not to exceed the conditions of facilities to ensure quality. It should be resolved in a synchronous and balanced manner between the plan to increase the scale and prepare the elements of infrastructure, ensuring the service of teaching - learning and living… Besides, the development of scale must be in line with the balance of the industry, the level of ensuring both immediate requirements, and ensure the long-term.

At present, the size of higher education grows at a fast pace, and the number of new and newly enrolled universities and students (both formal and non-formal) increases dramatically. The establishment of many new universities to create a competitive environment in higher education, thus improving quality is the right direction. However, the mass birth of many universities, increasing the scale as they are now does not make sense, which affects quality and imbalance in the structure of training. The development of scale has not attached to the improvement of quality, while enterprises and production facilities are seriously short of high-quality labor. Thus, the lesson of the development of higher education is associated with improved quality, increasing the scale to ensure the structure of the training profession in the period 1954 - 1965 is still significant for the current higher education through large measures such as strict regulations on university standards; Facilities conditions for teaching, learning and teaching staff… It is the basis for allocation of training indicators; To strictly manage the contingent of lecturers; It is necessary to have a close examination and supervision of the conditions for opening institutions; It is necessary to review the newly established universities, which do not qualify, dissolve, or merge into other institutions. In particular, it is necessary to establish labor market research institutions and accreditation of training institutions. This agency is responsible for forecasting immediate and long-term needs and criteria as a basis for the education sector and universities to develop training plans.

Third, higher education in the North of 1954-1965 successfully implemented the principle of attaching institutions to social reality, meeting the requirements of the revolutionary cause. Linking institution with social practice and political service is closely related. Institutions are associated with new social reality to serve the political task, serve the political task must be associated with social practice. In the resistance war against the United States (1954-1965), higher education in the North of 1954-1965 was attached with real life, timely serving political tasks, training human resources for the healing of war wounds, economic recovery, cultural development. Especially when the United States imperialists attacked the North, the State has shifted to accelerate the scale associated with improving the quality of training, directly serving production and combat.

At present, Vietnamese higher education continues to serve the immediate and long-term revolutionary tasks, and to train qualified human resources for the cause of industrialization and modernization of the country. In order to fulfill that task, education needs to shift its training to meet the needs of the market, to link institutions with social life and external production facilities so that graduates can meet the demands of reality. Under the current conditions, the implementation of “learning combined with production labor, theoretical reasoning” of the university must be very flexible, creative. It is necessary to base on the practical conditions and capabilities of each institution, training branch and training system in order to have suitable forms and contents, especially to promote the form of joint training between institutions and enterprises. Training institutions under the “contract”, according to the “orders” of the manufacturing facilities and external businesses, help students get acquainted with the practical problems while sitting on the institution bench, overcome the status of graduates of the university is not practical knowledge, the master of the lack of workers in society today.

Fifthly, higher education in the North of 1954-1965 left valuable lessons for staff and lecturers in terms of quantity and quality.

It can be said that the image and brand of Vietnamese higher education is now partly due to the names of teachers and scientists who have grown up from education in the North of 1954- 1965.They are the example of the flesh and bone in building a team of qualified cadres who are qualified for the higher education system of Vietnam. Practice shows that training and fostering are one of the original tasks of teaching staff and educational administrators. During the resistance war against American, salvage, lessons learned here is to train, educate the staff who work in education, know how to do the forecast. Identify correct trends in the development of the sector, based on that plan to foster training to ensure the structure of teaching staff, management staff and the appropriate ratio between teaching staff and students. Staff training must ensure succession, continuity between the previous generation and the next generation, avoiding the crisis, the break between the generations. The recruitment of teaching staff from various sources, people trained in the country, abroad, people working from research institutes, production facilities...However, the morality, professional qualifications, degrees and health must be ensured. The arrangement and use of cadres must be in line with the characteristics of the branch. Cadres and lecturers must be professionals, educators and at the same time, be honest scientists.

Higher education in the North of Vietnam in 1954-1965 was a precious history of Vietnamese education, bearing the values of the Vietnamese tradition with ethnicity - science - mass, an education that values independence, self-reliance, creativity in the context of separation and war. Currently, in terms of facilities for teaching and learning, Vietnamese higher education is still far from other countries in the region and in the world. Therefore, it is necessary to continue to promote the spirit of patriotism, traditions of studious learning in the building and international integration, the mobilization of financial resources, material resources and wisdom of the Vietnam to overcome the weaknesses and backward muscle. To improve the quality of training, to integrate Vietnamese higher education into the development of higher education in Asia and the world. It can be said, in the context of war is going fierce, the Government of Vietnam is determined to promote education, training staff to serve the immediate and long-term needs of the country by issuing a series of resolutions and directives. That view has shown the Party's strategic vision, "a significant factor in building and strengthening the scientific staff, technically and administratively, not only to meet the urgent need of the American Revolutionary War but also to prepare for the country's ten times better career when the war ended" [ 16; 327].

3. Conclusion

Higher education in the North of Vietnam in the years 1954 - 1965 developed in the context of history has great changes in both advantages and disadvantages. In order to meet the development goals of the country's higher education, the Vietnam Labor Party and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam government have continuously issued important documents clearly defining the objectives, motto of higher education; to develop training and scientific research; To build the contingent of cadres and lecturers; To build and develop a system of tertiary education institutions; Ideological work for cadres, students and students as well as major solutions oriented for higher education in the North catch up with the situation and demand history.

Thanks to the acumen, discerning in the guidelines of the Party, in the context of fierce war and the starting point of difficult material foundations, higher education in the North had achieved tremendous achievements that we could regard as wonders. The first big achievement was to train many professional staffs, to have a devoted spirit of devotion and devotion to the cause of revolution. The second great achievement was the establishment of a relatively large system of universities and professional socialist secondary institutions, creating a solid foundation for the development of training, fostering cadres later. In the process, although there are limitations, universities and professional secondary institutions have built up good traditions of self-reliant spirit, linking theory with practical labor production, Patriotism and the fight to protect the educational achievements created by teachers and students of institutions... It shows that higher education in the North is still young, but it has contributed significantly to the training of the successors of revolutionary cause of the Party and people of Vietnam.

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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Nguyen Thi Thanh Tung

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Nguyen Thi Thanh Tung. Higher Education Development Policies in the Northern Region of Vietnam from 1954 to 1965 and the Impacts of these Policies on Vietnamese Education Today. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 6, No. 9, 2018, pp 1271-1277. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/6/9/5
MLA Style
Tung, Nguyen Thi Thanh. "Higher Education Development Policies in the Northern Region of Vietnam from 1954 to 1965 and the Impacts of these Policies on Vietnamese Education Today." American Journal of Educational Research 6.9 (2018): 1271-1277.
APA Style
Tung, N. T. T. (2018). Higher Education Development Policies in the Northern Region of Vietnam from 1954 to 1965 and the Impacts of these Policies on Vietnamese Education Today. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(9), 1271-1277.
Chicago Style
Tung, Nguyen Thi Thanh. "Higher Education Development Policies in the Northern Region of Vietnam from 1954 to 1965 and the Impacts of these Policies on Vietnamese Education Today." American Journal of Educational Research 6, no. 9 (2018): 1271-1277.
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