Article Versions
Export Article
Cite this article
  • Normal Style
  • MLA Style
  • APA Style
  • Chicago Style
Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

A Study of Teacher’s Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence on Students’ Mental Health among Higher Secondary School of Thanjavur District

Suresh. K, Srinivasan. P
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 869-876. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-41
Published online: June 14, 2018

Abstract

The Normative survey research was conducted to find out the influences of Teacher’s Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence on Students’ Mental Health among higher secondary school teachers of Thanjavur District, Tamilnadu, India. The random samples of 152 higher secondary school teachers and 577 students were selected for collecting data. The independent variables are Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence. The dependent variable of the study is Mental Health and the moderator variables of the study are Gender, Locality, Subject Taught, Management Type, School Type and Years of Experience. The investigators of the study have used standardized tool for measuring the variables. Descriptive, Inferential and Regression Analyses were used to test the hypotheses. Descriptive analysis envisages that the Intelligent Quotient (IQ) of higher secondary school teachers is superior; Emotional Intelligence of the school teachers is high and the mental health of the higher secondary students is good. Inferential analysis explores that the Intelligent Quotient (IQ) of the higher secondary school teachers is significant with Gender and not significant with other moderator variables; the emotional intelligence of higher secondary school teachers is significant with Subject Stream, Experience and not significant with other moderator variables and the mental health of higher secondary school students is significant with all moderator variables. The intelligence and emotional intelligence of high school teachers influences the mental health of the higher secondary school students.

1. Introduction

In India, the education system faces a lot of problems almost in every walk of its life since independence. The field of education has also been affected with those significant problems. The ultimate aim of human life is to set good and effective education for youth to settle down in the service or job for better future. But the education stream of India could not used to gratify the thirst of youth. For this reason, the ancient teaching – learning process had been teacher centered. Then, now it is modified as learner centered. The continuous modification had been made in different level of education but it effect could not produce a fruitful educational environment. It is the fact, there are three factors affecting teaching and learning commonly such as, teaching factors, learning factors and common factors like classroom climate.

For a good teaching-learning process, these factors must be participating significantly. The unbalanced participation of these factors makes the process unfruitful and do not make an effect on education. The control of those factors will help the process as effective. On the other hand, the innovative models or technologies put their influences in education is not much and for this purpose, most of the researches have been conducted in education and making modification simultaneously. According to Sharma and Sharma 1 quoted that the objectives of the research should be to effect improvements in teaching. The intellectual type of research in education is being discouraged. Researchers of problematic and reformative are being encouraged. From these backdrops, the investigator believed that this research will help to give right direction for development of education and partially solve the problems of education in India.

2. Background of the Study

In an ideal classroom situation, generally two different types of roles are identified directly such as Teacher’s role and Pupils’ role. At first, the teacher role is teaching and to facilitate the learning process. Teacher must help the students to learn and how to learn and it is a responsibility of the teacher. Second, the student’s role, it is learning and it may be affected by the inherent facts of an individual. For an ideal teaching-learning process, the classroom should be in reality centered. The reality centered classroom fostering students’ active participation as well as encouraging to successful learning. The teacher acts as a guide in the reality centered classroom and promotes learning. On the other hand, the classroom climate also affects the students learning too. Therefore, the three roles such as teacher’s, students’ and classroom roles are terminating the effective teaching – learning.

The teacher characteristics/elements, student’s character/ elements and classroom characteristics /elements are made a great influence on teaching – learning process. In here, the investigator selected a certain characteristic/elements of teachers, students and classroom for showing the influences between them. The need of the characteristics is given in the following paragraphs.

2.1. Intelligence

Intelligence is often confused with learning, thinking determination, problem solving, concept formation and attainment, face new situation and achievement. It is none of these but affairs them all in a positive way, it improves performance. It is contrast from animals, man is considered to be endowed with above mentioned cognitive abilities which make them a rationale being. Definitely, the man is superior to animals in all such aspects of behaviour. But, human beings themselves are not all alike. There are wide individual differences. Teachers easily identify these differences among the pupils and easily mingled with them is impossible. But it is possible, if the teacher have a special ability. The special ability is intelligence. According to Wechsler (1944), the intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment (as cited in 2). The teacher should act as purposeful and aimed to develop the students’ achievement. Even though, it is a complex to the teachers that they are facing the situation haphazardly in the classroom always a new one. The teacher faces a novel situation while entering the classroom, the one day classroom situation could not be same on another day and the teacher cannot expect the situation to be faced. The teacher may adjust the situation and identify a solution while in trouble, if the teacher be an intelligent. So, the intelligence is an essential ability to the teacher for managing a novel situation and troubles.

2.2. Emotional Intelligence

Emotions are very important in our lives. One’s emotions have the potential to serve them as delicate and sophisticated internal guidance system 3. The internal guidance system gives a border line of emotions of each and every human being. Emotions of an individual cannot be controlled but it may possible to manage it. Srinivasan (2010) reported in the thesis entitled “Developing a strategy for enhancing emotional intelligence and its effect on competence in teaching science of B.Ed. trainees” as the following emotional outburst were made by the teachers. They are: The headmaster of Pachiappa’s HSS, Kanchipuram, Tamilnadu, shaved head compulsorily for many students who had grown more hair (The New Indian Express, Sep 2006). Head was broken by beating a boy of government hospital by warden in Thiruvannamalai, Tamilnadu (The New Indian Express, 20 Dec 2006). These are possible if the individual did not know how to manage emotions.

The passages specially focused the problem of teachers’ emotions in classroom, the teacher occupies most of the time to lecturing. The teacher must have high emotional intelligence and tolerance. Generally, normal teacher does not know how manage their emotions due to less awareness about emotional intelligence. For reducing this type of problems, the teacher may get training on managing emotions. The Teacher’s emotions hardly injure the student’s mental health and which leads a negative effect on achievement. The emotionally practiced teachers are excellent in supervising their emotions. So, the emotional intelligence is an essential to teacher for successful supervising of emotions and it is used to maintain good mental health and academic achievement of the students.

2.3. Mental Health

Mental health is universally agreed concept upon by all persons who are concerned with social welfare and progress of a country. One of the various challenges hurled at teachers recent part, is of maintaining the physical and mental health of children and youth of nation. It is a new responsibility of the teachers and they can play an important role in maintaining the mental health of the nations with their knowledge of human problems and remedial measures. Classroom teacher can facilitate a more aggregate adjustment of pupils to the problems of life. In 2014, Kurup found emphasis of mental health in classroom learning as “the students sitting in front a teacher in the classroom may not be a homogeneous a lot. For effective teaching-learning, it is important for teachers to understand the diverse background of the students. Those who are attending a lecture may differ based on personal facts like; goals, attitude, aptitude, physical, mental health etc (as cited in 4).

Sound mental health provides the students’ concentration on learning and retains the knowledge received in the classroom. Learning is dependent on sound mental health. Healthy children have a desire to acquire more and more information and skills that will give them better control over their environment. For healthy pupils, the teacher considers the mental health of the pupils. The physical and mental health could be maintained for good academic performance. So, the mental health and academic achievement of the students.

3. Research Questions of the Study

√ Does the Intelligence Quotient of higher secondary School Teachers is Superior.

√ Does the Emotional Intelligence of the high school teachers is high.

√ Does the Mental Health of higher secondary school students is good.

√ Is there any significance difference in Intelligence of higher secondary school teachers with regard to the moderator variables? such as

• Gender,

• Locality of the School,

• Subject Taught,

• Management Type,

• School Type, and

• Years of Experience.

√ Is there any significance difference in Emotional Intelligence of higher secondary school teachers with regard to the moderator variables? such as

• Gender,

• Locality of the School,

• Subject Taught,

• Management Type,

• School Type, and

• Years of Experience.

√ Is there any significance difference in Mental Health of higher secondary school teachers with regard to the moderator variables? such as

• Gender,

• Locality of the School,

• Stream,

• Management Type, and

• School Type.

√ Is there no amount of standard deviation increases in one variable by increase one unit of another variable of Hypothesized “ITEISM” model.

4. Methodology of the Study

Ram (2009) quoted, Research methodology is broader concept because it includes too many procedures are used to conduct a research. It includes method, sample and sampling technique, tools of the study, and statistical analysis of the study and they are described below.

4.1. Method

Due to the number of variables and to find the influences of independent variables on dependent variables, quantification of variable is essential. For quantifying the variable, the investigator has selected Normative Survey Method.

4.2. Sample of the Study

Sample is a small portion or unit of the large population 5. A good sample should reflect the parameters of the population. According to Best and Kahn 6 defined the sample “A sample is a small portion of the population that is selected for observation and analysis”. The higher secondary schools were randomly selected and the 152 higher secondary teachers and the respective 577 higher secondary first year students have been selected purposefully. Especially, it is called as random purposive sampling method or mixed sampling method.

4.3. Tools of the Study

Tools are very essential instrument to measure or assess or evaluate any type of variables. According to Best and Kahn 7, “Research tool is the means for describing and quantifying the data collected by the investigator many different methods and procedures have been developed to aid in the distinctive ways of describing and quantifying data”. The following tool has been used for collecting the data.


4.3.1. Intelligence Scale

It was constructed and standardized by Misra and Pal (2012). The criterion related validity was calculated by finding out product moment correlation coefficient between scores on test of general intelligence and scores on Cattell’s culture fair test of intelligence scale 3 form A. The value of correlation is 0.68. The reliability of the test (sub tests) has been found by using split half and test-retest methods with 148 students’ studying in under and post graduate degrees. The reliability of the sub tests is given in the below Table 1.


4.3.2. Emotional Intelligence Scale

It was constructed and standardized by Srinivasan and Murgesan (2013). The face validity, content validity and concurrent validity were found by the tool constructors. The concurrent validity was found with the Emotional Intelligence Scale by Anukool Hyde (2007) is 0.92 with 0.01 level. The reliability values of emotional intelligence are 0.62 and 0.71 by using Split half method and Cronbach’s alpha method respectively.


4.3.3. Mental Health Battery

Investigators re-constructed and re-standardized the Mental Health Battery of Singh (Arun Kumar Singh) and Gupta (Alpana Sen Gupta) (2012). The validity of mental health battery is not changed with reduced items. But the validity may affects by changing or modifying or the adding any one of the items. Notwithstanding this, the new mental health battery has the same questions without changing the items and their meaning. So, the new mental health tool reflects the older. Thus it has face validity. But it may have the content validity too. The mental health battery is 0.839 by using KR 20 method.


4.3.4. Statistical Analysis

The following statistical analyses have been used to test the hypotheses.

√ Descriptive Analysis (Mean & SD),

√ Inferential Analysis (t-test and F-test), and

√ Regression Analysis (AMOS)

5. Results and Conclusion

Conclusion is an imperative part of a research. Because, it bear up the results or description or a logical reason or rational or a justification of the findings. The effectiveness of the entire research is depending on the conclusion. The researcher has the responsibility to conclude the results or findings and it cannot be skipped. For making the conclusion as unbiased, the investigator scrutinizes the findings backgrounds and presented possible rational facts to all findings and they may be proved by other studies. The investigator has separated or integrated the findings based on their sub-variable for giving conclusion and are given below.

√ The level of Intelligence Quotient of higher secondary school teachers is superior. (Vide Table 2)

• It may be due to the experience of the teachers and most of the teachers have been appointed through Teacher Eligibility Test. Hence, the teachers may have high mean intelligence and it leads to superior.

√ The level of Emotional Intelligence of higher secondary school teachers is high. (Vide Table 2)

• It may be due to the awareness of emotional out bursts. It may be created by the awareness through Medias and personal experiences.

√ The level of Mental Health of higher secondary first year students is good. (Vide Table 2)

• It may be due to the emotional transaction between teacher and the students. The teachers’ high emotional intelligence produces them to realize own and others (students’) emotions. It may be a way to maintain the good mental health of the students.

√ There is a significance difference in Intelligence Quotient of higher secondary school teachers with regard to gender. (Vide Table 3)

• Intelligence has different dimensions. So the change in intelligence may occur from the dimensions like verbal intelligence, reasoning ability and so on of the individuals. Generally, the girls have high verbal intelligence and the boys have high reasoning ability and it may lead the variation between them.

√ There is no significance difference in Intelligence Quotient of higher secondary school teachers with regard to locality of the school. (Vide Table 3)

• The locality does not make any influences in Intelligence Quotient of higher secondary school students.

√ There is no significant difference in Intelligence Quotient of higher secondary school teachers with regard to the moderator variables such as subject taught, management type, school type, and years of experience. (Vide Table 4)

• The subject taught, management type, school type and years of experience does not make any influence on Intelligence Quotient of higher secondary school teachers.

√ There is no significant difference in Emotional Intelligence of higher secondary school teachers with regard to the moderator variables such as gender and locality of the school. (Vide Table 5)

• The gender and locality of the school does not make any influences on Emotional Intelligence of the higher secondary school teachers.

√ There is no significant difference in Emotional Intelligence of higher secondary school teachers with regard to management type. (Vide Table 6)

• The management type does not make any influences on Emotional Intelligence of higher secondary school teachers.

√ There is no significant difference in Emotional Intelligence of higher secondary school teachers between arts and science subject teachers, and science and vocational subject teachers. But, it is significant between arts and vocational subject teachers. (Vide Table 6 & Table 7)

• All subject teachers have high emotional intelligence. Even though, the science subject teachers are not differed highly with both language and vocational subject teachers. Generally, the science and vocational subject teachers having same emotional level during workouts/solving the problems. In classroom, the teacher must have high emotional stability, because each and every step of workouts/solving problems, the students may raise the queries. The science and vocational subject teachers has the responsibility to answer the queries without angry. But, the vocational subjects have more workouts problems than science subjects. The vocational teacher regularized the angry by known the nature of the students. This may be possible to have high emotional intelligence of vocational teachers than science than arts subject teacher even they are they have high emotional intelligence.

√ There is no significant difference in Emotional Intelligence of higher secondary school teachers between boys and co-education higher secondary schools. But, it is different between boys and girls, and girls and co-education schools. (Vide Table 6 & Table 8)

• In general, the teachers working in girls schools may have high emotional stability, and be a self regulated person with compare to others two. Because, girls may more sensitive and for that the teacher might manage their emotions during teaching. This may be possible to make the significance in teachers’ Emotional Intelligence.

√ There is no significant difference in Emotional Intelligence between 0-5 years and 6-10 years experienced higher secondary school teachers. But, it is significant between 6-10 years and above 10 years, and 0 -5 years and above 10 years experienced teachers. . (Vide Table 6 & Table 9)

• According to the proverb “Experience makes a man perfect”, experience makes an individual with self regulation and self awareness on emotional problems. Hence, the significant difference may occur.

√ There is a significant difference in Mental Health of higher secondary first year students with regard to gender. (Vide Table 10)

• Generally, one’s emotions affect other as well as themselves. The male may be exposed their emotions at a moment for relaxation but the female never expose their emotions at a moment and to manage themselves because of their sensitiveness. Girls easily got upset with such type of emotions. It may be possible in change in Mental Health of the students. Hence, the male students have high Mental Health than female students.

√ There is a significant difference in Mental Health of higher secondary first year students with regard to locality of the school. (Vide Table 10)

• The urban students’ parents may not force the students to do work and stressed them to concentrate on education. But, the rural school students’ parents might be pushed them to work. This produces the physical illness of the students and it may be slightly affects the mental health of the rural school students. Hence, it may be possible to urban students have high Mental Health than rural students.

√ There is a significant difference in Mental Health of higher secondary first year students with regard to stream. (Vide Table 10)

• Normally, the science students have more work like drawing diagrams, solving problems, practical etc with compare to the arts students. This may lead high mental stress of completing the work in time and it affects the mental health of the science students but not too low. Hence, it is possible to the arts students have high Mental Health than science students.

√ There is a significant difference in Mental Health of higher secondary first year students among government and aided, aided and private, and government and private schools. (Vide Table 11 & Table 12)

• The management of private schools stresses the teachers to attain 100% of results. This produces indirect effect on the students’ Mental Health by the teacher when compared to government aided and government schools. This may be produced the difference levels of Mental Health of the students. Hence, it is a possibility of the private school students has less Mental Health than aided schools than government schools.

√ There is no significant difference in Mental Health of higher secondary first year students between boys and co-education. But, it is significant with boys and girls, and girls and co-education schools. .(Vide Table 11 & Table 13)

• Normally, the boys’ students exposes their emotion suddenly and relaxed too. This makes the boys’ Mental Health as high. If the teacher scolds the male students in single sex or co-education schools, they would not be worried about it. But, the girls are very sensitive in nature and they feel psychologically in every moment of the emotional activities (self and others) in single sex school or co-education schools. Hence, this may produce mental health of girls than boys in single gender schools and co-educations schools.

√ There is an amount of standard deviation increases in one variable by increase one unit of another variable of Hypothesized “ITEISM” model, such as (Vide Table 14)

• The one unit of change in Intelligence changes 0.475 standard deviation units on Emotional Intelligence.

• The one unit of change in Intelligence changes 0.022 standard deviation units on Mental Health.

• The one unit of change in Emotional Intelligence changes 0.984 standard deviation units on Mental Health.

References

[1]  Sharma, Ramnath., and Sharma, K Rajendra, Problems of education in India: functional research., Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, 2004, 17-22.
In article      
 
[2]  Srinivastava, D.S, Educational psychology, Shree Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, 2006, 23-25.
In article      
 
[3]  Srinivasan, P, Practicing emotional intelligence, Neelkamal Publications Private Limited, Hyderabad, 2012, 53-56.
In article      
 
[4]  Kundu, C.L., and Tutoo, D.N, Educational psychology, Sterling Publishers Private Limited, New Delhi, 2011, 33-38.
In article      
 
[5]  Koul, Lokesh, Methodology of educational Research, Vikas Publication House Private Limited, New Delhi, 1984, 15-16.
In article      
 
[6]  Best, W. John and Kahn, V. James, Research in education (10th ed.), PHI Learning Private Learning, New Delhi, 2006, 56-57.
In article      
 
[7]  Best, W. John and Kahn, V. James, Research in education, PHI Learning Private Learning, New Delhi, 1998, 53-57.
In article      
 
[8]  Ahuja, Ram, Research methods, Rawat Publications, New Delhi, 2001, 31-34.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Suresh. K and Srinivasan. P

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Suresh. K, Srinivasan. P. A Study of Teacher’s Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence on Students’ Mental Health among Higher Secondary School of Thanjavur District. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 6, No. 6, 2018, pp 869-876. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/6/6/41
MLA Style
K, Suresh., and Srinivasan. P. "A Study of Teacher’s Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence on Students’ Mental Health among Higher Secondary School of Thanjavur District." American Journal of Educational Research 6.6 (2018): 869-876.
APA Style
K, S. , & P, S. (2018). A Study of Teacher’s Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence on Students’ Mental Health among Higher Secondary School of Thanjavur District. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(6), 869-876.
Chicago Style
K, Suresh., and Srinivasan. P. "A Study of Teacher’s Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence on Students’ Mental Health among Higher Secondary School of Thanjavur District." American Journal of Educational Research 6, no. 6 (2018): 869-876.
Share
  • Table 7. Post Hoc t-tests for Emotional Intelligence of Higher Secondary School Teachers between the Sub-Variables of Subject Taught
  • Table 8. Post Hoc t-tests for Emotional Intelligence of Higher Secondary School Teachers between the Sub-Variables of Subject Taught
  • Table 9. Post Hoc t-tests for Emotional Intelligence of Higher Secondary School Teachers between the Sub-Variables of Years of Experience
  • Table 12. Post Hoc t-tests for Mental Health of Higher Secondary First year School Students with regard to Sub-Variables of Management Type
  • Table 13. Post Hoc t-tests for Mental Health of Higher Secondary First Year Students with regard to Sub-Variables of School Type
[1]  Sharma, Ramnath., and Sharma, K Rajendra, Problems of education in India: functional research., Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, 2004, 17-22.
In article      
 
[2]  Srinivastava, D.S, Educational psychology, Shree Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, 2006, 23-25.
In article      
 
[3]  Srinivasan, P, Practicing emotional intelligence, Neelkamal Publications Private Limited, Hyderabad, 2012, 53-56.
In article      
 
[4]  Kundu, C.L., and Tutoo, D.N, Educational psychology, Sterling Publishers Private Limited, New Delhi, 2011, 33-38.
In article      
 
[5]  Koul, Lokesh, Methodology of educational Research, Vikas Publication House Private Limited, New Delhi, 1984, 15-16.
In article      
 
[6]  Best, W. John and Kahn, V. James, Research in education (10th ed.), PHI Learning Private Learning, New Delhi, 2006, 56-57.
In article      
 
[7]  Best, W. John and Kahn, V. James, Research in education, PHI Learning Private Learning, New Delhi, 1998, 53-57.
In article      
 
[8]  Ahuja, Ram, Research methods, Rawat Publications, New Delhi, 2001, 31-34.
In article