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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Kenya

Salome Njagi Odek
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 845-857. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-39
Published online: June 13, 2018

Abstract

This study looks at some significant variables in Adventist schools in relation to organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The study is designed to address the problem, “To what extent does transformational leadership relate to the OCB of the teachers?” The study seeks to provide a better theoretical understanding of OCB in Adventist schools in Kenya. One of the elements that enhance the performance of an organization is the OCB of its workers. Although OCB is important, little is known about the factors contributing to willingness of teachers going an extra mile in their workplace. The respondents were 170 teachers from Adventist schools in Kenya. The teachers responded to 2 instruments along with demographic variables. These were the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale. The instruments utilized in the study (MLQ and OCB) were adequate for utilization in Adventist schools in Kenya. Teachers with lower than bachelor’s degree education, below 30 years of age, and have been teaching for less than one year in the school were significantly different than other categories, on transformational leadership style and OCB.

1. Introduction

One of the key elements that enhance the performance of an organization is the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) of its workers 1. OCB is integral to the performance and effectiveness of organizations 2. It is a call to go beyond the need of duty DuBrin, as cited in 3 and willingness to put in extra effort on the job. In educational institutions it is helping students and colleagues, and engaging in other beneficial school activities 4. OCB has proved to be an element that has a great impact on the success of organizations 5.

The willingness to go an extra mile for the achievement of organizational mission is one of the key aspects of OCB 6. OCB could probably be one of the key factors attributing to success or lack of it in some Adventist schools in Kenya.

There is a high turnover of teachers in most of the schools; even the commitment of the teachers that remain in these institutions is in question 7. It is, therefore, important for the church to seek ways and means by which they can enable teachers to own their organization’s mission.

The individualistic trend in the world today tends to make the focus to be on what one can gain from associations, organizations and employment 3. Usually work is done only as commensurate to the reward. With this trend there is a need to enlist workers to share and own their organization’s mission. The ability of the workers to go beyond the call of duty is a need of many organizations 2. This need is also in the field of education where willingness to go above and beyond the call of duty is necessary for the schools to attain their objectives and goals 8.

The teaching profession requires commitment. Teacher commitment has been identified as one of the most critical factors in the success and failure of education institutions 9. Teacher commitment is under strain in Kenya. Teachers in Kenya find themselves in an educational environment where there is lack of incentives and motivation at the workplace, and at times they are overworked 10. The sense of commitment to the teaching task is lacking, thus the mentoring role in teaching that requires going a second mile is a missing ingredient. Adventist teachers in Kenya find themselves in such an environment.

The Seventh-day Adventist Church in Kenya has educational institutions from elementary to tertiary level 7. These institutions were established to enable the Adventist Church in the Central Kenya Conference (CKC) achieve its aim of providing Adventist young men and women with Christian education 11. Their contribution to the growth and development of the Adventist Church in this territory is significant. Nevertheless, there are areas in which these institutions still need to develop. Some of the areas are staff retention, commitment, and dedication. These could be enhanced if OCB is encouraged 3.

The performance and effectiveness of organizations is closely linked to the OCB of its employees 2. The success of an organization depends largely on enlisting the employees to own the organization’s mission and have willingness to go beyond the call of duty in the achievement of the mission. OCB involves a demonstration of a behavior that one freely chooses to engage in activities that promote the effective functioning of an organization that are not necessarily recognized by the formal reward system 2. This makes OCB a much-needed element in educational institutions, where the role of a teacher is important. This could probably be a way to address the problem in Adventist schools in Kenya.

Generally organizations have made attempts to enhance workers’ effectiveness 1. Efforts on workers’ motivation and enlisting commitments have been used. However, it has been observed that workers who exhibit OCB have enhanced performance. The willingness to go an extra mile and owning the organization’s mission usually translate into success 3.

The call to go beyond the need of duty, one of the key aspects of OCB, has been underscored. “Reference 11 states that those who do nothing for their employers except that which is commanded them, when they know that the prosperity of the work depends on some extra exertion on their part, will fail to be counted as faithful servants. There are many things not specified that wait to be done, that come directly under the notice of the one employed”. (p. 228)

This study focuses on transformational leadership. leadership style, is essential to the success of the organizations 12. It has been demonstrated that leadership in educational institutions has led to their success or lack of it 13. It is, therefore, important to see how leadership style influences OCB.

Scholars have established different leadership theories which are used to explain the effectiveness of leadership style 14. Among these theories are the early trait theory, the power and influence theory, the behavioral theory, situational theories, and transactional and transformational theories 3. James McGregor Burns as cited in 2 classified all the leadership theories into two categories: transactional and transformational leadership. Transactional leadership focuses on job performance. It is measured by rewards controlled by the leaders. On the other hand, transformational leadership focuses on change by creating, communicating, and modeling a vision that inspires followers to strive for it 15. Transformational leadership positively impacts on the behavior outcome of the employees. The followers are inspired and activated to carry out their duties beyond expectation 3. Transformational leadership has an effect on OCB when the employees perceive fairness, trust, and support in the workplace 15.

It is, therefore, important to see how certain aspects of school life result in progress or lack of OCB. It has been suggested that OCB is critical to performance of organizations 2. How then can these qualities be achieved in Adventist schools in Kenya? It is likely that one of the factor in a school setting that contribute to OCB is transformational leadership.

Though several research studies have explored factors related to OCB, there seems to be a gap in theoretical considerations of whether transformational leadership of teachers working for a religious organization is related to their OCB towards that organization.

2. Literature Review

OCB was introduced into academic literature through the works of Denis Organ 2. It has grown in the last three decades to become a large field of research. Studies have mainly focused on the corporate sector and studies on the relevance of OCB in schools are recent 6. The studies on OCB in educational institutions have helped to show the relevance of OCB in schools. This study examines OCB among teachers in Adventist schools in Kenya.

Leaders in the educational sector should be cognizant of the value of OCB. Teachers play a significant role in the success of a school. Thus, the incidence of OCB in a school setting largely depends on their involvement. This section covers definition and elements of OCB that relate to teachers.

Any successful organization has workers who go an extra mile in their formal work, responsibilities and give their energy and time for it to succeed 6. “Reference 2 states that OCB is an individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization” (p. 150).

Later OCB was redefined as an influence that enhances performance Organ, as cited in 2. It is a demonstration of a behavior that is out of free will, without any force. The employees go over their required duties in order to help their colleagues to achieve the goal of the organization. In essence, this is what OCB entails 9.

One of the key elements of OCB is the ability to do more than what is required for the interest of the organization. When employees perform beyond their normal duties they “develop a stronger conscientiousness about what they can do” 15, p. 38. Consequently, the employees engage in healthy interpersonal relationships within the organization, do more than required, and forbear difficulties.

OCB is an extra role where an employee does not get any reward. “Reference 6 summarize the components of OCB as follows:

1. Altruism is when an employee demonstrates concern for the good of others without selfish motives. If a fellow worker is absent from work due to sickness or any reason, one can help him/her with the workload, and volunteer to teach their lessons.

2. Conscientiousness is true commitment when one stays up to late hours without taking extra breaks to finish what he/she has started. An employee obeys rules without being watched.

3. Civic virtue is when one meets all the organization appointments without being forced. A worker becomes aware of the changes in the organization and supports them. The teacher becomes responsibly involved in the political life of the school.

4. Sportsmanship is when an employee focuses on the positive aspects of an organization rather than the negative and wrong aspect of the organization. The employees listen to the advice of other members and share the joy of accomplishing a project together.

5. Courtesy is the act of showing empathy and understanding toward other workers without abusing their rights. They treat others with respect”.

“Reference 1 describe the traits that indicate an employee who practices OCB is being cooperative, helpful, and caring. Workers must have job satisfaction and commitment before they engage in OCB”. They must perceive that the organization in which they are working is supporting them and treating them with fairness.

Several studies concerning OCB have been done in the area of business, industries, and educational institutions. However, in the scope of this study, only the current relevant research on OCB is explored.

“Reference 2 observes that previous research on OCB found that organizational aspects such as commitment, satisfaction, and motivation mediated the employee OCB”. The employees reciprocated the way the organization treated employees. A high level of OCB is valuable to organizations. “Reference 16 opine that OCB makes the workers to willingly engage in activities that enhance the performance of an organization”. The study was conducted to find the reason for the high turnover of nurses in the health sector in Taiwan. This research aimed at finding ways of reducing employee turnover by enhancing OCB and job satisfaction. The findings showed that job satisfaction has a positive correlation with OCB.

“Reference 17 examined the link between management practices, workers mind-set, and behavior in England”. The results indicated that human resource management practices positively impacted OCB as mediated by perceived job influence. A study on values commitment and OCB 18 found that continuous commitment was impacted by values and related positively with OCB.

“Reference 19 researched on the role of virtuousness in organizational settings”. The results revealed that the way organizational virtuousness is perceived is a predictor of OCB. This is directly and indirectly through the mediating role of affective well- being at work. In line with these findings, 20 study on the link between the antecedents of OCB and performance in organizations found a positive relationship between OCB and organizational performance. This study shows that workers performing their tasks unselfishly and with commitment carry out a teamwork concept. Another research on OCB and team performance as mediated by group cohesion and collective efficacy found that organizational performance is positively influenced by OCB 21.

“Reference 22 examined work performance and OCB by applying collective social exchange. The results revealed a positive correlation between high performance work system and OCB through collective affective commitment”. In another study, “reference 23 examined counterproductive work behavior and OCB". In this study it was found that OCB negatively related to counterproductive work behavior. This is because those who manifest one tend not to do the other.

“Reference 24 explains on how OCB affects group performance found that OCB improves group performance”. High performance is achieved when OCB is appreciated. “Reference 25 examined whether performance in public and private partnerships was enhanced when there was commitment or when workers were on contract”. These researchers worked on the premise that outsourcing business activities is widespread. Thus, the study sought to show how the outsourcing process influences OCB and employee commitment. The findings indicated that OCB and job performance were predictors of employee commitment.

“Reference 26 sought to find out how trust and mistrust influenced efficient and inefficient retention of employees”. Respondents who indicated that they would stay within the organization for the next 3 to 5 years participated in the study. The findings revealed that trust was basic in advancing the efficient retention and OCB.

On the other hand, OCB related negatively with inefficient retention. Distrust significantly predicted psychological withdrawal. The findings underscored the necessity of building and maintaining trust in organizations in order to prevent the development of distrust, and help in retention of workers thus enhancing the performance of the organization.

“Reference 27 examined the relationship between OCB, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment as mediated by occupational image”. The findings indicated that there was a positive correlation between job satisfaction and OCB, and also organizational commitment and OCB. “Reference 28 conducted research on the relationship between perceived human resource practices and OCB in China”. The results revealed that there was a positive relationship between human resource management practices and OCB. On the other hand, these human resource practices related negatively with retention-oriented compensation. Formalized training related positively with the engagement of OCB.

“Reference 11 explored the relationship between OCB and perceptions of leadership effectiveness. Results found out that the higher the level of OCB the better the perception of the leaders as being effective”. The findings point out that leadership does influence OCB in the organization. “Reference 29 researched on the reasons why workers stay in their careers. The results found out that leadership style is the most important reason that encourages commitment”.

In relation to gender factor and OCB, 30 found that sex, gender, and OCB had a significant relationship. Notably, the male had a positive effect towards OCB more than the female. A study by 31 found a major difference between genders. A positive correlation between OCB and organizational effectiveness was higher for the male workers than the females. In contrast, 32 found that a higher number of women are likely to be involved in participating in the helping dimension of OCB whereas men are more likely to participate in the civic virtue aspect of OCB. The perception of OCB also differs by age group.

“Reference 33 researched on whether there was any difference between permanent and temporary workers and their OCB. The study included other variables like worker’s status and the culture of the organization and how it affects performance. The results showed that OCB and workers who had permanent employment are positively related”.

“Reference 34 conducted a meta-analysis study. He found that young female college educated workers with more years of work experience had influence on performance and citizenship performance”. “Reference 31 found flexibility was more on younger workers than the older ones in adapting to the needs of the organization”. Therefore, the younger and older employees differ in their attitudes towards work. In contrast, some studies have shown that there is no effect on teachers’ OCB when considering gender and age. “Reference 12 showed that the perception of leadership and OCB in regard to age has no difference”.

“Reference 35 on OCB and organizational commitment explored how relationships are mentored in public school settings in Kansas City in the United States. The study comprised variables such as organizational commitment, workplace sense of community, and OCB”. The outcome showed that there was a positive influence on the workplace sense of community and organizational commitment. Further, mentoring had a significant correlation with OCB.

Leadership is one of the factors that influence OCB. Researchers have pointed out that leaders have significant influence on the behavior, attitude, commitment, and OCB of their employees 2, 36. This section outlines systematically the definition of leadership and leadership theories that could be related to teachers in CKC schools.

Leadership has been defined in various ways. In an organizational context, leadership in education is defined as the capability to bring about positive modifications that are likely to impact the performance of the educators and learners, resulting in the achievement of the organization objectives and goals 37. “Reference 38 states that governance is the act of allocating the resources in an institution so that a selected quality of learning can be provided taking into account the anticipations of the stakeholders”. “Reference 39 observes that leadership in a school setting entails dealing with attitudes, morals, and inspirations of several groups particularly the administrative board and teachers who may have different views of education”.

Based on these definitions, it can be concluded that effective leadership does not only involve legal authority or position but also the ability to exert individual influence. To have a better understanding about the development and change of leadership thought some theories are discussed.

Over a period of time several theories on leadership have been developed describing the effectiveness of leadership. Prominent among these theories are the trait theory, the power theory, and behavioral theory. These theories are discussed, since they help in understanding what transformational and transactional theories are, which are used as the central focus of the study.

Trait theory. “A leader’s trait is a physical or personality characteristic that are used to differentiate leaders from followers” 3, p. 597. Studies have indicated that some traits tend to differentiate leaders from those who are not. These traits are intelligence, dominance, self-confidence, level or energy, and activity and task relevant behavior 9, 15. The trait theory is still important in leadership studies but the emphasis is moving from personality trait toward job-related skills 2.

Behavioral theory. Behavioral theory emphasis is on the leader’s behavior not the personality characteristics. Research has revealed how the leaders’ behavior influences performance. This may provide insight regarding principal’s leadership behavior that encourages teachers to demonstrate OCB traits in schools.

Studies have shown that there are two independent dimensions to the behavior of a leader, based on behavior theory. These are consideration behavior and initiating structure behavior 3. The first dimension, consideration behavior, entails building trust taking into consideration the needs and desires of the group. Examples of such behaviors are voicing the employees’ interests, being sensitive to the interests of the followers, and recognizing the value of the work of the subordinates.

The second dimension, initiating structure, involves definition of the roles and tasks of the leader. It involves the leader expressing the anticipations in regard to the subordinates’ limits towards performance at work. Research has shown that a leader can be strong in one of the areas or in both 2.

Leadership based on power. In the leadership that is based on power the focus is on the influence of the leader. “Reference 40 suggests five different ways by which an administrator can influence employees”. The first way is through force, which is based on power and position of the leader. This is the formal authority that is given to the leader. The second way is through the leader’s knowledge. This is the influence through which the leader focuses on knowledge, expertise and talent. Third is through reward, which focuses on the leader’s impact based on material rewards. The fourth is through position. This is authority given to the leaders based on their position. Leaders may use their legitimate power to reward or punish their workers. The fifth is through personal friendship. The leader influences his employees based on their trust and respect.

The impact of leaders’ authority is based on both position and personal power 8. It is apparent that the use of power and followers’ influence involves a mutual process. Effective leaders use power carefully, while being sensitive to the emotions of subordinates 2.


2.1.1. Transactional and Transformational Leadership

The relationship between the leader and followers has become the focus of leadership theory studies since 1970s 2. Based on this relationship, two practical leadership theories were classified by McGregor Burns, namely, transactional and transformational leadership 2. In both theories leaders and their subordinates have an impact on motivating and influencing each other 1. Studies on leadership 4, 8 show that transactional and transformational leadership styles are narrowly related to situational theories. Both theories are based on the relations of the leaders and subordinates, according to the situation 1.

Current research seems to use these two terms to categorize types of leadership 4. The leadership categories such as laissez-faire, autocratic, and democratic may be used by one individual at different times and do not necessarily describe their leadership type. On the other hand, the transformational and transactional leadership theories look at the intention of the leader, not necessarily his personality trait. This section discusses the specifics of the characteristics of transactional, non-transactional, and transformational theories.


2.1.2. Transactional Leadership

Transactional leadership focuses on an exchange relationship between leaders and followers 2. Leaders use rewards to motivate employees and apply corrective action when one does not measure to their performance expectation 3. The transactional leader tries to motivate followers by engaging their own self-interest 41.

Leaders have a part to play in motivating and inspiring their followers to go beyond the call of duty and to be willing to put in extra effort on the job, help their co-workers, and engage in other organizational beneficial activities 9. Transactional leadership motivates employees by exchange of rewards for the services that they do. A leader tries to find out what the workers want and provides for them. “Reference 1 listed three dimensions of transactional leadership as follows: (1) contingent reward leadership, (2) active management-by-exception, and (3) passive management-by-exception. These are further explained as follows:

1. Contingent reward leadership: In this leadership style the leader explains roles and task requirements, then the followers are provided with rewards based on their performance.

2. Management-by-exception (active): The leader has an impact on the behavior of their subordinates and ensures that standards are maintained. They actively monitor performance at work and correct the problems beforehand. Corrective measures are applied if performance is not up to the standard.

3. Management-by-exception (passive): In this approach leaders fail to

4. Interfere until the problem is out of hand. Leaders wait to take a step until they are called to intervene when there is a problem in the employer’s performance.

In describing transactional leadership Bass observes that it involves a daily exchange between leaders and followers 9. This exchange uses two dimensions, which are contingent reward, and management-by-exception. The contingent reward approach is based on the reinforcement theory of B. F. Skinner. This theory explains how stimulus gives indication for certain responses. The behavior is repeated if the action is rewarded. “Reference 42 argues that transactional leadership is more effective when positive reinforcement is awarded”.

Leaders are seen as the agents of reinforcement for their followers, providing either positive or negative reinforcement 9. Positive reinforcement symbolizes attractive reward or withdrawal of the unpleasant condition after a response. Punishment is viewed as providing unpleasant consequences for the undesirable behavior 43. It could be summarized that reinforcement theory is an incentive which could be applicable to teachers by fulfilling their desires.

Management–by-exception deals with effective operation at the workplace. Management has several functions: namely controlling, monitoring, evaluating, and correcting 3. The function of controlling in management is viewed as the act of measuring performance and acting to guarantee desired outcomes 42. The leaders must set specific standards, supervise standards to ensure valuable performance 43. The main focus of management-by-exception is to differentiate between real and anticipated performance 43 indicating if performance is higher or lower than the required standard.

However, some scholars believe that in transactional leadership not all employees carry out duties due to extrinsic motivational motives. Extrinsic motivation has a short-term and limited effect on employees. There are other reasons that inspire individuals to work. Some employees are excellent performers in their job since they adore their work and are naturally inspired. At times, employees are inspired by fellow workers 44. It has also been indicated that transactional leadership style is likely to take a hold on the traditional method instead of changing the situation 37. Critics describe the personal characteristics of transactional leaders as controlling and dictating their employees 42.


2.2.3. Non-transactional Leadership

Non-transactional leadership is also termed as laissez-faire method of leadership 43. The leaders are hesitant in facing the challenges of the organization. In this approach leaders avoid meeting the needs of the others and they do not check how they are performing. The subordinates are not given any directions by their leaders, and if any conflict evolves the workers must find their own ways to resolve it 44. It is unstructured leadership style where workers make their own decisions 2.

“Reference 44 suggests that non-transactional leadership might be an effective style in some situations”. It works well in organizations where workers are highly capable and motivated. This style can be used by leaders when the employees do not need close supervision 9.


2.1.4. Transformational Leadership

Transformational leadership extends beyond the rewards and agreements. The transformational leaders require employees to exceed their own self-centeredness for the sake of the organization 9. It is more on leaders shifting the values, beliefs, and needs of their followers 2. Effective transformational leadership has a leader who creates, communicates, and models a vision for the organization 15. Transformational leaders are proactive, promote collective interest, and help workers attain high performance in the workplace.

Transformational leaders communicate the vision. Communicating the vision is a never-ending process 2. It takes time, energy and commitment to form a mental model among subordinates and followers. The main duty of a transformational leader is to transform others 41. This transformational process can only be achieved when appropriate communication is used. Therefore transformational leaders motivate their followers to accept the vision 42.

Leaders who want change have to model the vision in the organization. Transformational leaders illustrate what they expect others to learn, by being reliable and persistent in their speech and actions to attain trust among their followers 41. They show by their actions and attitudes how everybody else should act 2. “Reference 15 setting an example has been identified as one of the most important characteristics of a successful leader”.

As the leaders communicate and share their vision in the organization, they need also to build trust and individual integrity as they establish commitment 2. Effective leaders must cultivate good listening skills and collaboration 41. In transformational leadership there is a strong belief that goals and objectives can be attained. Transformational leaders reassure players in the team that they can achieve the desired goals and conquer difficulties in the workplace through their influence 45.

Transformational leadership theory has four components: (1) idealized influence, (2) inspirational motivation, (3) intellectual stimulation, and (4) individualized consideration. They are summarized by Bass 9 as follows:

1. Idealized influence: The leader builds trust and respect in the employees. He uses authority to move the individual in attaining the vision, mission and the cause, but not for personal benefit 42. He demonstrates high standards and moral conduct and considers the needs of others. As a result the transformational leaders are valued, respected and trusted and they become role models for their employees 9.

2. Inspirational motivation: A transformational leader stimulates people by visualizing an optimistic future by emphasizing the goals and visions of the organization, through clear communication 9. As a result it enhances a team spirit.

3. Intellectual stimulation: The leaders encourage followers to be creative and innovative by asking questions on the traditions and beliefs 44. The followers are challenged to be creative thinkers and encouraged to design new programs and look for ways of solving problems 2.

4. Individualized consideration: The leaders pay attention to individual needs promoting their achievement and growth. It helps to determine the needs and the strength of each individual while developing them to take responsibility 42. It promotes a two-way active communication.

In conclusion, transformational leaders must have vision as they lead. The leaders with vision must have a clear sense of the future. They must also communicate that vision in order to attain the objectives and goals of the organization. The transformational leader’s role is to transform the followers in the workplace, while inspiring their intellectual development 44.


2.1.5. Transformational and Transactional Leadership Compared

Both transformational and transactional leadership style focus on leaders and their followers. Transformational and transactional leadership styles have the role of coaching, modeling and initiating 2. However, there are differences between the two leadership styles as shown in Table 1.


2.1.6. Comparison of Transactional and Transformational Leadership
2.1.7. Prior Research on Leadership Style

Research has been conducted on leadership in different areas of business, industries, politics, and educational institutions in the past. Research on leadership in high school and church settings has also taken place, though to a smaller degree. Transformational leaders make a difference. They facilitate workers to gain satisfaction, eventually developing a positive effect on the organizational commitment, better performance and engagement in OCB 1.

OCB is positively related to participative leadership behavior 46. “Reference 12 found that four leadership styles of the principals-(1) autocratic, (2) democratic, (3) encouraging, and (4) laissez-faire-had a positive correlation with OCB”.

A similar study on leadership behavior found that authentic leadership behavior has an impact on workers’ OCB 17. “Reference 47 found a positive relationship between the follower’s OCB and transformational leadership”.

“Reference 48 revealed that OCB has institutional and collegial components”. “Reference 49 research on the influence of the leaders on their followers’ organizational behavior found that OCB relates positively with a leader’s personality while controlling the leader’s effectiveness on teachers”.

“Reference 50 used a multi-sample multi-level approach to establish how leaders and followers relate to organizational identification and implications for follower attitudes and behavior”. The first study found that OCB had a positive correlation with the leader’s behavior. The findings were similar in the second study. A third study conducted in a different setting replicated the results. All the studies indicated the leader’s influence in the organization. The results show that a leader’s influence results in the satisfaction of the followers and encourages their willingness to go an extra mile.

“Reference 51 study on OCB in public and private schools found a positive impact in the OCB of teachers who work in public schools compared to private”. A positive climate profile in public schools contributed to positive OCB of teachers. As a result of the head teacher using a leadership style that encourages positive communication and feedback, to strengthen better relationship between principal and teachers. In the long run, teachers became adaptable and resourceful.

“Reference 52 examined servant leadership, mainly on how it promotes OCB and enhances organizational effectiveness”. Three successful Catholic parishes were explored in the study. The study identified three leadership approaches: namely, invitation, inspiration, and affection. These approaches or mechanisms stirred up and developed the service of others. Culture building and structural initiatives were identified by this analysis as advancing OCB in the members. Thus, leaders who promote growth and development and build servant-oriented organizations enhance the overall performance of an organization.

Seventh-day Adventist teachers in America. “Reference 53 researched on the influence of charismatic leadership and OCB in learning institutions in North America. The results indicated a positive effect between charismatic leaders with OCB, particularly a charismatic leader whose element is being sensitive to others in the workplace”.

Demographic variables. “Reference 54 conducted a study on the perception of leadership style in relation to gender”. He found that perception differ by gender in various school systems in Southeast Philippines. The findings indicate that teachers’ perception about their principals’ leadership style differs by gender.

“Reference 12 studied about age factor and leadership style”. The results indicated that there was no difference in terms of age on the perception of principal leadership profile. In contrast, another study done in India

“Reference 55 among Adventist teachers found that the perception of teachers on the principal’s leadership style varies according to age”. The principals were perceived as using a hands-off leadership style by male teachers while the female teachers viewed it as inspirational motivation.

Teachers and transformational leadership. “Reference 56 conducted a study in northern Israel on organizational climate and OCB of teachers”. The findings indicated that there was a significant contribution of transformational leadership in shaping the organizational climate. Another study on transformational leadership and organizational effects found that the leaders’ transformational style was positively related to the organizational outcomes 57. A similar study centering on OCB and trust in schools found that OCB and trust in the leaders had a positive effect on their performance 58.

“Reference 14 examined the impact of transformational leadership on teacher attitudes and student performance in Singapore”. The findings indicated that there was a significant effect on the expectation of organizational commitment and teacher satisfaction by transformational leadership. The study found that transformational leadership had indirect effects on student academic achievement while transactional leadership had little. “Reference 13 research in Tanzania concurred with the previous researchers on transformational leadership having a positive effect on teachers’ OCB, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment”.

3. Research Methodology

This study is cross-sectional survey design using descriptive and correlational statistics. The study is descriptive because it seeks to determine teacher faith maturity and OCB in the schools of CKC. The nature of descriptive design is to describe the respondents’ perception by calculating frequency distributions, means, and standard deviations of their perceptions while considering demographic variables, such as age, gender, marital status, highest education completed, and number of years teaching in the school for defining relationship of difference and association. The descriptive methods investigate and gather information about thisstudy and explore and analyze the data 59.

This study is correlational because it seeks to determine the perceptions of teachers about the level of teacher transformational leadership and the frequency with which a teacher demonstrates effective OCB in Adventist schools in Kenya. Correlational procedures allow researchers to make inferences about relationships between two or more variables 60. It further analyzes data to determine the predictors of OCB.

Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) prepared by Bernard M. Bass and Bruce Avolio has two parts: Rater Form (5x-short) and Leader Form (5x-short). It has 45 items each 61. The study used the Rater Form (5x-short), which is designed to measure transformational leadership profile as perceived by subordinates. The MLQ is divided into three sections depicting three types of leadership (see Table 2).

The first part, transformational leadership has five dimensions. The dimensions are shown in the following scale: (1) idealized influence (attributed), and (2) idealized influence (behavior). Inspirational intellectual stimulation is separated into the following scales:(1) inspirational motivation, (2) intellectual stimulation, and (3) individualized consideration. The second leadership style is transactional leadership consisting of three dimensions: (1) contingent reward, (2) management by exception (active), and (3) management by exception (passive). The third leadership style is non-transactional leadership known as laissez-faire leadership style. A 4-point scale ranging from 0 (not at all) to

4 (frequently if not always) was used to determine the level of leadership style. The items used in developing the MLQ scale were pooled from several sources. Avolio, Bass, and Jung 62 used a confirmatory factor analysis to test the convergent and discriminant validities of each MLQ.

The construct validity of the MLQ is .97 and factorial validity is .98. All the items used for leadership factors proved to exceed the cut-off variance of .50 64. The MLQ reliability ranged from .74 to .94 in a study conducted in the United States and foreign firms and agencies among 3,786 respondents in 14 independent samples, ranging in size from 45 to 549 62.

In Adventist schools the MLQ was used in several studies and indicated the benefits of using transformational leadership style in determining principals’ leadership style in the Adventist schools in India 55. A reliability analysis for 36 items, measuring nine leadership styles, indicated that the composite scale reliability was moderately high with a standardized alpha of .88 and reliability coefficients ranged from .53-.70.

Permission to reproduce and use the MLQ was obtained from the Mind Garden Publishers who distribute the instrument for research purpose. The MLQ sample copies consist of both leader and rater forms. In this study only the rater form of the MLQ was used since the respondents were teachers.

After the proposal approval by my dissertation committee, permission to gather data was obtained from CKC. The CKC education director assisted in collecting data. He has a wide experience on conducting research.

Systematic data collection consists of a number of steps. These steps include (1) establishing ethical process, (2) administering the instruments, and (3) collecting the instruments. The process is described below.

The study used the following ethical and professional procedures in maintaining the protocol in the process of data collection:

1. Approval for the study. The proposal was first approved by the Research Committee of the Graduate School at Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies.

2. Official endorsement. Approval was sought from the CKC, through the education director.

3. Permission for data collection. Permission was obtained for data collection from the principals of the schools participating in the study with the attachment of an endorsement letter of the CKC education director. They were also informed of the schedule for collecting data in the schools.

4. Avoidance of harm. The survey was administered ensuring to obtain informed consent. No coercion was exercised to persuade respondents to participate. There were no costs involved, only the time they spent in completing the questionnaire.

5.Protection of privacy. Participants were assured of anonymity and confidentiality. The teachers were not required to write their names on the paper. Participants were required to place their completed questionnaire in an envelope and seal it. They dropped the completed questionnaire in a box which was placed in a central place. The reporting of results was by grouped data.

6. Voluntary participation. The respondents were informed of the voluntary participation to complete the instrument. Any kind of coercion to participate was avoided.

7. Consent. Written information to the participants about the instrument provided the procedure and the purpose of the instruments. Returning the completed instrument indicated consent.

After receiving permission from the concerned people and institutions, an appointment with the principal was and a schedule was arranged for the right time to administer the questionnaire. The CKC education director facilitated the data collection. The data was collected one school at a time since they are located in different parts of the country and are distant apart. The participants were invited in a room where they answered the questionnaire at the same time. Participation was voluntary and in order to ensure confidentiality and anonymity the respondents dropped the completed questionnaire in a box that was kept in the room.

4. Findings

The discussion in this chapter involves descriptive statistics in which the relationship between transformational leadership, and OCB in the CKC schools in Kenya is explored.

The respondents of this study were 170 teachers in CKC schools. They participated by responding to the MLQ (rate form), OCBS, and the demographic form. The surveys were given to obtain their perception of the principals’ transformational leadership and OCB. The following is the discussion on the answers to the research questions.

Teachers indicated that the principals practice transformational leadership and are happy with the leader’s style. Leadership theory purports that the transformational leadership has a positive influence and is appreciated by subordinates as motivational and visionary 9. Prior studies showed greater satisfaction of teachers due to transformational leadership influence of the leader 20, 55. This satisfaction resulted to better performance in their work 50. “Reference 56 support transformational leadership because it has a significant contribution in shaping the organizational climate”.

The overall result was within the higher level of OCB and none of them fall in the unwillingness to go beyond their required duties. The output showed that OCBS (M = 4.14, SD = .61) was closely related to other studies 65. Majority of teachers indicated that they work as required, just a few are willing to go beyond. Studies have indicate that in schools with strong OCB there is high performance 12, 27.

The OCB was measured by the OCBS. The OCBS used 6-point scale, which ranges from 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree). Majority of the respondents (74%) work only as required, while 26% expressed their willingness to go beyond their duties.

The overall result was within the higher level of OCB and none of them fall in the unwillingness to go beyond their required duties (see Table below). The output showed that OCBS (M = 4.14, SD = .61) was closely related to other studies 66. Majority of teachers indicated that they work as required, just a few are willing to go beyond. Studies have indicate that in schools with strong OCB there is high performance 12, 27.

The MLQ used 4-point scale ranging from 0 (not at all) to 4 (frequently, if not always) with 0 being the lowest and 4 being the highest perceived transformational leadership.

The majority of respondents (54.67%) perceived principal leadership as transformational, more on exchange relationship between the leader and the teachers, while 35.33% of the respondents perceived the transformational leadership to be moderate. The mean (M = 2.62, SD = 0.60) was closely related to Bairagee’s study 54. The higher the perception on transformational leadership of their principals the more committed they are in the workplace 54.


4.1.1. Difference in Perception on Transformational Leadership by Demographic

The null hypothesis stated that there is no significant difference in the perception of respondents across levels of the demographic variables such as age, gender, marital status, education degree, and years of teaching experience in terms of transformational leadership, teacher faith maturity, school climate, and OCB. The null hypothesis was tested using one-way ANOVA. If there were significant differences in the teachers’ perceptions of transformational leadership by any demographic variable a Tukey post hoc test was performed.

Transformational leadership and gender. The one-way ANOVA test was conducted to determine if there is a difference in transformational leadership when grouped by gender. Results showed that there is no significant difference, F(1, 148) = .476, p = .491, between male (M = 2.67, SD = .83) and female (M = 2.57, SD = .97), in perception on transformational leadership style of the principal.

Transformational leadership and marital status.

One–way ANOVA test was conducted to compare teachers’ perception on transformational leadership style scores for marital status. The result showed that there was no significant difference, F(1, 148) = .127, p = .722, between married (M = 2.60, SD = .89) and single (M = 2.66, SD = .91), in perception on transformational leadership style of the principal.

Transformational leadership and age. One-way ANOVA was used to test if there is a difference in perceived transformational leadership when grouped by age of the respondents. The age was categorized into three groups: below 30 years, 30–49 years, and 50 years and over. Results indicated that there was no significant difference at .05 level of significant difference, F(2, 147)= 1.477, p =.232, between below 30 (M = 2.75, SD = .81), 30-49, (M = 2.49, SD = .92) and above 50 (M = 2.67, SD = 1.08, in perception on transformational leadership style of the principal.

Transformational leadership and number of years of teaching in the school. One-way ANOVA was used to determine if there is a difference in the perception of the transformational leadership when grouped by number of years of teaching in the school. The teaching years were categorized into four groups: less than a year, between 1 and 3 years, between 3 and 5 years, and more than 5 years. Results indicated that there was no significant difference, F(3, 146) = 1.793, p = .151, between less than 1 year (M = 2.84, SD = .71), 1-3 (M = 2.69, SD = .94), 3-5 (M = 2.65, SD = .91) and above 5 years(M = 2.38, SD = .92), in perception on transformational leadership style of the principal.

Transformational leadership and highest education completed. One-way ANOVA was conducted to test if there is a difference in the perception of transformational leadership when grouped by educational degree of the respondents. The educational degree was categorized into four groups: below bachelor’s, bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degree. Results indicated that there was a significant difference, F(2,147) = 4.119, p = .018, between below bachelor’s degree (M = 2.78, SD = .83), bachelor’s degree (M = 2.41, SD = .92), and master’s degree (M = 3.15, SD = .92), in perception on transformational leadership style of the principal.

Further a Tukey post hoc test indicated that teachers with qualifications below bachelor’s and those with bachelor’s degree differed significantly, F(2,147) = 4.119, p = .034, between below bachelor’s degree (M = 2.78, SD = .83), bachelor’s degree (M = 2.41, SD = .92). The mean was higher for those who do not have bachelor’s degree and have a high perception about transformational leadership of the principal.


4.1.2. Difference in Perception on Organizational Citizenship Behavior by Demographic

A one way-ANOVA test was performed. The ANOVA result showed that only groups formed on age and highest degree had significant differences. Further, post hoc test was performed for age, and highest degree and it identified the categories that are significantly different.

Organizational citizenship behavior and gender. The ANOVA was conducted to determine if there is a difference in OCB when grouped by gender. Results showed that there is no significant difference in perception between male and female teachers on OCB.

Organizational citizenship behavior and marital status. ANOVA test was performed to determine if there is a difference in OCB when grouped by marital status. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in perception between married and single teachers on OCB.

Organizational citizenship behavior and age. One-way ANOVA was used to test null hypothesis that stated, “There is no significant difference of teachers’ perception on OCB between the age categories of the respondents.” Age was categorized into three groups as follows: below 30 years, 30–49 years, and 50 years and over. The null hypothesis was rejected. The results showed that there was significant difference, F(2, 147) = 3.533, p = .032, between below 30 years (M = 4.26, SD = .64), 30-49 years (M = 4.01, SD = .57) and above 50 years (M = 4.31, SD = .59), in perception on OCB. Further, using the post hoc analysis significant difference, F(2, 147) = 3.533, p = .040, below 30 years (M = 4.26, SD = .64), and 30-49 years (M = 4.01, SD = .57), in perception on OCB. “Reference 27 had the similar finding that young teachers demonstrate higher levels of OCB more than the older colleagues.

Organizational citizenship behavior and number of years teaching in the school. One-way ANOVA was performed to determine if there is a difference in OCB when grouped by years of teaching experience. The teaching experience was categorized into four groups: less than a year, between 1 and 3 years, between 3 and 5 years, and more than 5 years. Results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in perception of teachers between years of teaching experience and OCB.

Organizational citizenship behavior and highest educational completed. One-way ANOVA was used to test if there is a difference in OCB when grouped by educational degree of the respondents. The educational degree was categorized into three groups: below bachelor’s degree, master’s degree, and doctorate degree. Results indicated that there was a significant difference, F(2, 147) = 5.388, p = .006, between below bachelor’s (M = 4.27, SD = .63), bachelor’s (M = 3.97, SD = .55), and master’s (M = 4.50, SD = .67), in perception on OCB.

Further, post hoc result indicated a significant difference, F(2, 147) = 5.388, p = .009, below bachelor’s (M = 4.27, SD = .63) and bachelor’s (M = 3.97, SD = .55), in perception on OCB. The mean is higher for teachers without bachelor’s degree compared to those with bachelor’s degree. Research suggests that teachers are more satisfied if their job provides opportunities for personal and professional advancement, has an enormous system of teacher in-service training, and there are many opportunities for teachers to continue their education 1. Such opportunities can increase the morale of teachers who have a diploma and strive hard to achieve and be willing to go an extra mile 67. Diploma teachers are still growing in their career. They work hard to strive for the best since they want to succeed in their careers 27. Other studies have indicated that educational level have no significant effect on OCB at the school level 18.

In this study teachers who have no bachelor’s degree perceive transformational leadership better than other categories. Diploma serves as a foundation for increasing amount of education in teachers’ career, since they want to achieve both personal and career goals in life 47. Also employees are determined and willing to take advantage of the opportunity in developing work habits and career skills that can prepare them in the workforce 12, 68. It increases opportunities of going higher to unlimited knowledge, which is cultivation of lifelong learning 51. This helps the teachers to look positively at the leadership. And because school leadership helps them achieve their educational goals, they are perceived as transformational.

Research shows that workers with a diploma have a higher perception on transformational leadership style compared to workers with higher degrees 68. “Reference 69 study on the relationship between leadership and the behavior of the workers found a negative relationship between highly educated respondents and less educated respondents”. This could imply that teachers who do not have higher degrees look up to their leaders for guidance, while the ones who have higher education may have self-confidence and most probably the leaders may be more accommodative and supportive of the less educated group 53.

However, other studies indicate that transformational leadership has a positive relationship with higher levels of education. These findings suggest that workers holding a bachelor's degree earn a higher rating on their transformational leadership scores from their subordinates 65, 66.

Teachers indicated OCB as being practiced at CKC schools. Teachers who are below 30 years and do not have bachelor’s degree tend to have a positive view on OCB. In a school setting where young teachers collaborate and get support from other teachers, they are more satisfied and willing to go beyond their duties. They are also willing to accommodate new ideas and mentoring programs which help them to adjust easily 67. “Reference 51 showed that teachers exhibit higher levels of OCB, since they want to make their institution succeed”. On the contrary, other studies found a negative effect between age and highest education completed and OCB 58, 70, 71.

5. Conclusions

Majority of CKC teachers are married and have no bachelor’s degree and are males.

1. Teachers with lower than bachelor’s degree education, below 30 years of age, and have been teaching for less than one year in the school were significantly different than other categories, on transformational leadership style and OCB.

2. The instruments utilized in the study (MLQ and OCB) were adequate for utilization in Adventist schools in Kenya.

3. This study will equip the school administrators in understanding their own leadership style and OCB, and further they can develop themselves to a higher level of transformational leadership style which in turn will help them to understand and help teachers to get more involved in OCB activities.

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Salome Njagi Odek. Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Kenya. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 6, No. 6, 2018, pp 845-857. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/6/6/39
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Odek, Salome Njagi. "Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Kenya." American Journal of Educational Research 6.6 (2018): 845-857.
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Odek, S. N. (2018). Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Kenya. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(6), 845-857.
Chicago Style
Odek, Salome Njagi. "Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Kenya." American Journal of Educational Research 6, no. 6 (2018): 845-857.
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In article      View Article