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Current Situation and Solutions to Guide Students to Evaluate Events in Teaching History at High Schools in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Nguyen Manh Huong , Duong Tan Giau
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 787-794. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-30
Received April 15, 2018; Revised June 4, 2018; Accepted June 7, 2018

Abstract

This article reflects the research results of the group of authors involved in guiding students to evaluate events in history teaching at high schools in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Based on the sources of reference and field surveys, the authors focus on four key areas: 1) Overview of event and event evaluation in history teaching at high schools; 2) Justify the need to guide students in evaluating events in history teaching; 3) Provide a picture of the situation that guides students to evaluate events in history teaching at high schools - through investigation, surveys in Ho Chi Minh City; 4) To propose some solutions and orientations for history teachers at high schools on the process and ways of guiding students to evaluate events in the course of organization of teaching and learning activities oriented competency development.

1. Introduction

Since the 1990s, the trend of education reform in the world has changed dramatically, from the education approach to content (mainly) to the direction of capacity development, that is, from what the learner knows, what does it mean to apply what is in practice through learning 1, 2, 3… In Vietnam, at the same time in the general education curriculum focused on "student-centered" teaching and "promote positive, active learners" (extended to the beginning of the second decade of the 21st century). Many documents of the Ministry of Education and Training, various articles of educational researchers in different fields and disciplines are published, shared and discussed in this direction 4, 5, 6, 7, 8... In the implementation process, the educational objectives in general have achieved positive results, but with a number of subjects in the social sciences (Literature, History, and Geography) are facing great challenges, especially History. The number of high school students who are interested in learning is decreasing, they are often afraid of the test and less choice History when the graduation exam... There are many reasons for this, but the basic reason is that teachers are slow to innovate in methods and ways of organizing learning activities: it is often subjective and imposing in evaluating events, less opportunities for learners to access resources, not to understand and respect students when they give opinions, idea on historical events, or teachers do not know how to guide students in the way and process of assessing events in the learning process 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18… From the state of anxiety, many educators and educators of history have made analytical paper presents a solution for renovating teacher training and teaching methods for the history of capacity development 9, 19, 20, 21, 22.

Access to advanced education in the world (USA, Japan, Germany, UK, France...), the Ministry of Education and Training of Vietnam has developed a scheme to renovate the program of general education. On July 28, 1977, a new general education curriculum was adopted, focusing on the formation, development of five qualities and three pairs of general competencies for learners [ 23; pp. 6-7]. Under the new program, the ultimate goal of high school students is to achieve five qualities (patriotism, compassion, hard work, honesty, responsibility) and three pairs of common abilities (self-control and self-learning, communication and cooperation, problem solving and creativity). According to the plan, in the 2019-2020 school year, the new program of general education began to apply in practice.

Adhering to the new general education curriculum, each subject will have to study to develop specific competences in each subject area (professional competence) and special competences (aptitude). In the new general education curriculum, History as an independent subject, chosen at the upper secondary level, should focus on the development and development of specific competencies for students, include: collecting and processing information on historical events and phenomena; reappear past history; Determine the logical association of historical events and phenomena; evaluating, explaining historical events and phenomena; apply knowledge to solve problems related to reality; methods of presenting historical events and phenomena 20, 25, 26, 27. Obviously, guiding students to approach, learn and evaluate events in history teaching is an important issue, but this issue has not been addressed by teachers, this is the basic reason why students do not like this subject. In order to contribute to the resolution of the situation, this article will focus on addressing the four main contents of the abstracts.

2. Content

2.1. Concepts of Events, Historical Events and Event Evaluation in Teaching History at High Schools
2.1.1. Conceptions of Historical Events and Events

There are many different notions of events and historical events 6, 7, 11, 14, 15, 16, 19, 24, 25... In the process of studying and teaching history in the school, Phan Ngoc Lien's book The term used in high schools according to the program and new textbooks was most frequently referenced, emphasizing two meanings of historical events: 1) The occurrence is related to the development of human society, from the time of human appearance, including historical events and historical phenomena; 2) Human insights and notes on what has happened in history [ 25; 319-320].

Collected from various sources, there are three groups of views: 1) It is what has happened in human society, since human beings, human societies appear to date - objectively; 2) Historical events, imagined by human beings, exist only in the human mind - subjective, imposing; 3) These are real events, happened in the past, people are aware of, restored.

Accessing various notions of events, historical events, we think that: Events (history) are all things related to human society have happened in the past, are human Recognize, restore through various historical documents. Accordingly, historical events always exist in three forms: real events (occurrences, real events), documentary events (reflected through sources such as word of mouth, artifacts and scripts) and knowledge events (ie knowledge, human perception based on historical documents). These three types of events have a binding relationship: there is no factual event, there is no material event and knowledge event; Without historical facts, historical truth is still a "mystery"; If there is no factual fact that there is a material event and a knowledge event then it is a "fabrication" event, no science. Thus, in historical research and teaching, historical events are reflected in the historical documents of credibility that are the basis of the cognitive process. Historical events are referred to as "bricks", "foundations" for building great buildings. Students will not be able to appreciate historical events without adequate historical documents (the more historical documents are, the better for historical study).


2.1.2. The Concept of Historical Event Evaluation

Nguyen Thi Coi in the book The ways, solutions to improve teaching effectiveness History in high school, mentioned that "Event evaluation includes the analysis, comment content, meaning, lessons learned of the event..." [ 15; 58]. According to the guidebook for the implementation of knowledge and skills standards in the history of grade 12, the evaluation is the fifth of the six levels of knowledge required, bearing some characteristics: 1) Values of information, that is to comment, identify, appreciate, and information is thought, content knowledge and method. Accordingly, the object should be evaluated not only the thought, the content of knowledge (of the event), but also the method; 2) Entry into nature, is the minimum level when evaluating information; 3) Based on criteria, including internal criteria and external criteria [ 26; 8].

On the basis of the content of historical events, we believe that the evaluation event in teaching history in high School is process-oriented, guide students how to collect, process information (based on thought processes such as analysis, comparison, abstraction, generalization, problem synthesis, etc.) of events, phenomena to find first of all the nature, then to clarify the impact , meaning, development trend of the historical event, application of the results (after evaluation) to the problem solving due to the fact. Event evaluation in history teaching is considered to be the highest level of awareness in the learning process of high school students: recognize à understanding à use and use high.

2.2. Why Guide Students to Evaluate Events in Teaching History at High Schools?

Each historical event and phenomenon occurs only once, associated with a specific time, space and character. In historical studies, students can not "directly observe" events and phenomena like natural sciences (Physics, Chemistry, Biology), which can only "perceive indirectly through the document is saved". Teachers also can not conduct historical fact experiments to re-create the past for students to observe. This is the past, the greatest difference between the historical perception versus the events, the phenomenon of nature. To overcome the limitations of the student's historical awareness without direct observation, teachers must guide students to access historical documents as a basis accurately evaluates historical events.

In teaching history in high school, students' perception of the event is a complex process that is characterized by three main characteristics: indirectness, leadership - is guided and educational [ 19; 15]. Indirectness is the object of cognitive and cognitive behavior of students mainly through knowledge that has been discovered by basic sciences, asserting (not finding new ones). Students will receive the knowledge and experience of others indirectly through the resources and teachers. Leadership (directed) is the student's perception of what is happening in the organization, the direction of the teacher. In the process of learning, students can not find out, study independent knowledge without the guidance, control, organization of the teacher. In some cases, students themselves find out that knowledge is not controlled; the teacher's organization will not achieve the right direction to complete the learning objectives. Thus, the process of teaching history in high school is the process of dialectical unity between the two activities (teacher teaching and student learning). Teachers not only provide instruction (students receive scientific and educational knowledge), but also teach students how to learn and teach them how to use the methods in learning the most effective. Of course, even though students are the subject of learning, they are subject to instruction (from the teacher), but their learning is always creative, active, not passive in the reception. Education is about the process of students learning, learning from the teacher to develop the whole of the intellectual, intellectual, physical, and labor (from the point of view of the Party, the State of Vietnam Nam on the education and training of the young generation through History.

For example, when instructing students to evaluate events related to the 13th-century British colonial war in North America (late 18th century), teachers can not direct students to observe historical events, but through the sources to organize awareness activities, guide students how to restore the event. On the basis of an understanding of the event, the new student will make an accurate assessment (in the direction of the teacher): The victory of the 13 -colonialist war in North America is a matter of the democratic bourgeois revolution (which has carried out the task of national liberation, has just solved democratic tasks and paved the way for capitalism in the United States to develop).

Thus, through the resources of the event, students will know how to sort the data for analysis, synthesis, generalization and historical evaluation, which will inspire students to study History well. Historical events, however, are diverse and complex, including phenomena, events, concepts, characters, time, space... Teachers need to guide their students on their own judgment - the object is evaluated. If teachers have methods and regularly guide students to evaluate events in history teaching, they will be able to understand the nature of the event, appreciate the history and objectively evaluate it; fostering patriotism, national pride, training self-consciousness and creativity in learning; students will avoid the "rote learning" only see the individual, discrete without seeing the relationship and nature of the event...; If the teacher equips the student with a proper assessment of the event, it will create a habit and excitement for the student in History. Students will not be able to study history well if they do not know how to evaluate the event. Therefore, teachers must guide students to some learning skills, such as: identifying the object of the event to be evaluated; identify the source of the event and collect the material to be evaluated; When evaluating events, they must undergo the activities of thinking, analyzing, synthesizing, comparing and contrasting… Through the information, the skills - tricks, the system of the students will be steeply to be complete and better over the history and the learning with the related [ 5; 124 - 125].

2.3. The Current Status of Student Guides to Evaluate Events in Teaching History at High Schools in Ho Chi Minh City
2.3.1. The aim, Object and Content of the Investigation, Survey The Status

- Aim: Provides an overview of the current state of teachers guiding students to evaluate events in teaching history in high schools in Ho Chi Minh City. Understand and evaluate the true state of student learning history, and then suggest solutions that help teachers improve their instructional strategies for evaluating events in teaching history in high school.

- Objective of the survey: In order to ensure the objective information collected, we divided into 2 groups: teacher group and trainees (3 and 4 year students of Faculty of History, Ho Chi Minh City) at high schools in the city); Group of high school students (grade 10, 11, 12) studying in the city.

- Contents of the survey: The research team developed a questionnaire (12 sentences each) for teachers and students to ask for ideas. The question is corresponding content to facilitate the collation of results). In addition to survey and questionnaire surveys, we also have time to interview, to supplement information for the assessment of the current situation.

Questions 1 and 2: Preliminary understanding of teachers and students about the state of teaching history; About the position of history in high school.

Questions 3 and 4: Teachers and students' perceptions of instructing learners to evaluate events; The effectiveness of this activity in the process of teaching history.

Questions 5, 6, 7 and 8: How to organize, method and how to guide students in evaluating events in teaching history.

Questions 9, 10: Teacher difficulties in guiding students to evaluate events; suggest solutions to make this activity more efficient.

Questions 11: The teacher's and student's view of the relationship of student activity evaluates the event with the development of learner competencies.

Question 12: Express your views, personal opinions revolve around the innovation of teaching methods, teaching history in the direction of competency development, solutions to guide students to evaluate the event (open question for both teachers and students).

In addition to the answers suggested by the research team, other answers were added so that the survey respondents were free to express their views, not to answer questions that were not available.

Time of investigation, survey was conducted by the author in two batches: March - April 2017 and March - April 2018 (in combination with the process of instructing undergraduates). The process of gathering information is favorable, teachers and students of high schools in the city all support.


2.2.2. Analyze, Evaluate the Results of the Investigation, and Survey the Situation

Number of votes for teachers: issued 40 votes, reclaimed 32 votes.

Number of votes for students: issued 240 votes, reclaimed 221 votes (The number of high schools in Ho Chi Minh City has been surveyed, including seven schools: Tan Binh, Le Hong Phong, Luong Van Can, Luong The Vinh, Ten Lo Man, An Lac, Gia Dinh).

After collecting the questionnaires, surveying and processing the results according to the statistical mathematical method are presented in Table 1 - Table 10.

* Table 1 and Table 2: Current status of teaching quality History and conceptions of the position of this subject in high school curricula.

  • Table 1. Results of investigation and surveys to collect opinions of students on current status of teaching quality History and conceptions of the position of this subject in high school curricula

* Table 3 and Table 4. Conceptions and attitudes toward student guidance for evaluating events in history teaching in high schools

* Table 5 and Table 6. Frequency and method of guiding events evaluation in history teaching in high schools

* Table 7 and Table 8. Difficulties and suggestions for guiding events evaluation in history teaching in high schools

* Table 9 and Table 10. Awareness of the effect of event evaluations on competency development

The process of finding out about the current state of instruction for students evaluating events in history teaching, besides using questionnaires, surveys, the group also participated in interviews and had many conversations with teachers, people is teaching and instructing trainees in Ho Chi Minh City. Compiled from the data of the investigation, survey and time to attend classes, discuss after class time, we make some conclusions as follows:

Firstly, the teaching of history in high school despite the positive aspects, but still limited and not corresponding to the function and task of the subject. This restriction is part of the responsibility of school administrators, teachers, parents and students for misconceptions about the subject ("Not important", only "memorized”), even prejudice against students who are good at History. Only when we remove this conception and prejudice does teaching and learning history change positively and synchronously.

Secondly, teachers and students insist that guiding students to evaluate events in history teaching is important and necessary. Many teachers and students think that if you do not know how to evaluate events, you can not understand, interpret and apply the knowledge of history into practice. Although aware of the importance of the problem, but because of the concept is "not important subjects", "subject only to memorize" should guide students to evaluate the event is not focused. This situation needs to change both in perception and action.

Thirdly, in the context of many managers, teachers, students and social opinion do not appreciate History, there are many teachers, students love, spend a lot of time to learn historical knowledge, thereby contributing to improve the quality of teaching-learning. However, because teachers have not been trained deeply in their professional knowledge and methods, they have not mastered the process and instructed their students to evaluate the event so that their effectiveness was not negligible. During the discussion, many teachers shared their views: In order to innovate teaching methodology, history has shifted from the content approach (primarily) to the formation and capacity development, teachers need to be trained, fostering both theory and sample observation from experts who have good teaching experience [ 27; 560-565]. At present, the Ministry of Education and Training of Vietnam has started to assign this task to some prestigious teacher schools: Hanoi Pedagogical University, Ho Chi Minh City Pedagogy University. The recommendations and aspirations of the teachers of the schools are an important basis for the teacher-training universities - the basis for training teachers to study, attaching importance in the process of training teachers in the future. At the same time, the team also has an important basis for sharing, proposing a number of solutions.

2.4. Process, How to Guide Students to Evaluate Events in History Teaching at High Schools

Through the process of researching teaching materials on competency development, on theoretical issues surrounding events and in evaluating events in teaching history, combined with their own experiences in 20 years of teaching History of Nguyen Tat Thanh Secondary and High School (the pedagogic practice of Hanoi Pedagogical University), we suggest that the process of guiding students to evaluate events in history teaching in high school orientated competency development is as follows:

Step 1: Introduce students to the way and the basics in the historical event evaluation. This is a very important task, equipping learners with theoretical knowledge related to the evaluation of the event. Without this knowledge, students will judge objectively or misunderstandings about history. At this stage, the history teacher should note that each type of event (event, phenomenon, character, historical process, etc.) will have its own evaluation, but must be based on the calendar context. Any occurrence is related to the time, space, character, and events created by the character. Without a single historical event, every event has a reciprocal interaction. This event ends with the start of a new event that is closely related. For example, the fact that Japan surrendered unconditionally to the Allies (August 15, 1945) marked the end of World War II, but it opened up the "favorable time" for many of Japan's occupied and ruled countries: Indonesia, Vietnam and Laos 28. When instructing students to evaluate historical figures, teachers should not take the view of the present age to judge, but must guide them to find out the character has merit, contributed to the history of the period. Those who have merit for history and ethnicity are often regarded as leading figures (Ngo Quyen, Hai Ba Trung, Nguyen Trai, Le Thanh Tong...). If historical figures go against national interests and humanity is the villain (Adolf Hitler, Mussolini, Le Chieu Thong, Le Uy Muc...). Historical figures that are both meritorious and guilty need to be objectively evaluated on both sides, to ensure the objectivity and truthfulness of history (the twofold character - both merit and crime). For example, in the history of the Nguyen Dynasty: Nguyen Anh - King Gia Long, King Tu Duc, Phan Thanh Gian...

Step 2: Instruct students to experience the evaluation of a historical event. Through a specific example of how to organize teaching activities, the teacher will guide the student to experience how to evaluate the event, to practice the skills-tricks, to reason the problem.

Step 3: Students draw the process of evaluating the event from their own experience. Based on the arguments that the teacher provided in step 1 and the student's participation in the experimental activity in step 2, they will draw out their own historical assessment process. Thus, students have the skills to evaluate events, but not yet become trick (not yet mature).

Step 4: Students continue to practice, experience the process of evaluating the event (based on the basis of step 3). This is a training step for the learner to complete, supplement, reinforce the way, and manipulate the thought of evaluating historical events according to the process. Having completed the training at this stage, students have gained more tricks in evaluating historical events.

Step 5: Review the student's the evaluating event competency and adjust it. Evaluation of the evaluating event competency should respect multiple views, including the individual and group views, both contradictory and / or supportive. Initially, teachers should have orientation for the students how to evaluate each other, add comments together, in the end the teacher summarize, comment and evaluate the aspects that are and are not yet. In cases where the student's evaluation of events does not go in the right direction, we still need to respect them - if there are specific basics to develop the thinking, ability to analyze, argue the problem of the learner. In doing so, the teacher avoids the thought of imposing students in historical events. In order to minimize the students' evaluation of historical events that are not objective, honest, the teacher should provide full source of historical data.

3. Conclusion

Instructing students to evaluate events in history teaching in high school is a big issue that has not been studied systematically, both in theory and practice, (up to the time the research team published this article). Therefore, educators and educators of history should continue to share, discuss and give their opinions on the issue. For example, the criteria for evaluating students' competency evaluate historical events, how to evaluate each type of historical event, the advantages and disadvantages of guiding students to evaluate events in the direction of development. Only on the basis, scientists have the same viewpoint to orient the innovation method and improve the quality of teaching history in high school.

References

[1]  Giselle O. Martin-Kniep (2011), Eight Innovations to Become Good People (Le Van Canh translation), Vietnam Education Publishing House, Hanoi.
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[2]  D. Schneckenberg, J. Wildt (2006), The Challenge of a Competence in Academic Staff Development, N.-Y, CELT.
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[3]  Key competencies A developing concept in general compulsory education (http://www.eurydice.org).
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[4]  Vietnam Education Development Strategy 2001-2010, Journal of Education, Vietnam, No. 23.
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[5]  Tran Ba Hoanh (2000), Innovative teaching methods in junior high school (used in training courses for secondary education managers), Ministry of Education and Training, Vietnam.
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[6]  Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training (2006), History education program, Vietnam Education Publishing House, Hanoi.
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[7]  Phan Ngoc Lien (2003), History and Historical Education, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi, Vietnam.
In article      
 
[8]  Phan Ngoc Lien (ed., 2008), Communist Party of Viet Nam for the Education, Training, Publishing House of Pedagogical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
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[15]  Nguyen Thi Coi, The ways, solutions to improve teaching effectiveness History in high school, Publisher of Pedagogical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
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[16]  Nguyen Van Ninh (2017), Applying methods of discussion and debate to develop critical thinking for students in teaching Vietnamese history (1802 - 1884) in high school, Journal Education, Vietnam, Special Issue (July), pp. 194-196.
In article      
 
[17]  Nguyen Thi The Binh (2017), Applying the Multiracial Theory in Teaching History in High School, Proceedings of the International Conference "Training and Retraining of History Teachers Request for renovation of programs and textbooks", National University Press, Hanoi, December, pp.412-420.
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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Nguyen Manh Huong and Duong Tan Giau

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Normal Style
Nguyen Manh Huong, Duong Tan Giau. Current Situation and Solutions to Guide Students to Evaluate Events in Teaching History at High Schools in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 6, No. 6, 2018, pp 787-794. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/6/6/30
MLA Style
Huong, Nguyen Manh, and Duong Tan Giau. "Current Situation and Solutions to Guide Students to Evaluate Events in Teaching History at High Schools in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam." American Journal of Educational Research 6.6 (2018): 787-794.
APA Style
Huong, N. M. , & Giau, D. T. (2018). Current Situation and Solutions to Guide Students to Evaluate Events in Teaching History at High Schools in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(6), 787-794.
Chicago Style
Huong, Nguyen Manh, and Duong Tan Giau. "Current Situation and Solutions to Guide Students to Evaluate Events in Teaching History at High Schools in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam." American Journal of Educational Research 6, no. 6 (2018): 787-794.
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  • Table 1. Results of investigation and surveys to collect opinions of students on current status of teaching quality History and conceptions of the position of this subject in high school curricula
  • Table 2. Results of investigation and surveys to collect opinions of teachers on current status of teaching quality History and conceptions of the position of this subject in high school curricula
  • Table 3. Results of investigation and surveys to collect opinions of students on conceptions and attitudes toward student guidance for evaluating events in history teaching in high schools
  • Table 4. Results of investigation and surveys to collect opinions of teachers on conceptions and attitudes toward student guidance for evaluating events in history teaching in high schools
  • Table 5. Results of investigation and surveys to collect opinions of students on frequency and method of guiding events evaluation in history teaching in high schools
  • Table 6. Results of investigation and surveys to collect opinions of teachers on frequency and method of guiding events evaluation in history teaching in high schools
  • Table 7. Results of investigation and surveys to collect opinions of students on difficulties and suggestions for guiding events evaluation in history teaching in high schools
  • Table 8. Results of investigation and surveys to collect opinions of teachers on difficulties and suggestions for guiding events evaluation in history teaching in high schools
  • Table 9. Results of investigation and surveys to collect opinions of students on awareness of the effect of event evaluations on competency development
  • Table 10. Results of investigation and surveys to collect opinions of teachers on awareness of the effect of event evaluations on competency development
[1]  Giselle O. Martin-Kniep (2011), Eight Innovations to Become Good People (Le Van Canh translation), Vietnam Education Publishing House, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[2]  D. Schneckenberg, J. Wildt (2006), The Challenge of a Competence in Academic Staff Development, N.-Y, CELT.
In article      
 
[3]  Key competencies A developing concept in general compulsory education (http://www.eurydice.org).
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Vietnam Education Development Strategy 2001-2010, Journal of Education, Vietnam, No. 23.
In article      
 
[5]  Tran Ba Hoanh (2000), Innovative teaching methods in junior high school (used in training courses for secondary education managers), Ministry of Education and Training, Vietnam.
In article      
 
[6]  Vietnam Ministry of Education and Training (2006), History education program, Vietnam Education Publishing House, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[7]  Phan Ngoc Lien (2003), History and Historical Education, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi, Vietnam.
In article      
 
[8]  Phan Ngoc Lien (ed., 2008), Communist Party of Viet Nam for the Education, Training, Publishing House of Pedagogical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
In article      
 
[9]  Nguyen Manh Huong (2011), A brief look at teaching methodology innovation in history at the current school, Journal of Education, Vietnam (December), pp. 30-31.
In article      
 
[10]  Nguyen Manh Huong (2011), Improving the quality of teaching history in high school with the support of information technology (Experimental teaching in some provinces / city in the Northern Delta), Doctor of Education, Hanoi, Vietnam.
In article      
 
[11]  Nguyen Manh Huong, Duong Tan Giau (2017), Instruct students to evaluate events in history teaching in high school in the direction of capacity development, Journal of Education, Vietnam, Special Issue June), pp. 162-165.
In article      
 
[12]  Nguyen Manh Huong (2011), Instruct students to effectively tap the documentary in history at high school, Journal of Education, Vietnam, No. 258 (March), pp. 38-40.
In article      
 
[13]  Nguyen Manh Huong (2014), Educate students in the skills of exploring video in history teaching in the direction of developing learner capacity, Vietnam Journal of Education, Vietnam, 348, pp. 48-49 and 55.
In article      
 
[14]  Phan Ngoc Lien, Trinh Dinh Tung, Nguyen Thi Coi (editors, 2009). Historical teaching methods (2 volumes), College of Education Publishing House, Hanoi, Vietnam.
In article      
 
[15]  Nguyen Thi Coi, The ways, solutions to improve teaching effectiveness History in high school, Publisher of Pedagogical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
In article      
 
[16]  Nguyen Van Ninh (2017), Applying methods of discussion and debate to develop critical thinking for students in teaching Vietnamese history (1802 - 1884) in high school, Journal Education, Vietnam, Special Issue (July), pp. 194-196.
In article      
 
[17]  Nguyen Thi The Binh (2017), Applying the Multiracial Theory in Teaching History in High School, Proceedings of the International Conference "Training and Retraining of History Teachers Request for renovation of programs and textbooks", National University Press, Hanoi, December, pp.412-420.
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