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The Situation of Co-operative Skills Education for 5-6 year-old ASD Children through Playing in Kindergartens in Son Hoa District, Phu Yen, Vietnam

Do Thi Thao , Dang Thuy Thuy, Dang Loc Tho
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 749-756. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-25
Received April 26, 2018; Revised May 24, 2018; Accepted May 28, 2018

Abstract

This paper aims to assess the current situation of cooperative skills education for 5-6 year-old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) through play activities at some kindergartens in Son Hoa district, Phu Yen province. Lessons can be learned for teachers in the process of cooperative skills development for autistic children in integrated kindergartens. The results of theoretical research and the situation indicate that 1) Understanding the thoughts, emotions and attitudes of others, knowing how to express their emotions, and behaving in accordance with certain circumstances and situations are the difficulties that closely attach to ASD children; 2) ASD children perform better when playing alone than when cooperating and sharing with other children; 3) Children need to be reminded and supported by adults when playing with a group; 4) Teachers adapt a variety of play activities for the best educational effectiveness; however, outdoor activities prove to be most effective; 5) Play activities in kindergarten plays a major role in the development of cooperative skills for children, so the development of co-operative skills for children through play activities should be quickly implemented; 6) Focus should be put on engaging children groups in inclusive classes to support the collaborative skills education for ASD children.

1. Introduction

Difficulties in social skills among ASD children are manifested in four main groups, including nonverbal communication, communication initiation, interactions, and understanding others (Howlin, P et.al - 2014) 1, 2. Social skills deficiencies can cause later mood and anxiety problems in ASD children (Myles, BS, & Simpson, RL (2001, 2002) 3, 4. These difficulties affect children’s language, communication, and interpersonal interactions. ASD children often have problems with waiting for the turn, interrupting speech, understanding and expressing emotions, understanding metaphor (Krasny Williams, et al., 2003) 5. The difficulty in social skills is persistent and profound throughout the development process and often is first recognized in ASD children (Laushey and Heflin, 2000) 6. In order to enhance social skills, especially cooperative skills, children should be taught appropriate responses, how to interact with their friends and adults (Pierce, K. et.al., 1995) 7, Pierce, K. & Screibman, L. (1997) 8, Do Thi Thao, Ha Mai Hoa and Nguyen Thi Kim Anh 9, 10, 11, 12.

The number of ASD children in kindergartens in Son Hoa province, Phu Yen province is increasing. The integration environment requires children to have good self-service skills, appropriate behavioral skills, and the ability to work with friends and adults around them 9. However, the difficulty of social skills greatly affects the ability to acquire knowledge, language development, communication and especially the ability to make friends, collaborate with friends and adults 9, 10. Good collaborative skills help children communicate, socialize, get along and get accepted, but most ASDs are limited in these skills. ASDs almost do not understand the thoughts, emotions and attitudes of others, so they are often confused and difficult to see what other people will do and expect in social situations…, which is partially why ASD children often express misleading emotions to the actual situation. Children do not know that other people may have different thoughts, feelings and wishes. They have poor imagination, less ability to imitate and observe 9, 12. In this paper, we focus on analyzing the situation of cooperative skills education for ASD children in 3 kindergartens in Phu Yen. As a result, certain lessons can be learned in cooperative skills education for ASD children in other inclusive kindergartens.

2. Content

2.1. Cooperative Skills and Cooperative Skills Education for ASD Children through Play Activities

Collaborative skills: Collaborative skills are of the important social skills that help people deal effectively with problems in life by coordinating and utilizing the strengths among a group of people. Collaborative skills arise when people know how to work together and move towards a common goal. A cooperative person has good words and a clear feeling about others as well as the task. Collaborative skills include sharing, participating in activities with others, being persistence in fulfilling common tasks, complying with common regulations…

Cooperation must be guided by the principle of mutual respect. A cooperative person will receive cooperation. Love will have better cooperation. Being aware of the values of life, children will be able to create partnerships. Courage, caring, caring, willing to contribute are the perfect conditions to create cooperation.

Signs of collaboration include 1) common purposes; 2) responsibility; 3) work assigned to the capacity of each member; 4) discipline, compliance with general regulations and the direction and guidance of the leader (coordinator); 5) One for everyone, everyone for one person; 6) Sharing resources and information; 7) Encourage collective spirit rather than promote competition; 8) Act more than words.

Success factors in pottery cooperation include 1) common goals that are known by everyone; 2) solidarity, trust; 3) tasks that are fit to each member’s ability; 4) observation of the others and listening to others to coordinate rhythmically; 5) skills in collaboration such as communication skills, teamwork skills, and skills of building and maintaining interpersonal relationships.

* Play activities are of the typical activities of children in the kindergarten, which are organized and guided to help children satisfy their play and cognitive needs, and to achieve comprehensive education and development for children.

* The concept of cooperative skills education for ASD children through play activities: Educating the skills of cooperating with friends and adults for 5-6 year-old children with mild ASD is understood as the pedagogical and systematic process in which the educator interfere the children through selecting and organizing play activities. Educators have to adjust the content, form and selection of games in accordance with the ability and needs of children to form and train children skills cooperation. As such, it can be seen that ASD's ability to work together should be shaped through learning, perception and training in life.


2.1.2. Collaborative Skills of 5-6 year-old ASD Children

Social skills are of the underlying defects in ASD 13. ASDs have different levels of disability with individual characteristics and difficulties. As usual, ASD children often have the following characteristics:

Relationship with friends: Due to communication and social interaction disabilities, ASD children have failed to develop friendships. Children have difficulty in face-to-face communication, initiating communication, participation in play (Frith, 2003 14; Tantam, 2012 15). ASD children only get social connections with their friends for about half the time. However, in inclusive education environment, ASD children may be at high risk of being rejected and isolated (Chamberlain, 2010 et al) 16. Therefore, it is necessary to promote the skill of establishing early social relations for children at an early age.

Studies have shown that deficits of social skills lead to general difficulty in attention (Dawson et al, 2004) 17, using eye contact to collect social information (Pelphrey et al., 2002) 18. ASD children may also have difficulty recognizing the appropriate greetings and understanding of humor (Samson and Hegenloh, 2010) 19.

ASD children are directly or indirectly influenced by social skills deficiencies. Difficulty in social skills is expressed in four main difficulty areas: non-verbal communication, communication initiation, social interaction, and understanding of others.

As for nonverbal communication: nonverbal communication via facial expressions, gestures, gestures, eyes, and voice is difficult for ASD to understand. At the same time, children also have difficulty using facial expressions, gestures, gestures, eyes, and voices to express themselves.

As for initiating communication: ASD children are less likely to initiate communication, or show anxiety, nervousness or fear to initiation a conversation. Some children start out constantly but in the wrong way to start, ie. asking at the wrong time, asking repeatedly, interrupting others, or asking about non-contextual issues...

As for interactive interactions: some ASD children often do not respond to others, or create dialogues. Some children initiate communication but only in one direction. These children usually talk only about the topics they like, drive stories on topics they like or just do monologues. These are children with high intelligence.

As for understanding others: ASD children have different ways of dealing with information, so they have difficulty understanding others' intentions, thoughts, beliefs, aspirations, behaviors, etc, and even those of themselves’.

The four social skills difficulties are usually in two forms: The children have no certain social skills or they do not practise or show their social skills that they have already initiated. (Baren Cohen, 1999) 20.

ASD children have difficulty in understanding social concepts, values and practices. In fact, the process of social awareness is expressed in three aspects: 1) Knowing the thoughts of others; 2) Understanding the views and perceptions of others; 3) Understanding oneself. It can be seen that most ASD children have difficulty in all three aspects of social awareness.

The deficits of social skills can involve anxiety issues, which affect nonverbal speech such as gestures, gestures, facial expressions, speech and interpersonal interactions. Specific difficulties in social skills such as waiting for turns, verbal interpreting, understanding and expressing emotions, comprehension of speech or metaphor (Krasny Williams, Provencal & Ozonoff, 2003) 5. These challenges become more acute in adolescents without early intervention from preschool age (White et al., 2007) 21.

ASD children have difficulty playing. Their ability to play games is limited, especially in role-playing games. ASD affects the development of social skills and the other skills that are necessary for playing, such as the ability to copy simple actions, explore the environment, express emotion and understand others. But the children can learn and develop the skills needed to play under the guidance and help of adults.

Characteristics of social interaction vary in ASD individuals. There are some basic groups of those:

- Isolation: This is the most common group of ASD children. ‘Isolation’ usually lasts until the end of life. A few may have signs of improvement when they grow up. Isolation occurs even when those around the child try to involve him or her into harmony. ASD children do not come close on called, or do not react when called. Their faces may not reveal much unless they are experiencing very clear emotions such as anger, tension or excitement. They glance at the face of the communicator, can push you out if you touch them, or do not put their arms around you when you hug them.

- Passivity: ASD children of this type are often not active in social interaction. Passivity makes the child a real "baby" in role play games... Children are often left behind because they do not have a suitable role for the child. Passive children are less likely to have behavioral problems, which are often considered benign. However, change can occur when the child enters adolescence.

- Weird activeness: Children of this type may have interactions with others, but they are often inappropriate in the interaction because they often do not pay attention to the feelings and needs of the people whom they are interacting with. Some are lazy to have eye to eye contact, or they look at someone for such a long time and stare that his can make the other uncomfortable. The children can also have social interactions such as hugging and shaking hands, but their hugs and handshakes are often too tight to feel comfortable. The children can become cranky or irritated if their requirements are not noticed. The children in this group really do not know how to interact with other people properly.

2.2. Current Situation of Cooperative Skills Education for ASD Children Aged 5-6 in Inclusive Kindergartens
2.2.1. An overview of the Survey Process

The aim of the survey: The survey aims at reflecting the situation of cooperative skills education for ASD children through play activities, from which certain lessons can be learned to improve cooperative skills education for ASD children in inclusive kindergartens.

The content of the survey: (1) Perception of teachers and parents about difficulties in cooperation skills of ASD children; (2) Actual adaptation of play activities to develop cooperative skills for ASD children.

Survey methods and tools: (1) Questionnaire: Questionnaire were sent to 33 teachers and 33 parents of ASD children in order to reflect their awareness, the factual situation, advantages and disadvantages of cooperative skills education for ASD children. To ensure truthfulness and accuracy in answering votes, teachers and parents do not have to provide their personal information; (2) Observation: the survey conductors did some class observation to record information on the educational activities for children in some inclusive classrooms; (3) Interview: 33 parents and parents were interviewed about the situation, roles and factors influencing the organization of educational activities of cooperative skills for ASD children. (4) Data process: The results were calculated and processed with statistical devices which helped draw the comments and conclusions.

The areas of survey and subjects: (1) The kindergartens to survey include Son Son Kindergarten, 24th March Kindergarten, Suoi Bac Kindergarten, Son Ha Kindergarten, Son Nguyen Kindergarten, Son Xuan Kindergarten, Son Long Kindergarten, Son Dinh Kindergarten. Those are semi-boarding kindergartens with high rates of children with disabilities in Son Hoa District. The children in those kindergartens are monitored, cared for and evaluated according to their own educational plan for ASD children. (2) Subjects: 33 teachers in these kindergartens and 33 parents with ASD children are surveyed. The surveyed teachers graduated from universities and colleges specialized in early childhood education. Every year, the teachers attend training courses on the care of kindergarten children and children with disabilities.


2.2.2. Survey Results and Analysis of Survey Results

a. Assessment of teachers and parents on the level of demonstration of cooperative skills of 5-6 year-old ASD children in inclusive kindergartens

The results show that the children have most difficulty in "engaging in activities with friends" with M = 1.69, ranked fourth, and "sharing toys with friends" with M = 1.93, ranked third. These are also skills that limit the ability of children to integrate in the kindergarten. Psychologically ASD children are self-limiting, isolated and less willing to interact and participate in peer-to-peer activities. The study by Anne Deckers et al. (2014) 22 assessed that children with ASD had lower social interaction scores than other children in the same age group. Young ASDs need to be stimulated to develop verbal and nonverbal communication skills. This suggests that there is a need for more effective method for each ASD child (Anne Deckers, et al., 2014) 22.

The studied ASD children can perform better at "ccomplying with the general regulations" with M = 2.39, ranked first (the studied teachers’ average score is 2.48 and the parent's is 2.3). However, the level of the performance is still quite low. Children need the guidance and supervision of adults. The second rank skill is "complying with the assigned rules" with M = 2.24. The teachers assessed this skill higher than the parents (M= 2.3 versus 2.18). The teachers state that "complying with the assigned rules" is at the medium level of ASD skills. Children can perform right when prompted by the teacher.

In general, the teachers and parents allege that ASD children’s skills that involve playing alone can be demonstrated better than those involving cooperating and sharing with friends. To perform well, children need to be reminded, supported by adults.

Of the four skills that demonstrate collaboration, "listening" skill is best done with M = 1.9. However, the process of observation we found that most children only perform skills when instructed or supervised by teachers or parents.

The 2nd ranked skill is "sharing with friends" with M = 1.6. Children are awkward when performing this skill. They can do right when instructed by their teachers. In the activities of playing, ASD children often play in their own way with little or no interaction or cooperation with their friends. Through observing, it is found that the children have difficulties accepting interference while they are engaging in a favorite activity or playing with an object of their interest. If asked to share an item or part of an item with their classmates, the children will refuse by saying "no" or holding the item to another corner to continue their playing with it. It takes more time to negotiate and explain to them... As a result, it is very difficult for ASD children at this age to develop their sharing skills. On the other hand, the children do not understand and feel the attitude of the people around. They do not understand that sharing does not losing. It is difficult and time consuming to ask children to share things with their friends.

The skill of "performing a common task together" is ranked 3rd with M = 1.5. On observing, we found that most children were only able to perform their skills when instructed by their teachers or parents. Some children have learned to cooperate when playing with their friends to perform common tasks. Some other children have difficulty implementing this skill.

The 4th ranked skill is "being friendly” with M = 1.3. This is considered a difficult skill for ASD children. When participating in activities with friends, ASD children are often shy and do not know how to initiate or maintain conversations. Children do not know how to express their opinions because their language is limited. For games with rules, children need more time to understand and obey the rules. They also get depressed and give up if they are not encouraged and helped by those around them, especially their teachers and friends. These things make it hard for them to get along and get along with other members when they play.

To sum up, on observing, we find that the cooperative skills of 5-6 year-old ASD in kindergartens are restricted. Most of cooperative skills cannot be demonstrated without instruction and encouragement.

b. Current situation of cooperative skills education for ASD children aged 5-6 through play activities in Son Hoa District, Phu Yen Province

We surveyed the teachers and parents about issues that have caused difficulties in collaborative skills development in ASD children, including: 1) Understanding the thoughts, emotions, and attitudes of others that are sometimes different from those of themselves, 2) Knowing how to express emotions and behave in accordance with factual circumstances and situations; 3) Responding properly in situations with their teachers and friends; 4) showing the rigidness in their hobbies, behavior and thoughts. The results are shown in Figure 1.

ASD children have a number of issues that affect the ability to collaborate with their friends and teachers. The children show difficulties with all of the four given content. Particularly, "knowing how to express your emotions and to behave in situations with others," is least challenging. Therefore, in order to educate ASDs’ ability to cooperate effectively, certain measures must be taken to help them through play activities in the kindergarten.

From the awareness of the issues that cause difficulties in ASD in cooperative skills development, teachers and parents need to know the effects of organizing play activities to enhance emotion and participation for of ASD children with friends.

From the above results, “coordinating with friends to perform common tasks” is the most effective way to educate cooperative skills for ASD children in kindergarten (M = 2.86, ranked level 1st). This is also an important purpose of organizing play activities aimed at educating cooperative skills for ASD children. At the same time, the teachers appreciate the other effects of organizing play activities. They think that organizing activities helps children to listen to the opinions of their teachers and friends (M = 2.74, ranked 2nd). Organizing activities at kindergarten also provides opportunities for children to share with others in difficulty (M = 2.46, ranked 3rd) and help children get along with their friends. (M = 2.20, ranked 4th). This demonstrates that the teachers find the effects of organizing play activities on cooperative skills education for children. Preschool activities play a large role in the development of cooperative skills for children, so the development and use of cooperative skills education for children through play activities should be quickly implemented to meet the needs of ASDs.

* Play activities adapted to educate cooperative skills for ASD children aged 5 to 6 in inclusive kindergartens

The surveyed teachers adapt outdoor play activities at the highest level with 45.45%, and thee are also the most effective activities with 54.54% of the effectiveness. This method is regularly used by teachers organize play activities to develop cooperative skills for ASD children. Ranked 2nd are corner play activities (group) (27.3%) and ‘playing anytime anywhere (group, individual)’ with 27.2%. However, playing everywhere achieves higher effectiveness (24.2%).

To educate cooperative skills for ASD children aged 5-6, the surveyed teachers use many types of play activities to achieve the most effective education in children. Each type has its own strengths and limitations, resulting in certain cooperative skills development for ASD children. However, teachers still prefer to use the type of outdoor activities, and this type brings most effectiveness. On this basis, we also accept the teacher's comments when developing collaborative skills for ASD children aged 5-6 kindergartens in Son Hoa District, Phu Yen Province.

* Difficulties of teachers in adapting play activities to educate cooperative skills for ASD childre.

Table 4 shows that the biggest difficulty is that "Children are uncooperative" with teacher and friends, with M=2.57. This restricts the effectiveness of educational activities.

Ranked 2nd is "lack of skills in organizing playing activities" (M = 2.51). Organizing a play activity requires the teacher to have certain pedagogical skills and organizational skills to attract the children, and skills to manage situations...

"Limited time" is 3rd ranked difficulty (M = 2.45). At present, in kindergartens, the organization of play activities for children is not organized regularly, the teachers just focus on organizing activities then let the children play in groups without much guidance. Many teachers make good use of time to complete their paper workload. "Restrict in methods of working with ASD children" (M = 2.42) is the 4th ranked difficulties. ASD children have different psychological characteristics from those of normal children, especially in terms of emotion and behavior. Therefore, in order to educate ASD children effectively, teachers need to have appropriate methods. "Restrict in understanding ASDs’ psychology" (M = 2.33) and "Adaptation to small number of ASD with good cognitive capacity " (M = 1.90) are the difficulties that have big effectiveness to the process of cooperative skills development for ASD children aged 5-6 in kindergartens.

c. The factors that influence the cooperative skills education for ASD children 5-6 Son Hoa district, Phu Yen province

The factors include subjective factors (children, teachers and parents), and objective factors (environment, social factors, physical condition). Subjective factors such as the children themselves, parents and caregivers, teachers, schools have bigger influence on the cooperative skills education process (M = 2.64) rather than objective factors such as environment, facility conditions (M = 2.37).

Among the three groups of factors, ‘teachers’ are rated with the greatest impact on cooperative skills development for ASD children aged 5-6 years in the kindergarten with M = 2.81. Most parents argue that teachers are the key to success. A parent from 24th March Kindergarten, Ms. N.T.H, said, "Teachers play a key role in their progress, because teachers have methods, knowledge and skills. No matter how poor the child is, the child will improve and learn well with good a teacher." Some other parents in Son Ha Kindergarten also had similar views. Mr. L.A.T said, "We brought our children here because we rely on and trust the teacher. If the teacher is good, the kids will definitely improve quickly." Teachers, however, believe that the factor that has a strong impact on the effectiveness of education is the children themselves, especially their cognitive ability (M = 2.74). A teacher, Mr N.T.B.S, from Son Kindergarten commented, "In the process of education in general and cooperative skills education in particular we find that the ability of children play a particularly important role. If the cognitive ability of the child is relatively high, the acquisition and implementation of skills will be fast and effective. If the cognitive ability of the child is limited, the formation of skills and training takes a lot of time, while the effect is very low. "

The factor of "children themselves" ranks 2nd with M = 2.67, where the parents rated with M = 2.60, lower than that of the teachers M = 2.74. The teachers believe that the children with cognitive ability will acquire skills quickly. Conversely, if the cognitive ability of the children is limited, the teachers and the children will have to spend much more time.

The third ranked factor is "parents and caregivers" with M = 2.44, in which parents and caregivers with child-centered knowledge and skills play a key role in M = 2.49. On interviewing, we received a response from a teacher, Ms. D.TTN, as follows, "Parents and caregivers contribute a great deal to progress of children, especially those who have knowledge and skills of special education"

Among the three groups of objective factors, the factor that has highly influence on the cooperative skills development process is “facility condition” with M = 2.50, followed by the social factors with M = 2.27. Schools with good facilities help children minimize the limitations and difficulties that children themselves and teachers encounter in the process of developing cooperative skills for children. Ms P.K.L, a parent of Son Dinh Kindergarten, said "When coming to a school, the first element I notice is the school's facilities. I will apply for admission for my child if the school has adequate and modern facilities. This factor both safeguards the child and helps my child develop his necessary skills. "In the interview, teacher D.T.K.C also agreed with the opinion of that parent, saying, "If the school has adequate facilities, the children and teachers will gain great benefits. The teachers have the opportunity to adapt play activities to develop the skills for children. "

In summary, the subjective factors (children themselves, caretakers and teachers, schools) are more influential than the objective factors (environment, facilities, social factors) in cooperative skills education for ASD children aged 5-6 years old. Teachers and parents have made consistent and consistent assessments of the impact of factors on the cooperative skills development for ASD children aged 5-6. In the above-mentioned skills education process, teachers and parents need to pay more attention to the subjective factors as these are the factors that directly affect children; on the other hand, the subjective factors are the factors that can adjust and change.

2.3. Lessons to Improve the Effectiveness of Cooperative Skills Education for ASD Children through Play Activities in Inclusive Kindergarten

Based on the current situation of collaborative skills education for ASD aged 5-6 in Phu Yen province, we withdrew some lessons to improve the effectiveness of cooperative skills education for ASD children through play activities as follows:

1) Teachers and parents need to improve their knowledge and skills about ASD including characters, ability to learn, social skills and methods to support children at home and school to strengthen the awareness and interacting skills with friends, teachers, parents and surrounding people.

2) Teachers and parents should be active in creating interactive environments in inclusive classes and family to engage children to be more active during childhood, follow and support children in their activities and game play to help children more confident.

3) Professional and physical conditions in Phu Yen do not meet the needs and demands for inclusive education in a satisfactory way. Therefore, the teachers should promote the flexible use of methods and types of playing activities for ASD children aged 5-6 in the kindergarten to enhance cooperative skills development for children, and pay more attention to the creation of the peer group support anytime and anywhere.

4) Play activities are the shortest way to help children develop emotion, connect them with others and increase the children’s participation. Teachers and parents need to actively adapt easy-to-understand, easy-to-implement games that are not too complicated for words so children can actively participate in. This can be a connection between children and friends in the classroom and in the community environment.

5) The kindergarten needs to support and let ASD children to participate in such activities as arts performance, sports and other activities. This creates opportunities for ASD to expand their cooperation, relationships, and increase their self-confidence.

3. Conclusion

Formation and development of cooperative skills for ASD children is not simple. It requires much time and effort. Especially, there should be an adequate resource of teachers with professional skills, and knowledgeable parents to work together. In order to educate cooperative skills for ASD children effectively, teachers and parents need to: 1) Understand the children’s psychological characteristics, behavioral characteristics, cognitive characteristics, language and social characteristics; 2) Select appropriate educational targets, content and methods; 3) Know how to select and organize play activities to improve the effectiveness of cooperative skills development progress for ASD children in inclusive kindergartens. The degree of understanding and implementation of these skills in teachers and parents of ASD children in some kindergartens in Phu Yen province are not effective enough. It is necessary to have a certain professional training and experience sharing among the teachers and parents.

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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Do Thi Thao, Dang Thuy Thuy and Dang Loc Tho

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Cite this article:

Normal Style
Do Thi Thao, Dang Thuy Thuy, Dang Loc Tho. The Situation of Co-operative Skills Education for 5-6 year-old ASD Children through Playing in Kindergartens in Son Hoa District, Phu Yen, Vietnam. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 6, No. 6, 2018, pp 749-756. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/6/6/25
MLA Style
Thao, Do Thi, Dang Thuy Thuy, and Dang Loc Tho. "The Situation of Co-operative Skills Education for 5-6 year-old ASD Children through Playing in Kindergartens in Son Hoa District, Phu Yen, Vietnam." American Journal of Educational Research 6.6 (2018): 749-756.
APA Style
Thao, D. T. , Thuy, D. T. , & Tho, D. L. (2018). The Situation of Co-operative Skills Education for 5-6 year-old ASD Children through Playing in Kindergartens in Son Hoa District, Phu Yen, Vietnam. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(6), 749-756.
Chicago Style
Thao, Do Thi, Dang Thuy Thuy, and Dang Loc Tho. "The Situation of Co-operative Skills Education for 5-6 year-old ASD Children through Playing in Kindergartens in Son Hoa District, Phu Yen, Vietnam." American Journal of Educational Research 6, no. 6 (2018): 749-756.
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  • Figure 1. Perceptions of teachers and parents about issues that cause difficulties in collaborative skills development for ASD children
  • Figure 2. Usability and effectiveness of play activities adapted by teachers to educate cooperative skills for ASD children aged 5-6
  • Table 3. Teachers' assessment of the effects of organizing play activities to educate cooperative skills for 5-6 year old ASD children in inclusive kindergarten
  • Table 4. Difficulties of the teacher in organizing play activities to develop cooperative skills for ASD children
  • Table 5. Teachers’ and Parents’ assessment of the influence of the factors on the cooperative skills development process for ASD children 5-6 in the kindergarten
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