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Ecological Culture and Educational Issue of Ecological Culture – Motivation for the Human Development

Duong Thi Huong , Ngo Thi Tan Huong
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(6), 694-702. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-6-17
Received April 8, 2018; Revised May 19, 2018; Accepted May 22, 2018

Abstract

Nowadays, mankind is facing with the increasing of ecological disasters, the deeper study of the relationship between human and nature which discusses, gives scientific literature review and develops the core development philosophy - ecological culture to ensure the sustainable development of humanity is really urgent. Ecological culture education is one of the basic solutions in order to develop ecological culture become a motive force for the sustainable development of nations as well as for the future of humanity.

1. Introduction

About the ecological culture, currently, there are many scientists who are interested in studying and giving theoretical perspectives such as: origins, definitions and structures, forms of expression, functional role of ecological culture in relation to development, on the basis of giving some basic solutions to develop ecological culture. Some authors, through their work on ecology, ecological culture and culture, have clarified the role of the ecosystem, the role the human in ecosystem, and also sketched the relationship between humans and nature in practical activities 1, 2, 3.

Approaching from an ecological anthropology 4, 5 the authors point out that humans are also a part of the ecosystem, human behavior with the ecosystem, the perception of the environment and ecosystem will effect on the human development. In addition, the authors also discuss environmental awareness, ecological awareness and the dangers of ecological environment degradation.

From the biological - anthropological approach 6, the French Professor of Anthropology, Georges Olivier, discusses the relationship between human and nature, which affirms the cultural environment as a cultural space containing the relationships between people and nature, people and society, people and people. Georges Olivier said: Anthropology (or culture) can be considered as a study of the role of man in nature or the role of nature in man.

A. A. Belik 7 discusses the relationship between human and nature from the approach of ecological anthropology. The approach of the relationship between people and nature in economic development is shown through the results of research on the sustainable economics of Prof. PhD. Holger. Rogall is a scientist who studies new environmental economics, or sustainable economics at the University of Economics and Law of Berlin, he gave his views on sustainable economic development which emphasizes on environmental and ecological factors and becomes a development philosophy with a vision of the future 8. The author gives ten perspectives of sustainable economics according to Holger Rogall: The key task is how to achieve the economic, ecological, and socio-cultural norms in the limitation of the endurance of nature as well as following the principle of internal justice and intergenerational. In view of sustainable economic development, besides factors of sustainable economic and social development, the environment is one of the important factors for sustainable economic development.

Authors such as Tran Le Bao, Vi Thai Lang, Tran Thi Hong Loan 9, 10 books provide basic theoretical poit about ecological culture, sustainable development of society and the relationship between ecological culture and sustainable development, contribute to raising awareness in addressing ecological issues - one of the pressing issues not only in Vietnam but also globally 11, 12. Authors focus on studying, presenting the systematic viewpoints of relationship between human and nature in history, and discuss that relationship in sustainable development. At the same time, the book also outlines the direction, goal and fundamental solution to address the relationship between human and nature. Research by Luong Viet Hai, I.K. Lixiev 13 discusses the relationship between modernization and ecology in sustainable development in Vietnam in the period of industrialization and modernization.

The authors have initially studied theories of ecological culture and considered the values and role of ecological culture for the development of society towards sustainable development 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20.

Some authors indirectly discuss ecological culture but they have approached ecological culture when they study on relationship between human and nature in some aspects such as theories, ethics and in economic growth 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30.

Nowadays, mankind is facing increasing ecological disasters, further research on the relationship between human and nature which discusses, gives scientific literature review and establishes the core development philosophy - ecological culture to ensure the sustainable development of humanity is extremely urgent. Ecological culture education is one of the basic solutions in order to make ecological culture become a motive force for the sustainable development of nations as well as for the future of humanity.

2. Content

2.1. Definition and Structure of Ecological Culture
2.1.1. Definition Ecological Culture

Culture is a concept that is considered in many respects, currently, there are more than 400 definitions of culture. In every viewpoint of culture are approached at different aspects with certain rational points. Therefore, the concept of culture is considered as a topic which has many mysteries for scientists. So, J. Derrida writes: "Culture is the name that we give the mystery to the people who are trying to think about it today” [ 31; 28]. In a philosophical perspective," culture is understood as all the material and spiritual values created by human in the course of historical-social practice and characterizes the attainment of history of social development" [ 32; 656].

Ecology in Greek is "oikos" which means the home, the settlement, the habitat of the creatures from the youngest to the greatest, which is also the human environment. The ecological environment is also called the natural environment, habitat or home of the species, including all surrounding conditions related to the life of the organism. The ecological environment consists of inorganic elements (air, soil, water, resources, etc.), organic elements (microorganisms, fungi, animals, plants, etc.) and humans. In the ecological environment, the elements are closely interrelated and they exist in dialectical relationships, motivated by the objective laws of the ecological environment, which form the basic rules of ecology. In that ecosystem, human beings are born, survive and develop based on the physical conditions of the ecological environment, and "Only human beings are able to achieve the imprint of their mark on the world not only by moving plants and animals from one place to another but also transforming their appearance and climate, and even transforming plants and animals to the extent that their activity can only disappear, when the whole of the earth is gone" [ 33; 475].

In the view of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, a human being is a cultured animal by its hands not only as a matter of labor but also as a product of labor. In the thinking of the Friedrich Engels, culture is not only as a human social activity, but also as a natural development of human beings. Culture is different from nature, but nature does not stand out from culture. If culture is a human level of social development, in anywhere, people are a direct product of nature and a dynamic subject of social relations. Nature is considered as the starting point and also the driving force of human development. Nature is not only a commodity used as a living material; it is a means of operation but also an essential condition of all human cultural activities. The unity between man and nature creates regional identity, history and even cultural age as it reflects a certain social appearance.

Thus, culture is first of all the relationship between man and nature. Nature is not just a starting point for human beings; it is also an environment, premises for human existence. Without nature, human beings can not create and satisfy physical and intangible needs. Therefore, when people are united with nature to create products for consumption, they simultaneously make up their cultural meaning. The creativity and conquest of the natural world of man should reach unity with the natural world, where the creative values of man through labor are all cultural values. If people separate from nature, they will not be able to survive and develop; therefore, natural destruction is an act of counter-culture.

Therefore, it is understandable that ecological culture is a manifestation of the relationship between human and nature in the process of human activities carried out. It is manifested through the realization of the role of nature in the practical activity of the creation of values that serve the physical and spiritual needs of the human beings.

Author A.A. RaDuGhin in "Cultures-The lectures", discusses ecological culture as a part of the study of cultural studies. The author also said that the ecological culture as "culture gradually takes its relationship with nature as its object, the appearance of the culture of human ecology, or as it is said, ecological culture. The task of ecological culture is to raise the level of assessment of the relationship between nature and people, bringing knowledge of this relationship into the system of cultural values" [ 3; 133]. In here, the author emphasizes ecological culture as the expression of the relationship between man and nature, which emphasizes the task of ecological culture, is to raise the assessment of this relationship in the practical activity to become values, norms that regulate the relationship of man and nature.

Or J. Stewart in his book "Theory of Cultural Change - Methodology for Multilevel Evolution", He wrote: "Finding the causes of cultural change and trying to come up with a method to recognize the ways in which cultural change is caused by environmental adaptation. This adaptation is called ecological culture" 2. Thus, ecological culture is the science of studying the adaptability of environmental conditions through the practical activities of people, to form the behavior, the adjustment of society to the environment. The cause of cultural change is human adaptation to the environment. In this view we see that the author wants to emphasize the objective existence of natural conditions in the relationship between man and nature. The way in which human react to nature is to respect the natural conditions of objectivity and adaptation that shape human behavior in response to environmental conditions, respecting the conditions of the visitor. This adaptation is called ecological culture. Human beings can not appropriate, exploit etc. the environment despite the objective laws that need to be cultured in the environment, on the basis of respect, adapt to it.

The author, Tran Le Bao writes, "Ecological culture is all the material and spiritual values created by man in the process of influencing and changing the natural world in order to create a better living environment, more beautiful, in harmony with nature, towards the right, the good, the beauty because of the sustainable development of society" [ 9; 196]. He approached the concept of ecological culture in terms of form of expression, with respect to material values and spiritual values as the result of human creativity showing harmony with nature, natural. Intangible culture is ecological ethics, ecological way of life, customs and beliefs etc. the manifestation of human behavior towards the ecological environment.

Approaching ecological culture from the perspective of cultural values: the genuine, the good, the beautiful, Huynh Quoc Thang said that "In the most comprehensive way, ecological culture is the cultural values (the genuine, the good, the beautiful etc.) associated with all activities, material phenomena (material culture), Spirituality (intangible culture) created by man in relation to all elements related to the habitat (ecology) including the natural environment (natural ecology) and the social environment (human culture ecology) in a certain area or country" [ 34; 42]. Vu Minh Tam said that "Ecological culture is all the values that people achieve in the process of natural change in order to create new habitats that are both suitable for human nature and for the development of the commune, Assembly, both fit the nature of the existence and development of nature" [ 35; 4]. In this, “The genuine” is the natural respect for the existence of the rational and objective nature of the natural environment in practical activities. "The good" refers to the direction of the good, the good values in relationship between people and nature. It is expressed by love, respect and consciousness that create harmony in the relationship between man and nature. "The beautiful" is in the relationship between man and nature towards beauty. It exists in the consciousness of man and forms human awareness, affection, and behavior in harmony with nature in the creation of values through practical activity." The beautiful" directs people make well nature following the rules of beauty.

Some other researchers approached from the perspective of ecological culture is the creation of human cultural and social values, manifested through the perception and behavior of human beings with nature in practical activities. "Ecological culture is all of cultural and social values expressed in the attitude of behavior, in behavioral and natural modification to create a suitable living environment, meet the needs of healthy living, development and progress of people. Ecological cultural values are all the values created and built by human beings in the process of living, working and developing in the natural world - in the ecosystem" [ 13; 34]. Nguyen Van Huyen writes that "the ecological culture of man is evident in human awareness and attitudes in the process of exploiting and modifying the natural world for their life" [ 14; 87].

To sum up, discussing ecological culture, researchers consider ecological culture is the expression of the relationship between human and nature, expressed through love for the natural environment; creative activities in reality, on the basis of respect for nature, harmony with nature and toward the values of the genuine, the good, the beautiful. Thus, ecological culture is a manifestation of the relationship between man and nature, which represents the natural conquest of man as manifested by the knowledge, love and action of man in the practical activities which create material and spiritual values on the basis of respect for the ecological environment.

Ecological culture is the result of human perception of the human, nature and society relationship, it is also a way of thinking, a viewpoint to behave in a spirit of respect for the natural ecological environment and human culture. Ecological culture also expresses human affection for nature. The culture in which the particular way of thinking, the way of life and the mode of production etc. of a community has a great impact on the natural ecological environment. If the views of each community, individual respect and live in harmony with the natural environment, follow the laws of objectivity etc. it will become a lifestyle, ecological cultural lifestyle, become an important motivation for sustainable development. Ecological culture is expressed through actions in human activity which is considered a manifestation of the natural conquest of human beings towards sustainable development.

Therefore, the basic content of ecological culture is to examine relationships, human interaction with the natural environment, fit up for people knowledge of the environment, the role of the environment in the development of human beings. This creates the sentiment and action to protect the ecological environment of human beings, ensuring the ecological balance in practical activities, for the objective of sustainable development of human beings. By practical activity demonstrating people’s profound awareness of the ecological culture becomes the decisive factor for the existence and sustainable development of the nature, human and society system, ecological culture has become a development philosophy essential to the sustainable development of humanity.


2.1.2. Structure of Ecological Culture

Firstly, the knowledge of the dialectical relationship among human, nature and society is the understanding of the position and role of man in relation to the ecological environment, the human impacts in practical activity in the dialectical relationship among human, nature and society. The whole human activity is the regular "metabolism" between human and nature, C. Marx writes: "People can be lived by nature. This means that the natural world is the body of man, the body with which human must remain in the process of frequent communication to survive" [ 36; 137]. As a great Dialogue, Friedrich Engels said: "In the natural world, nothing happens alone. This phenomenon affects other phenomena and vice versa" [ 37; 652]. That is why Friedrich Engels warns so deeply that "we should not be proud of our victories with nature. Because each time we achieve a victory, each time the natural world takes revenge on us. In fact, each victory initially give us the result what we want, but in the second times, the third times, which causes the effect of destroying all the initial results" [ 37; 654]. "If we have gone through thousands of years of labor to be able to predict natural consequences in a long time in the future of our production actions in some levels, we have to go through more difficulties in order to be able to understand natural consequences in a long time in the future of these actions [ 37; 655-656].

This explains the human- nature system is a unified kinetics system that must be balanced to a certain degree; all components in the system are affected and interacted with each other. This system operates on the principle of backward relations, not only the one-way relationship, that is, not only humans impact and transform nature, but nature also reacts strongly with humans. Remarkably, this opposite effect is unpredictable and it can destroy all the initial results that humans have achieved.

The knowledge of dialectical relationships among people, nature and society helps to raise people's awareness of the important role ecological environment plays in the development, helps people be active "aware of the laws of nature" and thus "use those laws precisely" in the course of the practical operation of society. "We can not completely dominate the natural world as an aggressor dominating another nation, as a person who lives outside of nature, on the contrary, ourselves, with our flesh, blood and minds are belong to nature, we are in the inside of natural world and all our domination of nature is that we, unlike all other creatures, are aware of the laws of the natural world and can use these rules correctly" [ 33; 655].

Thus, in the relationship with nature, human beings first need to realize that human beings are also a part of the natural world, the natural world being the inorganic body of man. Humans are aware of the nature and laws of movement of the ecological environment, apply it properly, and follow the rules of nature in practical activities. Man is the subject who takes advantages of nature according to the principle of objectively inherent but absolutely can not master natural and take advantage of natural disregard of the laws of motivational movement of the ecological environment. Steven Pollock in "The Next Generation Knowledge Book” 1 says that in relation to the ecological environment, people play a role in implementing internal ecological balance, ensure the self-balancing of internal ecosystem. The author has determined that the internal ecological balance must be regarded as the central category of ecology. In that, ecosystem is given as a system of material equilibrium which is energy and it acts as a flow of energy. This system will balance when energy accumulation and energy regulation follow the motion rules of the hierarchy in the ecosystem. In that, ecological classes must exist in a natural state of self-balance between them. People also are belonging to that ecosystem and the same mutation of people and nature is only in the stability and balance of the whole natural world. Therefore, people need to be aware of their role play in the implementation of ecological balance. Human beings need to be aware of the law of unification, dialectics in the material world, and at the same time see their role as the cognizant and manipulative element of the laws and practices of the internal natural ecological balance in practical activities. Conrad P. Kottak, in his essay "The New Ecological Anthropology," asserts that man is also a part of the ecosystem and promotes the role of human behavioral culture in the ecosystem. In the article, the author mentions the issue of environmental and ecological awareness that effects on human beings and the development of humanity.

The world is united in materialism, in which man is the highest product of the world. Therefore, the ecological environment and human is in a dialectical relationship, they connect, dominant, affect, and transform each other. Correct awareness of the relationship between people and nature is the basis for helping individuals and organizations to positively identify practical activities that are consistent with the laws of nature. This is the basis for solving all ecological and human ecological problems in the world today. As Greg Garad stated "Environmental issues need to be analyzed not only from a scientific perspective but also from a cultural perspective" [ 38; 14] because "What we do for ecology depends on our perception of the relationship between human and nature" [ 39; 12]. When people understand the nature of objective laws in the relationship among human, nature and society, with positive sense, will properly apply the laws of objectivity in that relationship. Therefore, fitting up knowledge along with raising awareness of the relationship among human, nature and society is an important factor to improve the ability to operate the objective laws of people in practical activities. This is considered to be the key to building and forming ecological culture, which is the basis for ecological culture to be implemented.

Thus, ecological culture presents "new thinking recognizes that people and society are not the lords of nature, stand outside, dominate and contrast with the biosphere but are part of the ecological cycle of nature only. In the process of social modernization, at every stage of human and social activity, there are strict limits imposed by ecology. Humans, societies and civilizations can only be mobilized in the "ecological corridor" defined at each historical period. Breaking the corridor of people and society sooner or later will be "revenged" by the natural world [ 13; 23].

Therefore, the vision of the dialectical relationship in human and natural relationships shows that although human beings take advantage of nature to pursuit of life, human needs to live together in peace, close to nature's heart, conserve, protect and maintain nature, conserve ecological unification as the most important task and goal of human development. When people have right awarenesses about ecological environment, ecology as the cradle of life and development of humanity, this will form a behavioral culture, an ecological lifestyle that respects nature, adjust behaviors in people’s real activities to fit with nature. Because they understand that "natural intestinal extraction" even though this needs to serve the true needs of life that lead to the violation of the life of nature is the opposite of the principle of human unity - naturally, it is not only a lack of humanity and non-culture but also a suicidal act of mankind" [ 13; 39]

Secondly, the love of human beings for ecological environment, is formed on the basis of knowledge, accurate awareness of the position, the role of ecological environment and of the relationship between people – nature – society in the sustainable development, builds postitive attitude, a sense of responsibility together with willpower expressed through moral sentiments and the action of protecting the environment in reality, develops civilized, respectful, friendly behavioral model in behaving towards ecological environment with a view to sustainable development.

Thirdly, the willpower of being ready to act respectfully for nature, obeying objective, balacing laws of motion with ecological environment. The willpower of being ready to act protectively for environment is builded on the basis of knowledge, understanding about the dialectical relationship between people – nature – society and it is expressed through practical activities:

No.1 is, being aware of the laws of motion and homeostasis of ecological environment, people need to apply the knowledge about the laws of motion in ecological environmental into practical activities.

First one is the activity of manufacturing labor – the basic activity in reality, in which human being is directly related to the ecological environment. The goal of this activity is to create materials to serve and meet the needs of people. However, human is a factor in the system of ecological homeostasis, and ecological environment moves by its natural, objective laws demanding people to comprehend to adapt to itself, to create the best materials. Nevertheless, being unaware of the ecological environment’s objective laws of motion, people freely create for their subjective needs to meet the higher and higher mental and material requirements, thus surely hurt the ecological homeostasis. As Karl Marx said: “...culture... if it were developed spontaneously, not guided volutarily, it will leave behind deserts...” [ 40; 108]. Therefore, being aware of the laws of motion and homeostasis of ecological environment, people need to put it into practice, make use of nature, exploit the nature. Besides, the most important thing is to protect ecological environment, regenerate ecological factors which are regeneratable. Author Nguyen Van Huyen while discussing ecological problems, assumed that: “Understanding about the world of nature, ecosystem with laws of its existence and motion only shows cognitive level which can handle the basis of ecological culture. Understanding the nature of ecosystem to improve ecosystem on the basis of principles of ecological existence and operation, that is really specific expression of ecological culture” [ 14; 87].

Nowadays, with the increasingly strong development of science and technology, the power of human being in conquering the nature is multiplied, meeting the higher and higer needs of people. However, people need to master science and technology in practical activities, connect science technology with ecological culture, renew natural resources, save natural resources... operate green, friendly and balacing manufacturing for natural environment. For example Sweden, the first nation in the world to be able to process up to 99% of waste, just only 1% of waste from households is discharged into the environment. Technology is so advanced that this country has to import trash from other nations to provide materials for factories to operate. The canal boat carrying trash still docks in Malmo weekly.Trash comes from England and other nations. 55% of waste is burned into the supplies of electricity and heating gas, the rest is recycled into new materials or into bio-fertilizer, biogas 41.

Or in life, we need to make use of science and technology to form green architectures, providing an environmentally friendly living space; save maximumly resources in bulding and use energy source in nature, thus minimize the energy needs to be met in our life. Green architecture enhances and protects ecosystem and biodiversity, raises the quality of water and air, reduces solid waste and conserves natural resources. According to World Green Building Council, if compared to a typical commercial building, green building will use 26% less energy, the maintenace cost will be 13% lower and greenhouse gas emissions will be 33% lower; Green buildings earn high economic costs as well as social welfare. In such cases, green building will creat friendly environment for users in many aspects, including better quality of inside air, pptimizing the comfort of every function in the building. Experts pointrd out that design elements of green building reduced the appearance of illness related to respiration, allergic symptoms and asthma 42.

No.2 is, to improve the quality of ecological environment as well as develop ecological culture, there needs to be a regulatory standard system, modifying behaviors of ecological culture of each individual and organization. That standard is expressed through establishing the legal regulations, guidelines and policies on ecological environment, for the purpose of improving the quality of ecological culture in community.

No.3 is, ecological culture is expressed through action culture, self-consciousness, strictly implementing the guidelines, policies and laws in practical activities of each individual and organization.

Thus, ecological culture is not only in your mind, in the love with nature, but it also is conducted particularly in practical activities. Meanwhile, people have to use knowledge of nature and laws of motion in ecological environment, show affection towards ecological environment through specific actions in practical activities, obey the standard of ecological culture. Then ecological culture will totally become the motivation of sustainable development, an essential development philosophy of the contemporary world.

2.2. Educating about Ecological Culture – Motivation for Sustainable Development

To develop, contemporary world has boosted application of science and technology, Growing economy with the goal of maximizing profit but neglecting, underestimating the impact of the environment... has brought about serious ecological consequences in the living environment in the current period. As early as 1967 E.J. Mishan has warned of the cost of economic development and the "catastrophe of development". Next, the works “Blueprint for survival” (Edward Goldsmith & Robert Allen, 1972), “Only one Earth: The Care and Maintenance of a Small Planet” (Barbara Ward, 1972), “The limits of Growth” (Donella H. Meadows, Dennis L. Meadows & Jøgen Randers, 1972) was born when the Conference about human environment of the United Nations was held in Stockholm (Sweden). Researchers seem to have raised the alarming bells to call on people to conserve and protect nature, produce and develop environmentally friendly economy, urgently needing to develop ecological culture becoming basic philosophy towards sustainable development.

In Vietnam today, environmental issues have many weaknesses; "Natural resources are still being exploited wastefully and used inefficiently, environmental problems such as water pollution, air pollution, biodiversity loss; the disqualifying rate of solid waste collection exploiting indiscriminate minerals making residents angry… Awareness about environmental protection and sustainable development at all levels, sectors and citizens is not sufficient. Violation of the law on environmental protection, management of natural resources is still relatively common. In the future, Vietnam is one of the countries most severely affected by global climate change, sea level rise and frequent natural disasters, which makes sustainable environment demand more effort in the future" [ 43; 39]. The impact of climate change on Vietnam is shown in the "World Bank Report (2008), which showed that with the sea level forecast to rise by one meter and by 2100, the Vietnamese economy will have lost aout17 billions USD each year, flooding 12% of coastal land and affecting the lives of 23% of the population living in the area [ 43; 53]…

In order to develop sustainably, Vietnam and other countries in the world must implement economic development in close relationship with ensuring social justice and environmental protection, ensuring balancing ecological system, towards sustainable development. Controlling, preventing and limiting the increasing level of environmental pollution, environmental degradation, sustainable use of natural resources, protection of biological diversity of ecosystem... aim of developing green economy, sustainable society, improving of the quality of life, which is the goal and urgent task of each nation, each organization and individual. It can be said that ecological culture is one of the important keys to ensure a sustainable development environment, which will be the basis for sustainable human development in the future.

With the aim of social and economic development, it is necessary to focus on efficient exploitation of the natural environment meanwhile avoiding the destruction and the natural world’s ability to long-lastingly regenerate. In view of sustainable economic development Holger Rogall proposes: A central argument is whether it is possible to replace the traditional pattern of growth with a sustainable development pattern: because it is impossible to continue maintain growth along with the increasing needs of using natural resources over the past decades, nowadays’ replacing pattern of growth with sustainable development is a key premise for future growth. In that development, the economy needs to reduce the consumption of natural resources, although it still ensures economic development. In his ninth thesis, Global Responsibility: Recognizing that the focal conditions for sustainable development are: To provide a global framework (with the regulation of financial markets, including taxes of global environmental goods and minimum social and ecological standards, etc.). Reducing the needs of consumes resource counted by the industrial countries per capita to 80-95% by 2050 8.

To make ecological culture become an important key to the sustainable development of humanity, in which the activities of ecological cultural education need to be to strengthened, knowledge about ecological culture is equipped, the awareness of the relationship between man, nature and society is raised. Ecological cultural education is a systematic activity to awareness for each individual and community, equipping knowledge about the relationship between nature - human – civilized society, forming love the quality and capacity to regulate human behavior towards the ecological environment in practical activities for growing economy and society.

Firstly, the education of ecological culture equips people with knowledge about the dialectical relationship between human - natural - social, see the unity of the world, so in conquering activities, it improves nature, people should not absolve their role in relation to the ecological environment. Any human action in practical activities is in connected with nature, so man needs to act but ensuring the unity of relationships between human – natural – societies. On the basis of knowledge and understanding about relationship between men – nature – society, the orientation in awareness helps each individual and organization in practical activities adjust their activities into proper ones for ecological environment, ensuring ecological consistency as an objective criterion, invariable. Thus, enhancing ecological cultural education helps each individual and community understand the nature of the natural environment, the interaction of biological, physical, chemical, social, economics and culture aspects, gain knowledge, attitude and practical skills to effectively and responsibly participate in the prediction and resolution of environmental ecological issues and the management of ecological environmental quality. Ecological culture education is becoming the responsibility, duty and conscience of every individual, of every social community on our planet.

Secondly, through ecological cultural education activities, we can cultivate human love for the ecological environment; raise awareness of ecological culture, the role of ecological culture with sustainable development is the basis to voluntarily (sensibly) control relationship between human and nature in the direction of respecting the laws of nature.

In the process of practical activities, first of all is the manufacturing labor, humans have dramatically influenced and modified nature and gained more and more of the material from nature to meet the increasing demands of man and society. With the help of science and technology, the instruments are increasing sophisticated…the human’s power of conquer nature has greatly increased. The inevitable logic is the unity, the inherent balance of nature is broken. Particularly, ecological cultural education not only aims to create appropriate, balancing relationship between man and ecological environment, but it also has the special positive meaning is to form personality which is suitable for the development of a modern, industrial society with ecological and humanistic unity as the basis for sustainable development. Like all other forms of education, ecological cultural education is a process of education about scientific, ethical, aesthetic and cultural awareness in general in the field of ecology - humanities.

If in the past man loved nature for its beauty and its inherent values, then today, due to the selfish interests of the individual, human beings are only interested in the values of use and practicality of nature. It is not exaggerated to say that the present man is living by all that is "borrowed" by future generations. Obliviously, in order to modify the behavior in the relationship between humans and nature, it is necessary to raise the awareness of ecological culture through ecological cultural education, to build, to form the values of ecological culture showing affection of human being towards the living environment such as: lifestyle, customs, traditions... associated with ecological culture, with a view to “real”, “ethical”, “beautiful” values in the relationship between man and nature.

Thirdly, awareness rising on ecological culture is the foundation for the willingness to act respectfully towards nature, obeying the objective, balancing laws of motion with the natural environment in the practical activities of human. Because the willingness to act on environmental protection is formed on the basis of knowledge, understanding about the dialectical relationship between nature - human - civilized society and manifested through respectful action to the ecological environment, in practical activities: apply ecological laws in practical activities, to implement the environmental protection law; carry out a civilized lifestyle, behave friendly with environment, participate in movements and activities of environmental protection of organizations and residence; monitor the manufacturing, business and service activities as well as activities of environmental protection inspection, supervision by specialized officials and competent organizations; contribute ideas to complete the provisions of the law and the by-law documents on environmental protection...

It can be said that ecological culture plays an important role in sustainable development. In fact, if society builds and improves the progressive ecological culture, it will create an important motivation for social development in a sustainable manner. Because ecological culture is a good value expressing the values of "real", "ethical", "beautiful" between human and nature, showing the unity between human and nature in the process of mankind’s development. Ecological culture is considered the standard of the man’s natural conquest. Because values of ecological cultural create an ecologically respectful attitude, “consider the ecological benefits of the ecosystem as the highest value, take the fact that whether it’s useful or not useful for ecosystem protection, completely maintenance, balance, steadiness as the measurement, the highest value to evaluate the social development, economic growth and advancement of science and technology, as well as the lifestyle of mankind” [ 28; 49].

Fourthly, enhancing education to raise awareness of ecological culture is the basis for the of ecological process of social manufaturing. In order to maintain human’s existence, development, he has been and will continue to affect nature through his manufacturing activities - the specific conversion method between humans and nature. With the proper realization that man is a small universe, is an integral part of the unified whole of man, nature and society; at the same time, in order to cope with the disadvantages that threaten the survival and development of the people, the modern world has actively sought and is moving towards a new concept of development: Sustainable Development. One of the most important principles, which is also the most basic goal of the sustainable development strategy, is to conserve and protect the natural ecological environment. This means that people have to carry out the ecological process of social manufacturing. Because, social manufacturing - at any level or stage, always acts as an indispensable means of human and society for existence, but in the present condition it does not allowed to damage the ecological environment. Raising the awareness of ecological culture, the role of ecological culture for the development of society can be considered as a prerequisite, the basis for the ecological process of socialmanufacturing. On the other hand, encouranging ecological cultural education is the basis for the ecological process of all other human activities in social life. In order to ensure the existence and development of human and society, in addition to fulfilling the goal of ecological process, it is necessary to carry out the ecological process for all other human activities in the fields of politics, morality, law, spiritual culture.

In order for ecological activities to perform well the function of providing knowledge, raise the awareness of the relationship between the people and the ecological environment, form love and the model of respectful behavior towards ecological environment, it is nescessary to implement the following solutions:

Firstly, develop education and training in schools, to combine training contents with basic knowledge on ecological environment for human resources to participate in social -economic development. In the scope of the school, ecological cultural education is an aspect of preparation, equipment for each individual, personality of active participation, positively take part in protecting and improving the ecological environment activities which are bearing the humanities of the entire social community. The educational program is linked to the issues of ecological culture, the renovation of the curriculum and teaching contents are associated with the current situation of ecological environment, orienting learners to the awareness of ecology’s movement trend and to the urgent need to address ecological issues that ensure sustainable development. In fact, the development of some countries in the world shows that education is developed, of which the content is associated with the basic knowledge of the ecological environment, the dialectical relationship between people – nature - society. This is an important foundation for a future of green sustainable development. It is because of the awareness, the level of awareness of the human-natural-social relationship that creates creativity in the method of social - economic development of nations from trained human resources. This helps countries address ecological issues.

Secondly, the diversification of forms of ecological cultural education through the propagation equipped for each individual and social community of knowledge on ecological culture to raise the level of awareness of ecological culture, orietating their behaviors and feelings in practical activities. In order to increase the effectiveness of propaganda, we need expand the mass media network, there should be the cooperation of the government and citizens in this activity. Government needs to have satisfactory investment in budget for broadcasting, radio, internet coverage to all regions and areas of the country, publishing books, newspapers, publications... with contents propagating ecological cultural education. In ecological culture propaganda activities, it is necessary to base on the situation, characteristics, culture, customs and habits of local people to effectively propagate activities suitable to each specific objects.

Thirdly, advocacy for building eco-cultural lifestyle among the people is very important. Ecological cultural lifestyle, showing the close link between ecological knowledge, ecological ethics and ecological aesthetics. Ecological cultural life is present in all areas of industrialization and urbanization, from the manufacturing of material goods, business, commerce, services, architecture, infrastructure construction to the daily life activities, entertainment, enjoying the arts. At the same time, the eco-cultural lifestyle has become a custom of every urban dweller, and every industrial worker will have a positive impact on industrial development and urban development towards sustainable development.

3. Conclusion

Thus, ecological culture exhibits Truthfulness - Benevolence – Beauty values in the relationship between man and nature. In the present period, the development of science and technology has made remarkable improvements in human well-being and the habitat has been expanded in many directions, but the ecological environment is badly affected. Mankind is facing the problem of natural resources exhaustion, the problem of pollution of living environment; these annoying issues need to have the cooperation of all nations. "Obviously, the consequences that mankind has to bear upon the natural world's response to us today are not the knowledge, civilization but the moral issue. ecological culture - the brutal treatment of morality, lack of culture of man towards the natural world, regardless of the principle of existence and long-lasting development of the human-nature relationship" [quoted by 13, p. 37]. This poses a pressing need for nations to move toward sustainable development as a key development philosophy. In that development strategy, enhancing the activities of ecological culture education and building ecological culture is the basis for the conscious control of the relationship between humans and ecological environment to ecologize social manufacturing and other human activities for the sake of sustainable development.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the University of Economics and Business Administration - Thai Nguyen University for funding to help me post the research in the journal.

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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Duong Thi Huong and Ngo Thi Tan Huong

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Duong Thi Huong, Ngo Thi Tan Huong. Ecological Culture and Educational Issue of Ecological Culture – Motivation for the Human Development. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 6, No. 6, 2018, pp 694-702. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/6/6/17
MLA Style
Huong, Duong Thi, and Ngo Thi Tan Huong. "Ecological Culture and Educational Issue of Ecological Culture – Motivation for the Human Development." American Journal of Educational Research 6.6 (2018): 694-702.
APA Style
Huong, D. T. , & Huong, N. T. T. (2018). Ecological Culture and Educational Issue of Ecological Culture – Motivation for the Human Development. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(6), 694-702.
Chicago Style
Huong, Duong Thi, and Ngo Thi Tan Huong. "Ecological Culture and Educational Issue of Ecological Culture – Motivation for the Human Development." American Journal of Educational Research 6, no. 6 (2018): 694-702.
Share
[1]  Steven Pollock (2000), Next Generation Knowledge Booklet, Volume 1: Concepts of Ecology, Ecosystem, Mai The Trung (Translator), Hanoi.
In article      
 
[2]  Julian H.Steward 1955, Theory of Culture Change: The Methodology ò Multilinear Evolution, Source; http://www.as.ua.edu/ant/cultures/cultures.php.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  A.A.RaDuGhin (2004), Conrad P.Kottak (1999), “The New Ecological Anthropology.” American Anthropologist. New Series. Vol. 101, No 1, 23-35.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Conrad P.Kottak (1999), “The New Ecological Anthropology.” American Anthropologist. New Series. Vol. 101. No 1, 23-35.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Tomoya Akimichi (root), (2006), Nhân học sinh thái (Ecological Anthropology) (Doãn Thiệu Đình translates), Van Nam University Press, China.
In article      
 
[6]  Georges Olivier (1992), Sinh thái nhân văn (Human Ecology), World Publisher, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[7]  A.A. Belik (2000), Cultural Studies - Theory of Cultural Anthropology, Cultural Arts Magazine, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[8]  http://isponre.gov.vn/home/dien-dan/477-kinh-te-hoc-ben-vung-mot-tu-duy-kinh-te-moi-dinh-huong-cho-phat-trien-ben-vung-trong-the-ky-21. Friday, April 16 2010 11:31.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Tran Le Bao (2001), Ecological Culture - Humanities, Culture and Information Publishing House.
In article      
 
[10]  Vi Thai Lang, Tran Thi Hong Loan (2016), On ecological culture and sustainable development in our country today, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[11]  Pham Thi Oanh (2013), Human-Nature Relations and Sustainable Development in Vietnam, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[12]  Ho Si Quy (2000), The relationship between human and nature in social development, Social Science Publishing House, Hanoi
In article      PubMed
 
[13]  Luong Viet Hai, I.K. Lixiev (2008), Social and Ecological Modernization, Social Science Publishing House.
In article      
 
[14]  Nguyen Van Huyen (2013), “Current ecological culture issues”, Vietnam Journal of Social Sciences, 11 (72), 87-96.
In article      
 
[15]  Tran Thi Hong Loan (2011), “On the relationship between ecological culture and sustainable development”, Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 7 (242), 71-76.
In article      
 
[16]  Tran Thi Hong Loan (2002), “Some issues of ecological culture in the Northern mountainous area in our country”, Journal of Philosophy, Vol. (5), 58-61.
In article      
 
[17]  Pham Thi Ngoc Tram (2003), “Ho Chi Minh values of ecological culture and humanities”, Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 12, pp.14-19.
In article      
 
[18]  Pham Thi Ngoc Tram (2001), “The traditional ecological cultural values of Vietnam in the face of globalization”, Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 7 (125), pp. 17-20.
In article      
 
[19]  Pham Thanh Nghi (2008), Ecological Culture and Sustainable Development in Communities, Journal of Sustainable Development Studies, Vol.1 (18), pp.46-50.
In article      
 
[20]  Vu Minh Tam (2006), “Ecological culture - humanities and the system of nature - human - society”, Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 6, pp.33-37.
In article      
 
[21]  Trinh Thi Nghia (2012), “Marxist philosophy on the relationship between human and Nature”, Journal of Science & Technology, Thai Nguyen University, Vol. 91 (03), p.133-138.
In article      
 
[22]  Lau Van Thanh (2016), “Protecting the Ecological Environment from the Marxist-Leninist Philosophy”, Journal of Social Sciences in Central Vietnam, Vol. 2 (40), p. 69-76.
In article      
 
[23]  Pham Thi Ngoc Tram (2001), “Urbanization in Vietnam and the problem of building an eco-cultural lifestyle”, Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 4 (122), p.52.
In article      
 
[24]  Pham Thi Ngoc Tram (2002), “The problem of building ecological ethics in a market economy,” Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 12, pp.14-19.
In article      
 
[25]  Pham Thi Ngoc Tram (2004) “On the philosophical-social approach to the human ecological environment in Vietnam: issues, causes and solutions”, Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 6, p. 23-31.
In article      
 
[26]  Pham Thi Hoan (2016), “Cultural behavior towards the natural environment through theoretical and methodological arguments of ecological anthropology”, Journal of Social Sciences in Central Vietnam, Vol. 3 (41), p. 36-43.
In article      
 
[27]  Vu Minh Tam (2000), “Culture of ecological environment - humanities and personality education”, Vietnam Journal of Education, Vol. 21, p.4-5.
In article      
 
[28]  Do Van Hieu (2012), Ecological critique - Innovative literary research trends, Vietnam Journal of Science & Technology Development, Vol. 15, No.X2, p. 48-53.
In article      
 
[29]  Nguyen Trong Chuan (1992), “Economic growth and the necessary guarantees to preserve the environment for sustainable development”, Vietnam Journal of Philosophy Vol. 4, p.12-16.
In article      
 
[30]  Tran Thi Hong Loan (2008), “Ecological environment in mountainous areas under the influence of market economy”, Journal of Ethnicity, (89), p.13-15.
In article      
 
[31]  Ho Si Quy (1999), Studying about the culture and civilization, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi.
In article      PubMed
 
[32]  Dictionary of Philosophy (1986), Truth Publishing House, Hanoi
In article      
 
[33]  Marx and Engels (1994), Collected Works, Vol. 20, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[34]  Huynh Quoc Thang (2011), “River, sea ecological culture and tourism in Cuu Long River Delta” Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 9, 42.
In article      
 
[35]  Vu Minh Tam (2000), “Culture of Ecological Environment - Humanities and Personality Education”, Vietnam Journal of Education, 21, 4-5.
In article      
 
[36]  Marx and Engels (2000), Collected Works, Vol. 42, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[37]  Marx and Engels (2000), Collected Works, Vol. 20, National Political Publishing House, 652.
In article      
 
[38]  Greg Garad (2004), Ecocriticism, Abingdon, Routl, 14.
In article      
 
[39]  Cheryll Cglotfelty, Harold Fromm(ed), The historical Roots of our ecologic critis (1996), The Ecocriticism reader, Landmarks in literary Ecology, Athens, The university of Georgia Press.
In article      View Article
 
[40]  Pham Thi Ngoc Tram (1997), Ecological Environment - Problems and Solutions, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi.
In article      
 
[41]  http://vtv.vn/the-gioi/99-rac-thai-tai-thuy-dien-duoc-tai-che-nhu-the-nao-20180321095557551.htm. Wednesday, March 21 2018 11:39 GMT+7.
In article      View Article
 
[42]  http://www.ashui.com/mag/congnghe/xuhuong/9696-kien-truc-xanh-va-xu-huong-the-gioi.html. SATURDAY, JANUARY 04 2014 02:40 CONSTRUCTION NEWSPAPER.
In article      View Article
 
[43]  The Socialist Republic of Vietnam (2012), Implementation of Sustainable Development in Viet Nam, National Report at the summit conference of United Nations on sustainable development (RIO+20), Hanoi (5/2012).
In article