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Research Article
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Application of Performance Assessment in Competence Learning and Test in Beauty Program Vocational School, SMKN 3 Bogor

Emy Indaryani, Hartati Muchtar, Diana Nomida Musnir
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(10), 1372-1378. DOI: 10.12691/education-6-10-6
Received August 17, 2018; Revised September 19, 2018; Accepted October 18, 2018

Abstract

This study aims to reveal the importance of implementing of performance assessments in Vocational School of Skin Beauty Skills competencies to improve the qualifications of graduates with professional certification. The research method used is qualitative research. Data obtained through student learning documents, and learning theory and practice of facial skin care and focus group discussion performance assessment in the learning process. The results of the study show that it is true and proven that the application of the performance assessment system carried out in the Learning Process of competency in treating facial skin is not problematic in vocational students in the Skin Beauty program, the achievement of competency learning is fulfilled. In the Competency Test to treat facial skin is not a problem for students Skin Beauty program conducted by the beauty professional certification body beauty, students can pass well and the results can improve the quality of these SMK graduates so that they obtain professional certification from National Professional Certification Agency.

1. Introduction

The National Education Program is further elaborated in the Strategic Plan of the Ministry of National Education with the formulation of the National Education Vision, namely Building Intelligent and Competitive Indonesian People. To achieve this vision and mission, the Ministry of Education launched the Three Pillars of general policy on national education development, namely as follows: (1) Increasing equity and expanding access to education, (2) Improving quality, relevance and competitiveness of education, and (3) Strengthening management, accountability, and public image of education management. The implication is that policies and program development for all elements in the national education system must describe the three pillars according to the type and level of education. Referring to article 15 of the Indonesian Education System Law No. 20 of 2003, this type of education includes general, vocational, academic, professional, vocational, religious and special education.

The type of education that is the orientation of the discussion in this study is specific to Vocational Education. Puyate says that for the vocational programs to be fully implemented, students as stakeholders have to be made aware of such programs and their importance; they must become interested in practical skills‐oriented lectures, and cognitive skills at the same time ( 1: 69).

Vocational Education is secondary education in the form of Vocational High Schools (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan/SMK) or Vocational Madrasah Aliyah (Madrasah Aliyah Kejuruan/MAK) which prepares students especially to work in certain fields. are schools in secondary education that specifically prepare their students to be skilled, ready to work, adaptable to the environment and change, and able to develop themselves according to the needs of the workforce.

SMK as one of the education levels is expected to prepare graduates quality too. For this reason, in their education, vocational students are equipped with knowledge, attitude, skills and life skills that are useful for himself and the community. In order to provide life skills, vocational schools work with the business world / industrial world as a partner institution.

After attending education at a vocational school, armed with knowledge, attitude, and skills in their fields, SMK graduates are expected to be able to choose various channels life. Realizing this, the role of vocational schools is truly education a terminal that connects various dimensions of interest, both government, community, and graduates themselves.

2. Teorical Framework

2.1. Vocational Education

The term vocational education is general and includes every form of education that aims to the acquirement of qualifications related to a certain profession, art or employment or that provides the necessary training and the appropriate skills as well as technical knowledge, so that students are able to exercise a profession, art or activity, independently of their age and their training level, even if the training program contains also elements of general education 2. Principles of vocational education are defined as generalizations that state a preferred practice and serve as guidelines for program and curriculum construction, evaluation, selection of instructional practices, and policy development 3.

A course of study that counts as vocational education in one country may be a part of higher education in another, and it may be entirely absent in a third country because the proffesional domains and hierarchies are organised differently, but also takes place in different parts of educational system 4. Guo & Lamb says that vocational educatiob which refers to the formal vocational education and training provided by vocational schools and training centress established bt trade administrative bodies, trade organizations and their subordinate enterprises 5.

Creating high-level specialists is a continuous process, which shouldn’t end with a diploma of basic vocational education and demands of an employee to participate in further educational programs on either behalf of his or her employer or at his or her own expense 6.

Technical and vocational educations are one of those ways by which a skillfully trained and graduated person becomes ready to commit and enter any related business. To help the efficiency and empowerment of technical and vocational educations has various dimensions among which internal and external function can be pointed out 7.

Martins et all says that the vocational education and curriculum differentiation as a strategy to reduce the school early leaving and to the acquisition of the relevant skills needed in this “knowledge society” 8. Vocational education, has, therefore, been thought of as a “wise business investment” both for nation and the individual. Vocational education in its broadest where sense pertains to all occupations and all people 9.

Vocational Education and Training (VET) is organized around a principle of dual education where the apprentices alternate between a vocational school and training place in a company or firm. Thus the provision of a sufficient number of training places is the main precondition for the success of the system 10. The growth of the number of people with secondary vocational education, the improvement of the level of economic development of the region, and the increase of the share of the employed in the manufacturing sector help reduce the rate of youth unemployment 11. Vocational education in a changing world is undergoing a particular process of transition encompassing policies, practices and concepts. Certaninly, such transition processes do not happen whitout human intervention 12. The bottom line is that vocational education is responsible for the basic skills in the work place. More improtantly, humas need more education, especially vocational education for work 13.

2.2. Assessment

Assessment in education must, first and foremost, serve the purpose of supporting learning. So it is fitting to start a study assessment with an exploration of the meaning and practices od assessment which serve this purpose most directly 14. Assessment exist to promote learning and to inform others about what has been successfully learned 15. William says that the word “assessment” was used primarily to describe processes of evaluating the effectiveness of sequences of instructional activities when the sequence was completed 16. Assessment is vital to the education process. In schools, the most visible assessments are summative. Summative assessments are used to measure what students have learnt at the end of a unit, to promote students, to ensure they have met required standards on the way to earning certification for school completion or to enter certain occupations, or as a method for selecting students for entry into further education 17.

Assessment as part of classroom activities is a fundamental process required to promote learning and ultimately achievement 18. Consequently, evaluation takes on different characteristics and is interpreted differently in formative versus summative situations. This distinction was soon applied to the assessment of students. Specifically, formative assessment was defined as occurring while knowledge is being learned. Sumative assessment was defined as occurring at the end of a learning episode—for example, at the end of a course 19. The diversity of assessment methods utilized is broad. The range includes the preparation of student profiles and portfolios, structured teacher ratings of student capabilities demonstrated in the course of regular classroom work, evaluated student projects, and even organized competitive events 20. Furtermore, Oz says assessment approach associated with constructivism, with numerous terms used almost interchangeably to mean similar practices and procedures, including terms such as formative assessment, teacher-based assessment, classroom-based assessment, school-based assessment, dynamic assessment, and alternative assessment 21.

The term performance is used to refer to knowledge or skill aquired through instruction or study as well as the process of acquiring knowledge or skill through instruction or study. The term performance is used to refer to things accomplishment of things (process) 22. Assessment data are systematically collected concerning the student’s interests, aptitudes, special needs, learning styles, work habits and behavior, personal and social skills, values and attitudes toward work, and work tolerance 23. Three recurring emphases in the literature on assessment for enhancing learning are (a) clarity in illuminating standards that may articulate the gap between what was achieved and what can be gained, (b) the importance of assessment design in prompting and sustaining students’ desired learning, and (c) giving students feedback that enables them to improve their learning 24. The significance and the value of the adoption of alternative forms of assessment, such as student self-evaluation and portfolio assessment have been described. One of the central aims in education is the enhancement of students' abilities as learners. The assessment approaches therefore need to support this aim. Teachers need to be aware of the interrelationship of pedagogy, assessment and the curriculum. They need to change their teaching practice accordingly in the adoption of alternative assessment approaches 25.

Any assessment strategy that aims to be inclusive should deploy a variety of methods for assessment (for example written assignments, presentations, reflective accounts and so on), so that the same students are not always disadvantaged. All participants need to be provided with equivalent opportunities to demonstrate their abilities and maximize their potential 26.

2.3. Competency

The measurement of student performance is a complex process and will generate throught provoking and controversial disscussion. Other believ that since education is a state fuction, the state should be responsible for measuring, assessing, and certifyng possession of competencies 27. Competency as a knowledge, skill or attitude that enables one to effectively perform the activity of a given occupation or function to the standards ecpected in emplyment 28. Competency also called dimensions, a group of behaviors that are specific, observable and verifiable, that can be reliably and logically classified together and that are related to job success. Competency areas have both a little and a definition. The little identifies the broad category of the competency and the definition lists knowledge, skills, and abilities of other aspects of character or performance required to be competent 29.

The term “competency” has not been clearly defined in the literature. Two main meanings of the term have been identified, one referring to the outputs, or results of training – that is, competent performance 30. Competency assessment system is made up of levels with performance indicators and assessor guidance on interpreting the indicators, and a suite of assessment tools including assessment plans, evidence-gathering templates, skills matrices for recording the summary outcome of all assessments, and categorisation flowcharts to help allocate work 31. Furthermore, Wright says that competency assessment is a way to articulate the ever changing expectations of the job and the organizational vision 32. Competency assessment and the first wave of report to management usually signal the departure of the consultans the conclusion of the project 33. Often, individual competencies are developed through experiences, circumstances, environment, and to an extent, chance 34.

3. Method of Research

This research using a qualitative method because is one method of research that offers design exploratory research aiming. Unlike the design of experimental research for example on the design of qualitative research investigators did not starts from a certain frame of mind, but let the natural setting of research / as they are and seeks to understand the phenomenon that is by putting yourself in the object being studied (empathy) 35.

This study aims to describe the application of performance assessments in the learning process of skin beauty program students in Vocational High Schools, describing the application of performance assessments in the competency test of students of skin beauty programs in vocational schools conducted by the association of beauty experts from the Beauty Professional Certification Institute, and knowing the impact of application performance assessment on the learning process and competency tests on the results of recommendations for professional competency certification for students in vocational schools, which are recognized nationally and cross-sectorally as professional workers from the National Professional Certification Agency. Therefore, as is usual in the step of scientific research conducted by researchers is to explore (exploration) of the object under investigation. Data is collected from an experienced background (natural setting) as a data source directly. The meaning of data can only be done if the depth is obtained from the facts obtained. This approach is determined by observing the phenomena observed by the subject of the conceptual world through actions and thoughts to understand the meanings compiled by the subject around everyday events 36.

Field research was conducted on 4 Vocational Schools selected based on purposive sampling with certain criteria in the period from July to December 2012. In this study the location was determined by the following criteria: Vocational School that opened a skin beauty program, at least 2 teachers who had been certified as competency assessors beauty, the practice room meets the criteria as a place for competency testing, vocational schools are able to provide competency certification budget for students, vocational schools include locations in the provincial and city / district capital regions.

This study uses multiple case study methods because all elements in the research focus are related. There are three phases of activity namely research design, single case data collection and analysis, and cross case data analysis.

4. Result of Research

This study begins with a document study to determine the sample, which is first looking for data on how many Vocational Schools open the Beauty Management field in Indonesia, secondly determining how many Vocational Schools in the Beauty Management field meet the criteria in this study. Furthermore, the researchers contacted Vocational Schools that met the criteria in this study to request their availability as research samples. In this study, to determine vocational school as a research location, researchers used purposive sampling method. Determination of research locations based on the following criteria: (1) Having a teacher with the following criteria: the number of teachers in the field of beauty at least 2 teachers in each class, teachers with an undergraduate education background in the field of beauty expertise of at least two people each vocational school, teachers have minimal teaching experience 3 years in the field of beauty, the teacher has a certificate as a competency assessor of at least 2 people in each vocational school, (2) the school facilities that must be available are: theory study rooms, practice rooms, cosmetics / practical materials, and standard practice tools, (3) The infrastructure in question is: schools have easy access to public transport vehicles or private vehicles, schools have adequate electricity facilities, schools have clean water and dirty water sources and channels, and schools have communication facilities (telephone, iphone) and internet networks .

Focus I: Description of the Application of Performance Assessment on Document Data Learning Process at SMK 3 Bogor

The learning process document data reviewed in this study are grouped as document data derived from teachers and documents produced by students in the learning process.

1) Findings of Learning Document Data for Teachers of SMK 3 Bogor

a). Learning Process Draft (RPP)

Teachers of SMK 3 Bogor have prepared learning documents within one semester.

b). Teaching material or Reference.

Teachers of SMK 3 Bogor have used teaching materials or references which include display material in the form of presentation texts and various forms of poster images. While the references used are text books published by the Directorate of Vocational Education, and modules obtained by teachers from the Beauty Teacher training training from PPPPTK Business and Tourism, as well as several textbooks published by national publishers and several references from magazines.

c). Practical tools and materials.

The practical tools that will be needed for learning have been arranged in packages to be used in every learning activity by the teacher of SMK 3 Bogor when demonstrating work procedures. While the practice material has been planned and prepared by the team at the beginning of the semester and its use must be through the application of each practice according to the type of practice and number of students.

d). Job sheet.

Job sheet format that contains procedures for practice activities, and is distributed to students in accordance with the competencies practiced.

2) Findings of Learning Documents for Students of SMK 3 Bogor.

Learning documents prepared by students of SMK 3 Bogor are documents that are useful as evidence of learning, namely in the form of Job sheets, Porto folios, and Project work on the competence to treat facial skin without problems manually.

Job sheet

A collection of job sheet students from SMKN 3 Bogor is a series of practical activities in the classroom under the supervision of the teacher. Student job sheets contain a plan for a series of practical activities ranging from preparation of tools, materials and cosmetics, implementation steps, and post-practice packaging.

In making student job sheets, the teacher has helped shape the performance pattern so that students just add the variants used in relation to the type of equipment used to treat the face and the type of facial care cosmetics, as well as the size and method of application. Thus the job sheet of students of SMKN 3 Bogor is in accordance with the rules of mastery of competence in this study, only the student job sheet is still made in handwriting. The teacher has commented on the student's job sheet, and if there are performance criteria that have not been implemented then given a sign for further improvement or training.

Portopolio

A portfolio of practical tasks for students of SMK 3 Bogor in the form of a collection of practical work reports at school, at an internship place. In Porto folio students of SMK 3 Bogor also included evidence of student involvement in various practical activities related to the application of competencies in the form of certificates or certificates.

Project work.

Project work of students of SMK 3 Bogor is in the form of a final assignment given by the teacher which is related to the application of the business concept as a business in the skin beauty services industry.

In carrying out this task students of SMK 3 Bogor, in groups of 2 to 3 people, and are targeted to carry out care services at least 5 times. Students are first directed to make business proposals that take into account capital and selling prices or profit targets. Each group worked on the concept of a beauty service business with a duration of two weeks. Reports Project business results are delivered in class by each group. On average the group gets three people, only one group gets customers up to 6 to 7 people. As a reward for the group that gets the most customers, the teacher gives awards in the form of congratulations from the teacher and friends. Project service business capital is from the teacher, it must be returned to the teacher, after being calculated, 30% is a service for students.

3) Findings of Observation Data on Learning Process at SMK 3 Bogor.

Technically, the observation of the learning process is done through the replay of the learning video with the consideration that the teacher in charge of teaching can watch to do self-reflection. Other teachers are asked to observe the learning process that has been carried out by one of their colleagues and prepare to provide input to peer teachers as part of a constructive criticism process.

The description of the findings data from the observation of the sub focus of learning at SMK 3 Bogor was conducted on theoretical learning and practical learning as follows:

Data Findings from Observation of Theory Learning at SMKN 3 Bogor

Based on video recordings, it appears that the theory learning process is carried out in the SMKN 3 Bogor practice room. The teacher prepares the tools, cosmetics that are arranged according to the order of use and subject matter to be explained. The teacher conditions the class by praying first. Then open with greetings to begin learning. Then the teacher presented the subject matter with the demonstration method. Students sit freely on the floor watching the teacher's explanation. Students are welcome to ask if something is still unclear or not understood.

From the table above it can be described that in the 135 minute time allocation, the average observations of the four observers: the average time allocated for activities by the teacher was 78.75 minutes, the allocation of student activity time averaged 31 minutes and the time allocation for silence in class created an average of 25.25 minutes.

Teacher activities include:

Activity 1, in acknowledging the element of 4.25 minutes, this indicates that the teacher has not been responsive in giving recognition of the students' performance or knowledge in verbal learning.

In activity 2, encouraging, that is to motivate students in learning the allocation of time used 6.25. minute.

Activity 3, accepting, in this case the teacher accepts proposals, opinions or comments from students in the learning process, the teacher allocates 7.25 minutes

Activity 4, asked, was an activity to confirm to students the material presented, the teacher allocated 8.25 minutes.

Activity 5, explained, the teacher needed 19 minutes to deliver the introductory material using the power point impressions.

Activity 6, giving instructions, allocated time 13.75, the teacher gives additional information when students ask.

Activity 7, time allocation of 15 minutes. In this case the teacher demonstrates practice procedures that are considered unclear for students after viewing the video show.

Activity 8, shows authority, the teacher takes 5 minutes. Teacher activities to admonish students who are not cooperative or interfere with the learning process, or students take harmful actions.

While Student Activities include:

Activity 1, reacting to the average individual observer seeing the reaction of students is 14 minutes. This reaction is in the form of asking, giving opinions, choosing and identifying practice tools.

Activity 2, reacting the group requires 9.75 minutes.

Activity 3, for students is an individual initiative allocated 7.25 minutes, shown to some students who actively form the preparatory working group. Silence practice is no physical activity of the teacher and students, this position is quiet classrooms because the teacher and students are watching the process of taking care of the surrounding face 25.25 minutes

Findings of data from observations of practical learning:

The implementation of practical and theoretical learning has a span of one week, therefore students are expected to be able to solidify the understanding of the theoretical material that they have acquired and practice caring skills before practicing at school. Students get the APL 02 format from LSP-BNSP which contains assessment criteria for taking care of faces that must be mastered, and must fill in the check list form as a self assessment process. This process is to implement the principles at the fair performance assessment. The following table is a summary of the results of observations of the activities of teachers and students in learning the practice of competency in treating facial skin without problems manually with an allocation of learning time of 135 minutes.

From Table 2, it can be described that in the 135 minute time allocation, the average results of the four observers' observations were for the allocation of activities carried out by the teacher by 44 minutes (32.6%), and for the allocation of student activity time by 91 minutes (67.4%). This indicates that in the process of learning the practice of competency to take care of facial skin without problems manually in SMK 3 Bogor, the teacher's function is more at facilitating students' practice, student activities appear more active by comparison.

There are 6 elements of performance from the competency of taking care of the face, not having problems manually, which must be mastered by students in the practical learning process at SMK 3 Bogor, namely the elements of preparation, customer consultation, skin analysis, skin care, advice and advice, and packing up work tools.

5. Discussions

The results of the study show that it is true and proven that the application of the performance assessment system carried out in the Learning Process of competency in treating facial skin is not problematic in vocational students in the Skin Beauty program in four locations, the achievement of competency learning is fulfilled. In the Competency Test to treat facial skin is not a problem for students Skin Beauty program in 4 Vocational research locations conducted by the beauty professional certification body (LSP) beauty, students can pass well and the results can improve the quality of these SMK graduates so that they obtain professional certification from National Professional Certification Agency.

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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Emy Indaryani, Hartati Muchtar and Diana Nomida Musnir

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Cite this article:

Normal Style
Emy Indaryani, Hartati Muchtar, Diana Nomida Musnir. Application of Performance Assessment in Competence Learning and Test in Beauty Program Vocational School, SMKN 3 Bogor. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 6, No. 10, 2018, pp 1372-1378. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/6/10/6
MLA Style
Indaryani, Emy, Hartati Muchtar, and Diana Nomida Musnir. "Application of Performance Assessment in Competence Learning and Test in Beauty Program Vocational School, SMKN 3 Bogor." American Journal of Educational Research 6.10 (2018): 1372-1378.
APA Style
Indaryani, E. , Muchtar, H. , & Musnir, D. N. (2018). Application of Performance Assessment in Competence Learning and Test in Beauty Program Vocational School, SMKN 3 Bogor. American Journal of Educational Research, 6(10), 1372-1378.
Chicago Style
Indaryani, Emy, Hartati Muchtar, and Diana Nomida Musnir. "Application of Performance Assessment in Competence Learning and Test in Beauty Program Vocational School, SMKN 3 Bogor." American Journal of Educational Research 6, no. 10 (2018): 1372-1378.
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[1]  Puyate, Suobere T. Constraints to the effective implementation of vocational education program in private secondary schools in Port Harcourt local government Area. Asia‐Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 2008, 9 (1), 59‐71.
In article      
 
[2]  Kotsikis, V. Educational Administration and Policy. Athens: Ellin. 2007.
In article      
 
[3]  Miller, Melvin D. Principles and a Philosophy for Vocational Education. Special Publication Series No. 48. Washington: Eric. 1984.
In article      
 
[4]  Lauterbach, Uwe. Handbook of Technical and Vocational Education and Training Research. London: Springer. 2015.
In article      
 
[5]  Guo, Zhenyi. Lamb, Stephen. International Comparisons of China’s Technical and Vocational Education and Training System. London: Springer. 2010.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Rudenko, Dmitry. Morosova, Elena. Prospects for the Development of Further Vocational Education in the Tyumen Region of Russia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 214 ( 2015 ) 693-699.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Behroozi, Mohammad. A Survey About The Function Of Technical And Vocational Education: An Empirical Study In Bushehr City. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 143 ( 2014 ) 265-269.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Martins, D. Carvalho, C. Pacheo, J. Curriculum Differentiation: A Study with Institutionalized Young's Attending Vocational Education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 174 (2015) 2590-2595.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Rashtriya, Tarun. Vocational Education. New Delhi: APH Publishing Corporation. 2008.
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