Management of Teaching Staff for Quality Education Delivery in Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nige...

Eucharia Nneka Iloabuchi, Nath. M. Abraham, Sunday T. Afangideh

American Journal of Educational Research

Management of Teaching Staff for Quality Education Delivery in Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria

Eucharia Nneka Iloabuchi1,, Nath. M. Abraham1, Sunday T. Afangideh1

1Department of Educational Management, University of Port Harcourt, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Abstract

This study examined the management of teaching staff for quality education delivery in secondary schools in Abia State, Nigeria. Three (3) research questions and three (3) hypotheses were answered and tested in the study which adopted the descriptive survey as the working design. The population of this study comprised the 222 public secondary schools in Abia State with 222 principals and 118 supervisors from the Secondary Education Management Board from where a sample of 270 participants was drawn using the proportionate stratified random sampling technique. Respondents of the study responded to a validated instrument titled ‘Managing Teaching Staff Scale’ (MTSS) with a reliability index of 0.77 designed by the researchers in the modified 4-point Likert scale model. Mean, standard deviation and aggregate mean were used in answering the research questions, while z-test was used in testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study show among others that the various ways of motivating teaching staff for quality education delivery are that good condition of service among teachers motivates them to teach effectively, teachers make learning so interesting when they are regularly motivated by administrators, non-monetary motivations make teachers to be active in classroom activities, respect for teachers by administrative staff creates warm relationship among them for effective classroom instruction in schools, and motivation of teachers helps to control their classroom instructions for improved students’ academic performance. Based on the findings, the researchers recommended that school administrators and supervisors should adopt appropriate administrative strategies to countermand the negative effects of the challenges in school management to ensure effective service delivery.

Cite this article:

  • Eucharia Nneka Iloabuchi, Nath. M. Abraham, Sunday T. Afangideh. Management of Teaching Staff for Quality Education Delivery in Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 4, No. 8, 2016, pp 617-623. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/4/8/7
  • Iloabuchi, Eucharia Nneka, Nath. M. Abraham, and Sunday T. Afangideh. "Management of Teaching Staff for Quality Education Delivery in Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria." American Journal of Educational Research 4.8 (2016): 617-623.
  • Iloabuchi, E. N. , Abraham, N. M. , & Afangideh, S. T. (2016). Management of Teaching Staff for Quality Education Delivery in Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research, 4(8), 617-623.
  • Iloabuchi, Eucharia Nneka, Nath. M. Abraham, and Sunday T. Afangideh. "Management of Teaching Staff for Quality Education Delivery in Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria." American Journal of Educational Research 4, no. 8 (2016): 617-623.

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1. Introduction

A teaching staff is one who guides others in gaining knowledge, skills and abilities that are necessary for possible adjustments in the society for future development. The teacher facilitates the acquisition of desirable knowledge and skills and inculcates societally acceptable attitudes into the learners for present and future development (Madumere-Obike, Nwabueze & Ukala, [1]). This may explain why teachers are regarded as the most influential people in the lives of the children (facilitators) and society at large. A teacher is a trained person employed to facilitate learning in classroom situation in order to achieve set educational goals. The teacher imparts knowledge to the students and helps them acquire certain skills, attitude, and creates desirable changes in the behaviour of the students. Good teachers possess unique qualities including a passion for their subjects and the ability to transfer into the learners, a sound knowledge, excellent communication and interpersonal skills for social and economic growth of a nation (Afangideh, [2]). A good teacher does more than teaching by contributing to the general academic, emotional, research development, economic and cultural development of learners. Teaching involves facilitating, articulating and engineering the minds and attitudes of learners for socio-economic development and national building.

Teacher performance management therefore, is a continuous process for identifying, evaluating and developing the work performance of the teachers so that the goals and objectives of the school are more effectively achieved, while at the same time benefiting teachers in terms of professional development and career guidance. Hence, teaching staff management comprises the effective use of human resources in the educational institution through proper management of people related activities. Emphasizing on the importance of teacher management in increasing the effectiveness of secondary schools, the teacher facilitates personal and professional development for individuals and groups, enabling them to achieve their potentials and contribute to the provision of excellence in teaching and research development. Therefore, secondary educational institutions should put in place appropriate teacher management strategies to support all staff and encourage their involvements in the development and implementation of secondary school policies and guidelines for national development. This is because effective staff management is essential to the new approaches and strategies of teaching and learning as well as meeting the changing needs of institutions.

Ways of motivating teaching staff for quality education delivery

Motivation is associated with teacher productivity. It is a process by which people are equally managed to satisfy their basic drives, perceived needs and personal goals, which trigger off human behaviour and personal development. Motivation may also be seen as the willingness to exert high levels of efforts towards organizational goals conditioned by the efforts to satisfy some individual and societal needs. In the field of education, motivation is a management function that stimulates staff to accomplish laid down institutional goals for sustainable development. It is purposive, designated and goal-oriented as well as involves certain forces acting on the academic staff in order to initiate, sustain and direct their teaching activities through research development. Motivation of academic staff is a strategic force that would reduce tension, stress, worries and frustration arising from the academic environment for quality service delivery. Also, this enhances teaching staff functions for effective curriculum implementation in secondary schools.

Iyeke [3] sees motivation as a management function that stimulates individuals to accomplish laid down institutional goals. It is no wonder, scholars see it as the process of instigating and sustaining goal directed behaviour (Pintrich & Schunk, [4]). Bahago [5] supports this claim by noting that it is a purposely designated goal-oriented behaviour that involves certain forces acting on or within the individual in order to initiate, sustain or direct behaviour. It is an explanatory concept that helps us understand why people behave as they do (Schunk, [6]).

Ways supervision of teachers’ classroom activities enhance quality education delivery

Classroom supervision is a process by which a supervisor organizes to visit a school to watch teachers and students in action (Nwaogu, [7]). This suggests that it is a procedure by which the educational leader who possesses wisdom and vision can be of great assistance in aiding the teacher improve both his instructional techniques and the learning of the students. According to Madumere-Obike [8], the supervisor or principal arranges to visit a class in session which may or may not be announced. Ogunsaju [9] opines that emphasis is laid on classroom visitation or observation because it throws new light upon the quality of the learning experience present in a teaching situation. Moreso, with the increase in number of new and inexperienced teachers who must impact the knowledge in the curriculum to those whom they are meant for there is need for supervision. In the views of Ezeocha [10], supervision can contribute as much to the growth of the school as it does to the growth of the teacher. Igwe [11] states that the teacher will be furnished with an opportunity to study the principles and methods of instruction to improve his knowledge for successful classroom method and management. The scholar added that it will also offer the supervisor an opportunity to study the effects of the supervisory activities and furnishes him with a basis for evaluating many aspects of the general programme of the school for improvements in the school by means of observing their influence upon actual class work.

Supervision gives recognition to the teachers and creates a cordial working atmosphere based on good human relations (Peretomode, [12]). It creates a safe environment in which the teacher can work through the developmental challenges of the teaching/learning process in order to gain the necessary motivation, autonomy and self-awareness to successfully move to the next level of development (Pierce, [13]). The scholar furthers that this leads to a greater sense of self-confidence in teachers’ ability to both understand and complete the responsibilities of their job.

Supervision helps teachers in terms of self-discovery, particularly in the area of improvisation and the use of modern teaching materials as a basis for improving teaching strategies. Supervisors help teachers by introducing them to a variety of audio and visual materials that help to facilitate good teaching (Peretomode, [14]). Supervisors are expected to demonstrate a professional orientation characterized by technical competence and expertise, desire for autonomy in decision making based on their knowledge and a colleague-oriented reference group. Supervision therefore, is tailored towards ensuring that the general guidelines as provided in the curriculum are followed by the teachers. It strives to utilize the talents and strengths of all.

Challenges in Managing teachers

Mpokosa [15] presents the challenges to effective teacher management as weak management systems and decision-making, weak management systems for the recruitment and deployment of teachers and administrators, tight fiscal management policies, insufficient or inappropriate management of workforce skills, poor or ineffective systems of development, supervision, monitoring and evaluation of workforce skills are in operation, poor working conditions and salaries of teachers, supporting roles of administrative staff, and limited capacity as well as quality of instruction of teacher training institutions. Similarly, at secondary school level, where teacher managers are poorly trained and prepared for management responsibilities, teaching staff may not be efficiently managed to ensure punctuality, good quality teaching and learning as well as the provision of an appropriate level of Continuing Professional Development (CPD).

Balogun [16] reports that a number of factors tend to influence the management of teaching staff for effective job performance in schools. These include training and manpower development, employment policy and conditions, supervisory problems, environmental management, external environmental factors, and recruitment policies/practices. This therefore suggests that weak management systems and decision-making, tight fiscal management policies, and insufficient or inappropriate management of workforce skills constitute serious challenges to the strategic ways of managing teachers.

Giwa and Illo [17] identify the challenges of teacher management as shortage of manpower and quality of the personnel available for the work. The scholars belief that in most African countries, the roles of inspectors tend to be ineffective due to severe resources constraints. In the findings, they found out that the number of inspectors and monitoring officers who are newly employed with no practical experience on the job are being posted to the Inspectorate Unit of the Ministry of Education. This must have informed their comments that to inspect and supervise schools effectively requires regular school visits of well experienced officers with adequate provision of resources to forestall ineffectiveness in performing their duties. It is no wonder, Nakpodia [18] lists the challenges of teacher management to include poor supervision and inspection, inadequate staff training and development programmes, poor motivation, irregular payment of salaries, and employment policy and conditions.

2. Statement of the Problem

There is every need to provide teachers with good accommodation, good learning environment, regular payment of salaries, proper supervision of staff as well as classroom activities, mentoring and class discipline if quality teaching and learning are to be achieved. This is because, improper management of teaching staff may affect the job performance of teachers, negatively, thus reducing the quality of education delivery and achievement of set goals. This study examined the ways of managing teaching staff for quality education delivery in secondary schools in Abia State, with a focus on staff motivation, supervision and the challenges in managing teaching staff.

2.1. Aim and Objectives of the Study

This study examined the management of teaching staff for quality education delivery in secondary schools in Abia State. Specifically, the study sought to:

1. examine the various ways of motivating teaching staff for quality education delivery in secondary schools in Abia State;

2. ascertain the ways the supervision of teachers classroom activities enhance quality education delivery in secondary schools in Abia State.

3. ascertain the challenges in managing teachers for effective service delivery in secondary schools in Abia State.

2.2. Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study.

1. What are the various ways of motivating teaching staff for quality education delivery in secondary schools in Abia State?

2. In what ways do the supervision of teachers classroom activities enhance quality education delivery in secondary schools in Abia State?

3. What are the challenges in managing teachers for effective service delivery in secondary schools in Abia State?

2.3. Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested in the study at 0.05 level of significance.

1. There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and supervisors on the various ways of motivating teaching staff for quality education delivery in secondary schools in Abia State.

2. There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and supervisors on the ways the supervision of teachers’ classroom activities enhance effective service delivery in secondary schools in Abia State.

3. There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and supervisors on the challenges in managing teachers for effective service delivery in secondary schools in Abia State.

3. Methodology

The design for this study was the descriptive survey. The population of this study was the 222 public secondary schools, 3 Zonal Education Management Boards and the Secondary Education Management Board in Abia State. These schools and Boards have a corresponding number of 222 principals and 118 supervisors. These principals and supervisors were the participants in the population. These were 180 principals and 90 supervisors that represented 86% of the population and each stratum. They were selected using the proportionate stratified random sampling technique. The instrument used for data collection was a scale titled ‘Teaching Staff Managing Scale (TSMS)’ designed by the researchers. The instrument was validated and a reliability index of 0.77 was obtained, using Cronbach Alpha Statistic. Mean scores and standard deviation were used in answering the research questions, while z-test statistic was used in testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.

4. Results

Research Question One: What are the various ways of motivating teaching staff for quality education delivery in secondary schools in Abia State?

Data on Table 1 show that all the items (1-6) had mean set above the criterion mean of 2.50 and were adjudged as the various ways for motivating teaching staff for quality education delivery in secondary schools in Abia State. In summary, with an aggregate mean set of 3.17 above the criterion mean of 2.50, principals and supervisors agreed that the various ways of motivating teaching staff for quality education delivery include: good condition of service, teachers make learning are regular motivation by administrators, provision of non-monetary motivation, respect for teachers by administrative staff, discipline through positive reinforcement among teachers creates effective classroom instruction in schools, and general motivation of teachers help academic performance.

Research Question Two: How does the supervision of teachers’ classroom activities enhance quality education delivery in secondary schools in Abia State?

Data on Table 2 show that items (8-17) had mean sets above the criterion mean of 2.50 and were agreed on as how the supervision of teachers’ classroom activities enhances effective service delivery in secondary schools in Abia State. They disagreed on item 7 with a mean set below the criterion mean of 2.50. In summary, with an aggregate mean of 3.12 above the criterion mean of 2.50, principals and supervisors agreed that the supervision of teachers’ classroom activities enhances effective service delivery by encouraging teachers to create a democratic climate while teaching, taking active part in seeking solution to instructional problems, examining continuously instructional goals for the assessment of teacher’s performance in meeting such goals, creating a working environment for teachers to pass through the developmental challenges in teaching, identifying abilities/qualities possessed by teachers, creating confidence in incompetent teachers, encouraging teachers to develop all the required skills of teaching techniques, improving their instructional competitiveness, checking teachers’ notes of lesson/attendance registers regularly for academic improvement, and supervision is good machinery to up-grade teachers into required standard.

Table 1. Mean Responses of Principals and Supervisors on the Various Ways of Motivating Teaching Staff for Quality Education Delivery in Secondary Schools

Table 2. Mean Responses of Principals and Supervisors on the Ways the Supervisor of Teachers’ Classroom Activities Enhance Effective Service Delivery in Secondary Schools in Abia State

Research Question Three: What are the challenges in managing teachers for effective service delivery in secondary schools in Abia State?

Table 3. Mean Scores of Principals and Supervisors on the Challenges in Managing Teachers for Effective Service Delivery in Secondary Schools in Abia State

Data on Table 3 show that items (18-27) had mean sets above the criterion mean of 2.50 and were agreed on as the challenges in managing teachers for effective service delivery in secondary schools in Abia State. In summary, with an aggregate mean of 3.17 above the criterion mean of 2.50, principals and supervisors agreed that the challenges in managing teachers for effective service delivery include: weak management systems for decision-making, weak management systems for the recruitment of teachers, tight fiscal management policies, insufficient management of workforce skills, supervisory problems, ineffective systems of staff development, poor working conditions of teachers, limited capacity building techniques in teacher training institutions, inadequate teaching facilities, and poor motivation of teachers.

4.1. Test of Hypotheses

Hypothesis One: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and supervisors on the various ways of motivating teaching staff for quality education delivery in secondary schools in Abia State.

Table 4. Summary of z-test Analysis of Difference between the Mean Ratings of Principals and Supervisors on the Various Ways of Motivating Teaching Staff for Quality Education Delivery

Data on Table 4 show the summary of z-test analysis on the difference between the mean ratings of principals and supervisors on the various ways of motivating teaching staff for quality education delivery. The result shows that the z-calculated value of -0.47 is less than the critical value of ±1.96 at 0.05 alpha significant level. Hence, the null hypothesis is accepted. Therefore, there is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and supervisors on the various ways of motivating teaching staff for quality education delivery in secondary schools in Abia State.

Hypothesis Two: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and supervisors on how the supervision of teachers’ classroom activities enhance effective service delivery in secondary schools in Abia State.

Table 5. Summary of z-test analysis on the difference between the mean scores of principals and supervisors on the ways supervision of teachers’ classroom activities enhance effective service delivery in secondary schools in Abia State

Data on Table 5 show the summary of z-test analysis on the difference between the mean ratings of principals and supervisors on the ways the supervision of teachers’ classroom activities enhance effective service delivery in secondary schools in Abia State. The result shows that the z-calculated value of 0.08 is less than the z-critical value of ±1.96 at 0.05 alpha significant level. Hence the null hypothesis in accepted. Therefore there is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and supervisors on how the supervision of teachers’ classroom activities enhances effective service delivery in secondary schools in Abia State.

Hypothesis Three: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and supervisors on the challenges in managing school teachers for effective service delivery in secondary schools in Abia State.

Table 6. Summary of z-test Analysis on the Difference between the Mean Ratings of Principals and Supervisors on the Challenges inManaging School Teachers for Effective Service Delivery in Secondary Schools in Abia State

Data on Table 6 show the summary of z-test analysis on the difference between the mean ratings of principals and supervisors on the challenges in managing school teachers for effective service delivery in secondary schools in Abia State. The result showed that the z-calculated value of 0.07 is less than the z-critical value of ±1.96 at 0.05 alpha significant level. Hence, the null hypothesis is accepted. Therefore, there is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and supervisors on the challenges in managing school teachers for effective service delivery in secondary schools in Abia State.

5. Discussion of Results

The findings of this study in research question one revealed that the various ways of motivating teaching staff for quality education delivery include: good condition of service, regular motivation by administrators, non-monetary motivation, respect for teachers by administrative staff, discipline through positive reinforcement among teachers, and motivation of teachers to control their classroom instructions for improved students’ academic performance. This finding agrees with Tella, Ateni and Popoola [19] that motivation is a basic psychological process of achieving organizational goals, that proper motivation of teaching staff enhances quality teaching and productivity and that it is the process of stimulating staff to employ effective motivation, which makes them more satisfied with and committed to their jobs. The test of hypothesis one revealed that there is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and supervisors on the various way of motivating teaching staff for quality education delivery in secondary schools in Abia State. Teaching effectiveness can be seen as systematic efforts geared towards the achievement of educational goals. However, motivation is a management/administrative function that stimulates individuals to accomplish laid down institutional goals.

The second finding of the study is that the ways supervision of teachers’ classroom activities enhance effective service delivery is by encouraging teachers to create a democratic climate while teaching, taking active part in seeking solution to instructional problems, examining continuously instructional goals for the assessment of teacher’s performance in meeting such goals, creating a working environment for teachers to pass through the developmental challenges in teaching, identifying abilities possessed by teachers, creating confidence in incompetent teachers, encouraging teachers to develop all the required skills in teaching, improving their instructional competitiveness, checking teachers’ notes of lesson regularly for academic improvement, and that supervision is a good machinery to up-grade teachers into required standard. In line with the findings, Peretomode [12]; and Pierce [13] held that supervision gives recognition to the teachers and creates a cordial working atmosphere based on good human relations. It creates a safe environment in which the teacher can work through the developmental challenges of the teaching-learning process in order to gain the necessary motivation, autonomy and self-awareness, to successfully move to the next level of development. The test of hypothesis two shows there is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and supervisors how supervision of teachers’ classroom activities enhances effective service delivery. This may be the result of rigorous statistical processed for testing the hypothesis. This is so because supervision helps teachers in terms of self discovery particularly in the area of improvisation and the use of modern teaching aid as a basis for improving teaching strategies. Supervisors help teachers by introducing them to a variety of audio and visual materials that help to facilitate good teaching (Peretomode, [14]). Supervisors are expected to demonstrate a professional orientation characterized by technical competence and expertise, desire for autonomy in decision making based on their knowledge and a colleague-oriented reference group.

Thirdly, another finding of the study reveals that the challenges in managing teachers for effective service delivery include: weak management systems for decision-making, weak management systems for the recruitment and deployment of teachers, tight fiscal management policies, insufficient management of workforce skills, supervisory problems, poor/ineffective systems of staff development, poor working conditions, poor salaries of teachers, limited capacity building techniques, poor quality of instruction in teacher training institutions, inadequate teaching facilities, and poor motivation of teachers. Poor management of teachers discourages them from active instructional delivery, and this makes the system very weak. This does not motivate them to perform their duties well. This agrees with the findings of Mpokosa [15] that the challenges to effective teacher management include: insufficient or inappropriate management of workforce skills, poor or ineffective systems of development, supervision, monitoring and evaluation of workforce skills that are in operation, poor working conditions and salaries of teachers, supporting roles of administrative staff, and limited capacity as well as quality of instruction in teacher training institutions. The test of hypothesis three showed that there is no significant difference between the mean scores of principals and supervisors on the challenges in managing school teachers for effective service delivery in secondary schools in Abia State. This finding negates the position by Nakpodia [18] that identifies some challenges in effective teacher management. This finding does not invalidate the fact that there are challenges in managing teacher but may be the result of other influences.

6. Conclusion and Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that the motivation and supervision of teaching staff enhance effective service delivery in secondary schools in Abia State though faced with attendant societal and institutional challenges.

7. Recommendations

Base on the findings and conclusion of the study, it is recommended as follows:

1. School administrators should endeavor to continuously put in place appropriate strategies for motivating their teachers through some efforts may be counter productivity.

2. Supervisors should constantly supervise teachers’ classroom activities to create a democratic climate while teaching, proffering solutions to instructional problems, and continuously assess teacher’s performance in meeting school goals for institutional development.

3. School administrators and supervisors should adopt appropriate administrative strategies to countermand the negative effects of the challenges in school management to ensure effective service delivery.

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