Organizational Commitment of Higher Secondary School Teachers

P. Srinivasan, K. Selvi

American Journal of Educational Research

Organizational Commitment of Higher Secondary School Teachers

P. Srinivasan1,, K. Selvi1

1Department of Education, Tamil University, Thanjavur, India

Abstract

In the present study, the investigators tried to find out the level of organizational commitment. In their day-to-day work, teachers can and do make huge difference to children’s lives directly through the curriculum they teach and indirectly through their behavior. The sample consisted of 300 teachers. The sample was taken using random sampling technique. Data was collected with the help of Teachers Organizational Commitment Scale (TOCS) by Sajid Jamal and Abdul Raheem (2014). The data obtained were analyzed statistically with the help of Mean, Standard Deviation and t – test. The statistical analyses were made with SPSS 21[7]. The findings suggested that the organizational commitment of teachers is high. There is no significant difference between male and female higher secondary school teachers. There is a significant difference between urban and rural higher secondary school teachers.

Cite this article:

  • P. Srinivasan, K. Selvi. Organizational Commitment of Higher Secondary School Teachers. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 4, No. 5, 2016, pp 404-407. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/4/5/7
  • Srinivasan, P., and K. Selvi. "Organizational Commitment of Higher Secondary School Teachers." American Journal of Educational Research 4.5 (2016): 404-407.
  • Srinivasan, P. , & Selvi, K. (2016). Organizational Commitment of Higher Secondary School Teachers. American Journal of Educational Research, 4(5), 404-407.
  • Srinivasan, P., and K. Selvi. "Organizational Commitment of Higher Secondary School Teachers." American Journal of Educational Research 4, no. 5 (2016): 404-407.

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1. Introduction

Teaching is a very demanding profession psychologically because the teachers are people who educate the youth of the society who in turn become the leaders of the next generation of the people. Now – a – day’s classroom teaching faces new challenges in terms of drug addict evil culture spread out among the students, so the teachers should carefully handle and deal with them. Teachers are the pivots to impart knowledge to them. Commitment refers to individual’s attraction and attachment of the employees to their organization. Mowday (1979) defined organizational commitment in terms of three factors that include (a) a strong belief in and acceptance of the goals and values of the organization, (b) readiness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization and (c) a strong desire to remain a member of an organization. (Cited in Jamal & Raheem, 2014) [1].

2. Background of the Study

Teaching is one of the most influential professions in society. In their day-to-day work, teachers can and do make huge difference to children’s lives directly through the curriculum they teach and indirectly through their behavior. The teachers of today are subjected to tremendous pressure in their professional life. They are to face the problems in their profession with confidence and courage. The principal and teachers should make the students in terms of cognitive, affective and psychomotor behavior inside and outside the classroom. A growing concern with the role of organizational commitment of teachers in education is evident for the work of Gehlawat and Manju (2013) [2] and Kaur (2010) [3]. They reported significant main effects of type of schools and gender on the organizational commitment of the teachers whereas the triple interaction effect of the variables type of schools. Hence, the present problem is stated as Level of Teachers Organizational Commitment of Higher Secondary School Teachers”.

3. Objectives

1. To find out the level of organizational commitment of post graduate (PG) teachers.

2. To find out if there is any significant difference between Teachers organizational commitment of PG teachers with respect to the demographic variables such as, Gender, Locality of the School and Marital Status.

3. To find out if there is any significant difference between /among Teachers organizational commitment of PG teachers with respect to the demographic variables such as, Management Type, Type of School and Teaching Experience.

4. Hypotheses

On the basis of the objectives of the study the following hypotheses have been formulated.

1. The level of organizational commitment of post graduate (PG) teachers is high.

2. There is no significant difference between Teachers organizational commitment of PG teachers with respect to the demographic variables such as,

2a) Gender

2b) Locality of the School

2c) Marital Status

3. There is no significant difference between /among Teachers organizational commitment of PG teachers with respect to the demographic variables such as,

3a) Management Type

3a1. Government and Aided

3a2. Aided and Private

3a3. Government and Private

3b) Type of School

3b1. Boys and Girls

3b2. Girls and Co –education

3b3. Boys and Co –education

3c) Teaching Experience

3c1. 0-5 years and 5-10 years

3c2. 5-10 years and above 10 years

3c3. 0-5 years and above 10 years

5. Methodology

In the present study Normative (Survey) method was employed which belongs to descriptive research.

6. Sample and Sampling Technique

For the study300 teachers were randomly selected. Hundred from government schools, 100 from aided Schools and 100 from private schools by simple random sampling technique.

7. Tool

Teachers Organizational Commitment Scale (TOCS) (2014) by Sajid Jamal and Abdul Raheem was used. The scale contains 42 items. Half of the items are positively phrased and half are negatively phrased.

7.1. Reliability

The reliability of the TOCS has been established by various methods. All yielded high degree of reliability coefficients. Internal consistency reliability were obtained by estimating inter-item (dimension –wise), item-total, inter dimension and dimension –total correlation coefficient. All yielded high correlation coefficients ranging from 0.12 to 0.86. The reliability by obtaining the value of Cronbach Alpha yielded as 0.91 where as Guttman Split half reliability coefficient (odd-even) was found to be 0.95. Test –retest reliability after a gap of fortnight was found to be 0.76 which is significant at .01 level of significance.

7.2. Validity

The validity of the present scale was established by taking the opinion of the experts as well as correlating the test with other similar nature standardized tests like Porter et.al. The scale was found to be highly valid as it is highly correlated with the above mentioned scale, the coefficients of correlation being ranging from 0.67 to 0.82.

8. Statistical Techniques

Mean, Standard Deviation, ‘t’ test and F test were used to analyze the data

9. Results and Interpretation

9.1. Descriptive Analysis

It involves the measures of central tendency and measures of variability. These two are useful to study the nature of the distribution of any variable. The computed values of mean and standard deviation are used to describe the properties of the particular sample [8].

Hypothesis 1

The level of Teachers organizational commitment is high.

With reference of the Table 1 the mean value of teacher’s organizational commitment is 137.73. Based on the norms of the tool, the statistical hypothesis is accepted.

9.2. Differential Analysis

Inferential analysis involves‘t’ and F test. A ‘t’ test is a numerical procedure that takes into account the size of the difference between the measure of 2 groups / scores. The‘t’ test whether there is any significant difference between the 2 groups or two set of scores. The F test is used to compare the variances of two independent samples. It is also used in analysis of variance (ANOVA) for testing the significance of more than two sample means at a time [9].

Hypothesis 2

There is no significant difference between Teachers organizational commitment of PG teachers with respect to the demographic variables such as Gender, Marital Status and Locality of School.

With reference of the Table 2, it is evident that the‘t’ values of Organizational Commitment of higher secondary school teachers with respect to gender , locality of the school and marital status are 0.31, 4.21 and 1.14 respectively. The‘t’ value of gender (0.31) is less than the critical value of 1.96 with 298 degrees of freedom at 0.05 level and hence, the statistical hypothesis 2a is accepted.

The ‘t’ value of locality of the school (4.21) is greater than the critical value with same degrees of freedom and the statistical hypothesis2b is rejected.

The ‘t’ value of marital status (1.14) is less than the critical value with same degrees of freedom and the statistical hypothesis 2c is accepted.

Hypothesis 3

There is no significant difference among Teachers organizational commitment of PG teachers with respect to the demographic variables such as management type, type of school and teaching experience.

With reference of the Table 3, it is evident that the ‘F’ values of Organizational Commitment of higher secondary school teachers with respect to Management type, Type of School and Teaching Experience are 8.4, 1.1 and 6.1 respectively. The ‘F’ value of Management type (8.4) is greater than the critical value of 2.90 with 297 degrees of freedom at 0.05 levels and hence, the statistical hypothesis 3a is rejected.

The ‘F’ value of type of school (1.1) is less than the critical value with same degrees of freedom and the statistical hypothesis 3b is accepted.

The ‘F’ value of Teaching Experience (6.1) is greater than the critical value with same degrees of freedom and the statistical hypothesis 3c is rejected.

Hypothesis 3a

There is no significant difference between Teachers Organizational Commitment of PG teachers with respect to the demographic variable of management type.

From the post hoc test (Table 4) there are significant differences in organizational commitment of PG teachers among the three categories of management such as government, aided and private.

Hypothesis 3c

There is no significant difference between Teachers Organizational Commitment of PG teachers with respect to the demographic variable of teaching experience.

From the post hoc test (Table 5) there is a significant difference between 5 - 10 years & above 10 years and 5 – 10 years & below 5 years of teaching experience with respect to teachers organizational commitment. There is no significant difference between below 5 years and above 10 years of teaching experience with respect to teachers organizational commitment. Hence, the hypothesis 3C3 is accepted.

10. Findings

The findings of the study are

√ The level of teacher’s organizational commitment is high.

√ There is no significant difference in organizational commitment of teachers with regard to

○ Gender

○ Marital Status

○ Type of school

√ There is a significant difference in organizational commitment of teachers with regard to

○ Locality of the school

○ Management type

○ Teaching experience.

11. Conclusion

This research revealed the level of organizational commitment of PG teachers and it’s differences with regard to demographic factors. The level of teacher’s organizational commitment is high. Men and women teachers does not differ in the organizational commitment, as revealed by the studies of Burney and Amalraj (2012) [4] and Ravivarman (2011) [5] that there is no significant difference between male and female PG teachers in their mean attitude scores towards school organizational commitment. Urban teachers are more committed than the rural teachers. Organizational commitment of government teachers are more than private and aided teachers, supported by the study of Gupta (2013) [6] that the government school teachers with high level of work motivation were reported to be better with respect to their organizational commitment. This may be due their stability of job nature. Organizational commitment is more for teacher when they are enrolled in teaching profession, but decreases slightly and then increases with increase in experience. In 2010, Kaur found that there is no significant difference in any dimension of organizational commitment has been found between employees in early- career stage (up to 2 years of experience), and employees in mid–career stage (3–10 years of experience).

References

[1]  Jamal, S. & Raheem, A. (2014). Manual for Teacher’s Organizational Commitment Scale. Agra: National Psychological Corporation.
In article      
 
[2]  Gehlawat & Manju. (2013). Organizational commitment in relation to job satisfaction and work motivation of Secondary school teachers working in different types of schools. Retrieved Jun 21, 2013, from http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in.
In article      
 
[3]  Kaur, K. (2010). Career stage effect on organizational commitment: Empirical evidence from Indian banking industry. Retrieved Jun 21, 2013, from http:// www.ccsenet.org/ijbm.
In article      
 
[4]  Burney, S. & Amalraj, A. (July – September 2012). Academic Involvement of teachers working in matriculation schools. Research and Reflections on Education, 10 (3). 15 -19.
In article      
 
[5]  Ravivarman, S. (2011). A study on the mediating effects of Service Quality and school organizational commitment in higher secondary schools. Unpublished Ph.D dissertation, Tamil University, Thanjavur.
In article      
 
[6]  Gupta, (2013). A Study of the Correlates of Organizational Commitment Among Secondary School Teachers.Retrieved Jun 07, 2013, from http:// iie.chitkara.edu.in/pdf/papers.
In article      
 
[7]  Field, A. (2102). Discovering statistics using SPSS. (3rd ed.). Sage Publications Ltd: London.
In article      
 
[8]  Best, J.W. & Kahn, J.V. (2010). Research in education (10th ed.). PHL Learning Private Limited: New Delhi.
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[9]  Garrett, H. E. (2014). Statistics in Psychology and Education. (4th ed.). Surjeet Publications, New Delhi.
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