Increasing Reading Comprehension Ability through Visualizing Media of 4th Grader Students...

Herlina Usman

American Journal of Educational Research

Increasing Reading Comprehension Ability through Visualizing Media of 4th Grader Students at Labschool Primary School Setiabudi South Jakarta

Herlina Usman

Education Faculty, State University of Jakarta Indonesia

Abstract

The objective of this research is to investigate whether the implementation of visualizing Media can increase students’ reading comprehension ability at the fourth grade students of Labschool Primary School Setiabudi South Jakarta. The strategy was applied by having students to draw their visualizations on the provided storyboarding worksheet while reading a simple text. This is the Classroom Action Research that was conducted in two cycles according the model of Kemmis and Taggart. This model describes into a spiral consist of planning, acting, observing, reflecting and replaning. Subject of this research were 22 fourth grader students from Labschool Primary School Setiabudi South Jakarta. The data were collected through test instrument to measure students’ level of reading comprehension. There was also record the activity of teacher and student in class to test the efficacy of visualizing strategy in a teaching environment including teacher and students’ activities. The instruments have been validated by expert judgement. The result of this research is a significant increase in reading comprehension ability score after the application of visualizing strategy. In cycle 1, percentage of students who scored ≥ 70 are only 63, 6% whereas in cycle 2 the score increased to 95,4%. The increment in students’ grade of reading comprehension ability is a direct result of the implementation of visualizing strategy’s efficacy which also increased from 65, 8% to 93, 3%.

Cite this article:

  • Herlina Usman. Increasing Reading Comprehension Ability through Visualizing Media of 4th Grader Students at Labschool Primary School Setiabudi South Jakarta. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 4, No. 18, 2016, pp 1265-1270. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/4/18/4
  • Usman, Herlina. "Increasing Reading Comprehension Ability through Visualizing Media of 4th Grader Students at Labschool Primary School Setiabudi South Jakarta." American Journal of Educational Research 4.18 (2016): 1265-1270.
  • Usman, H. (2016). Increasing Reading Comprehension Ability through Visualizing Media of 4th Grader Students at Labschool Primary School Setiabudi South Jakarta. American Journal of Educational Research, 4(18), 1265-1270.
  • Usman, Herlina. "Increasing Reading Comprehension Ability through Visualizing Media of 4th Grader Students at Labschool Primary School Setiabudi South Jakarta." American Journal of Educational Research 4, no. 18 (2016): 1265-1270.

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At a glance: Figures

1. Introduction

The ability to read is an essential capability to support the ability to communicate in English. More than just look and read the language sounds, reading ability has a wider meaning. ([5]: p.3) argues that" Reading is the ability to draw meaning from the printed page and interpret the information appropriately. Reading is the ability to interpret the meaning and information in a text, in order to obtain what is read. All sorts of information about science and technology published in English easily we get when we master the ability to read. According to Westwood (2008; p.30), reading comprehension (reading comprehension ability) is defined as follows: " reading a text with full understanding draws on the reader's background experience, general knowledge, vocabulary syntactical awareness, and word identification skills." Readers establish a process of thought at the time to read and understand the text as a whole is able to use its path background experience, general knowledge, vocabulary and identification of words to gain an understanding.

Almasi and Fullerton ([1]: p.113) describes reading comprehension as follows, Comprehension is seen as a constructive process that involves constructing a textbase and integrating it with prior knowledge to create a model situation, but we acknowledge that comprehension Also Occurs in a social settings. Reading comprehension ability is obtained when the reader can integrate understandings with prior knowledge to then create a picture of the exact situation of the text being read. Reading comprehension not only as an activity between sight with a row of letters but there are thought processes contained.

Based on the statement above, Sue, Elspeth McCartney Sue Ellis ([4]: p.115) as children moves through the school years, access to the curriculum will Increasingly Rely on reading comprehension. Children with poor reading comprehension skills with the struggle to learn from what they read, placing them at disadvantage that may have wide-ranging educational consequences. Visualizing the activities carried out at the time of a person turning a concept into a real image in his mind. Swiers ([20]: P.68) argued that visualizing occurs when readers use the background knowledge possessed deliberately to create a mental picture in his mind in order to understand the meaning of a text or reading. Knowledge is also related to the personal experiences that have been passed before the reader, so that each reader will have a different visualization of one another. Linda Wong ([11]: p.156). Visualizing regarded as a process that utilizes visual codes in the text to create a set of images and movies on the content of the discourse in their minds.

Kelley and Grace, ([7]: p.175). Found that Readers use Reviews their senses to experience something in the text vicariously. When students visualize, they evoke images while reading, include being Able to picture, smell, taste, hear or feel something in the text. Using all the senses possessed when visualizing ideas in the text will lead to interaction between the reader with a discourse that is read. Their interactions will make learning to read by using a visualizing fun. There was some activity by Kelley that indicate someone is doing visualizing, among others: (1) Make the words in the text into pictures, sounds, scents, and feelings; (2) Make sensory or emotional connections between the ideas in the text, the world, and their own experiences; (3) Place Themselves in the text; (4) Process the text and / or text features to more fully comprehend the text; (5) Enjoy reading; (6) Remember what was read.

Klein and Stuart ([9]; p.48). Outlines eight reasons to choose visualizing strategies to improve reading comprehension for students, namely: (1) Engages students in the text and makes it personal and memorable; (2) develops active readers; (3) Allows for comprehension checkpoints while reading; (4) permits visual images of children to share with other students in the classroom; (5) permits students to the make shifts in their thinking; (6) elicits memories and feelings of the reader; (7) deepens comprehension; and (8) makes reading dynamic and exciting.

Swiers, ([20]: p.68) formulate nine step visualizing in implementing the strategy on learning to read English, namely: (1) Explain to students that text picturing in their minds is vital for understanding it; (2) Show students a series of three or four pictures (or show short video clips); (3) After each picture, have students close Reviews their eyes and visualize what was in the picture; (4) Tell students to visualize a variation of each picture. For example, if you Showed them a picture of mountains, have them modify this mental image to have Several mountain climbers on the cliffs in a snowstorm; (5) Tell the students that this is what happens during reading: We start with a rough image, and text makes us modify it with other details; (6) Have students visualize and imagine that they are in situations similar to Reviews those that will be encountered in the text that they are about to study. (You can have them put Reviews their heads down if they do not like closing your eyes.); (7) move to the written text.

Read aloud a text and stop after the initial clues are given. Allow students to form picture. Then read on and stop at appropriate times to allow students to modify Reviews their mental image. You also should describe the model and visualizing your processes while reading aloud; (8) As an option, play sound effects or music if Appropriate; (9) Finally, have students visualize Reviews their own while they read the text.

Components in visualizing the use strategy which also submitted by Kelley ([7]: p.176) (1)visualize to help to predict what students will read and learn from the text; (2) visualize to help to clarify something in the text; (3) visualize to the character(s), object(s), or creature(s) in the text; (4) visualize to the setting or place in the text; (5) visualize the text by using the senses (seeing, smelling, tasting, hearing, or feeling); (6) visualize the text by using an emotional reaction (happy, sad, excited, lonely, etc); (7) visualize by using illustrations or text features in the text; (8) I visualize to help me remember the text.

There are many strategies that can be applied in an effort to improve reading comprehension ability in accordance with the age of the reader. One such strategy is visualizing. Using visualizing strategies in teaching reading comprehension provides opportunities for students to participate by placing himself in the text and imagine the events that occur in the text in their minds. Students can use all the senses such as sight, smell, taste, touch, or hearing to implicate him with the text read.

This strategy can also be implemented in a manner consistent with illustrations depict what is visualized in the minds of students through storyboarding an image sequence. Visualizing an interactive strategy because it involves the reader to visualize the content of reading into their minds. Readers trying to make the story into the concrete by changing the words in the story to illustrations based on the sequence of stories that are appropriate to the student's imagination. Reading can also use the five senses tools and put himself in the text that is read so that readers see first hand what is actually meant by the author.

Evaluated from fourth grade student characteristics according to Piaget, visualizing strategy in accordance with the cognitive abilities of the students at his age already are understood something concrete concept. Visualizing has many advantages as it can help students determine the character and object, background and story plot, integrating the ideas contained in the text and in the end considering the content of the text read. Use of visualizing strategy can improve reading comprehension ability because it involves the students a through understanding of a reading. Therefore, the researchers used this strategy because this strategy is the right strategy in order to realize read English learning interactive and fun. Activities in this strategy like their imagination and describe illustrations expected to trigger students' motivation to read and understand English texts. Some research suggests that the use of visualizing strategy proven to improve students' reading comprehension ability. Michelle from the University of Wisconsin doing research by using visualizing strategy in an effort to improve reading comprehension abilities of students who have difficulty in reading. The result was very satisfying because 4 of 11 students can understand and describe 90% -100% of the instances in the stories they read. These students may be telling that story again without the help of a teacher. While the two students are consistently able to understand 80% -90% incidence and present them back with a little help from the teacher. Five other students are students with less ability kogintif. Changes show after using visualizing strategy, those who had simply answered "do not know" can begin to decipher 3 to 6 events that exist in the text. These results can be regarded as a fantastic result because it shows a rapid increase in understanding. Jo Appleton from Leeds Metropolitan University School of Languages doing research at ([2]; p. 26) 30 students surveyed use visualizing strategy when reading the story "Jungle Fever". As a result, the student motivation in reading increased and many give positive feedback. While more positive response came directly from the statement of one of the students guidance program into the Book: Reading Comprehension Resource for Elementary Students and Teachers produced by Wisconsin Media Lab, namely, "Visualize the pictures helps me understand the story better too, especially the tittle. When you use your five senses to visualize, its really helps you get into the book. Thus, the use of visualizing strategy proven to increase reading comprehension ability of primary school students.

2. Methodology Research

This study aimed to collect data in an effort to improve reading comprehension ability by visualizing strategy at fourth grade students Labschool setiabudi. Method used in this research is the Classroom Action Research, is conducted action research in the classroom when learning takes place which aims to improve the quality of learning and focuses on the learning process. Expected to solve the problems in the classroom related to the effectiveness of the learning process and also while enhancing the professionalism of teachers and researchers in developing quality learning. Phillips and Carr [17] describe in more detail on the definition Clasroom Action Research conducted by prospective educators as follows. Action Research includes the interrogation of one's own paradigm while in active exploration of ways of thinking and acting beyond one's own boundaries. The result of action research for preservi teachers is the beginning of a teaching-research journey includes roomates simultaneously improving teacher practice, student outcomes and system of schooling to be more just and equitable for all children and adolescents. Referring to the model Kemmis & Taggart, this class action research will be carried out through several stages and specific cycle as seen in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Constellation Model Actio Research by Kemmis dan Taggart

Design intervention measures in this class action research using a model Kemmis & Taggart. This model describes the action research as a spiral reflecting, while Kemmis refine them into a spiral of selfreflection of planning, acting, observing, reflecting and replaning as a basis for strategy diagram created.

3. Results

Based on the first cycle of action research that has been conducted by researchers at the meeting of one and meeting two, the data obtained from the results of a test reading comprehension abilities are then examined by researchers and observers. The results of these data is four students scored 40 with a percentage of 18.3%, 1 student scored 45 with a percentage of 4.5%, one student to get a score of 50 with a percentage of 4.5%, two students get a score of 60 with a percentage of 9.1%, one student to get a score of 70 with a percentage of 4.5%, two students get a grade of 75 with a percentage of 9.1%, three students scored 80 with percentage of 13.8%, 6 students get 85 with a percentage value of 27.2%, one students at 95 along with a percentage of 4.5% and one students earn a score of 100 with a percentage of 4.5%. The data shows that students who received ≥ 70 reached 63.6%. Given the targets set researchers to declare the success of this study was 80%, the percentage is still not achieve the target, requiring the implementation of cycle II.

This target inaccessibility caused by several factors, among others: (1) the teacher has not been able to master and organize classes well; (2) the students do not understand the purpose of reading and relying on the answers to the teacher; (3) The text provided is considered too long and contains vocabulary too difficult for students; (4) the student does not understand the concept of visualizing the readings and do not understand the context; (5) apersepsion activities and explanations too long so the time to answer the questions is not enough; and (6) students are less able to concentrate because of the noise from outside the class. The table below will show the level of students' reading comprehension ability has been achieved through the implementation of strategy visualizing students in cycle I.

Table 1. Cycle Assessment Test I (Test Reading Comprehension Ability Through Visualizing Strategy)

Based on the implementation of the action has been conducted by researchers at the second cycle that includes meetings one and two, the obtained data from the test reading comprehension ability with the subject matter of "Rainy and Dry Season". After being examined by researchers and observers, the scores obtained are described as follows; one student got a score of 60 with a percentage of 4.5%; two students scored 75 with a percentage of 9.1 %; two students scored 80 with a percentage of 9.1 %; three students scored 85 with a percentage of 13.8 %; two students scored 95 with a percentage of 9.1 %; and elevent students scored 100 with a percentage of 54.4 %. Seen an increase reading comprehension abilities in this second cycle is the result of optimizing the application of visualizing strategy.

4. Discussion

4.1. Data Analysis
Cycle I

Indicators of success of this class action research is if the percentage of students who received a score of ≥ 70 to 80 %. The results of the first cycle showed that the average obtained by the fourth grade students have been reached, but the percentage of students who received a score of ≥ 70 reached 63.6 %. The data is described in more detail. 4 students scored 40 with a percentage of 18.3 %, 1 student scored 45 with a percentage of 4.5, 1 student to get a score of 50 with a percentage of 4.5%, 2 students get grades 60 with a percentage of 9.1 %, 1 student to get a score of 70 with a percentage of 4.5%, 2 students get a grade of 75 with a percentage of 9.1 %, 3 students scored 80 with a percentage of 13.8 %, 6 students get the value of 85 with a percentage of 27.2 %, 1 students at 95 along with a percentage of 4.5% and 1 students earn a score of 100 with a percentage of 4.5%.


Cycle II

The average results obtained from the test reading comprehension ability in this cycle the fourth grade Labschool, reached 90.23 of 22 students, with details as follows; 1 person to get a value of 40 with a percentage of 4.5%; 2 get the value of 75 with a percentage of 9.1 %; 2 get the value of 80 with a percentage of 9.1 %; 3 scores 85 with a percentage of 13.8 %; 2 at 95 along with a percentage of 49.1 % and 12 people get a score of 100 with a percentage of 54.4 %. The number of students who received a score of ≥ 70 is 21 students from 22 students in a class, which means only one person of students who do not reach the target. The percentage of students who received a score of ≥ 70 has reached 95.4 %. These results have exceeded the indicators of success established. Therefore, researchers and analysts concluded that this is quite done up in the second cycle and do not need to proceed to the next cycle.

Table 2. Cycle Assessment Test II (Test Reading Comprehension Ability Through Visualizing Strategy)

Table 3. Findings Observer of Instrument Measures Monitoring Cycle I

Table 4. Findings Instrument Monitoring Observer of Cycle II

Improved reading comprehension ability as competencies expected through strategy visualizing the data shown by the results obtained during two cycles. In the first cycle, the percentage of students who score ≥ 70 from a total of 22 students on tests of reading comprehension ability is only reached 63.6 %, while in the second cycle the number of students who received a score of ≥ 70 to 21 students with a percentage of 93.3 %. In order to realize the success of a lesson, the teacher should be able to design appropriate learning needs and characteristics of students. Visualizing strategy is a strategy that is quite simple and suitable for use by the fourth grade students of elementary school. The concept of the implementation of this strategy is to visualize the contents of the sentences and reading to gain understanding. Visualizing strategy requires the involvement of students in imagining the writing becomes a real picture in his mind . This has implications for the creativity and productivity of students in reading comprehension that can be seen from the increase in reading comprehension abilities and also the results of students in the storyboarding depiction kelas.

Table 5. Percentage of Reading Comprehension Ability

Table 6. percentage Visualizing Strategy Implementation Process

Table 7. Percentage Rate Story boarding Students

5. Conclusion

Based on the result that has been obtained through the implementation of English language learning showed that application of visualizing strategy can improve students' reading comprehension abilities in fourth grade Laboratory elementary school teacher education, Education Faculty State University of Jakarta. The implementation of visualizing strategy carried out by the students can be helped to understand the meaning contained in a simple reading given. Their visualization process that occurs when students read a positive impact on students' ability to answer the questions based on the story read.

The improvement of the research can be concluded that the application of visualizing strategy can improve students' reading comprehension abilities fourth grade of Laboratory elementary school teacher education Setiabudi South Jakarta, Education faculty state university of Jakarta. Proved after the implementation of measures such as the optimalization of visualizing strategy, then the reading comprehension abilities of students indicated on the ability to answer the questions increases drastically. The paradigm of conservative educators and students towards learning English as a foreign language often ignore the effectiveness of the continuity of the learning process. Awareness of the importance of mastering the English language in the digital age must not only be owned by the students but teachers as professional educators. Teachers have contributed greatly affect the intelligence of students in order to build the intellectual progress of the nation. Therefore, it is necessary to have the reconstruction of the English learning process oriented to students, so that the learning objectives be achieved with the right target. According to description above, the application of visualizing strategy became one of the alternatives that can be used to improve students' reading comprehension ability in English language learning.

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