Perception of Health and Physical Education Teachers on Students Indiscipline in Secondary Schools i...

Ugwu Cosmas Uchenna, Ugwueze Fabian Chibunine, Nji Godfrey Chinweike, Ene Osmond Chukwuemeka

American Journal of Educational Research

Perception of Health and Physical Education Teachers on Students Indiscipline in Secondary Schools in Enugu State of Nigeria

Ugwu Cosmas Uchenna1,, Ugwueze Fabian Chibunine1, Nji Godfrey Chinweike1, Ene Osmond Chukwuemeka1

1Department Health and Physical Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

Abstract

The increasing cases of students’ indiscipline in secondary schools have remained a serious problem in school system in Nigeria and other parts of the world. This paper ascertained the perception of health and physical education -HPE teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. The study provided answers to the research questions and the null hypotheses. Literature, relevant and related to the study was reviewed and properly documented. The study was based on the normative survey research method. Three hundred and twenty HPE teachers in secondary schools constituted the sample size. A researcher-developed questionnaire based on extensive literature review was used for data collection. Mean score, standard deviation and t-Test statistical tools were used for data analysis. The result showed that the perception of HPE teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria is negative. It was also revealed that the perception of female, rural, above 15 years teaching experience and public school HPE teachers on students’ indiscipline is negative while the perception of male, urban, less than 15 years of teaching experience and private school HPE teachers is positive. The study further revealed that significant differences exist between variables of the respondents. The study concluded that this paper has convincingly established that the perception of health and physical education teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria is negative, indicating that the respondents do not support or encourage the act of indiscipline among students.

Cite this article:

  • Ugwu Cosmas Uchenna, Ugwueze Fabian Chibunine, Nji Godfrey Chinweike, Ene Osmond Chukwuemeka. Perception of Health and Physical Education Teachers on Students Indiscipline in Secondary Schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 4, No. 17, 2016, pp 1223-1230. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/4/17/6
  • Uchenna, Ugwu Cosmas, et al. "Perception of Health and Physical Education Teachers on Students Indiscipline in Secondary Schools in Enugu State of Nigeria." American Journal of Educational Research 4.17 (2016): 1223-1230.
  • Uchenna, U. C. , Chibunine, U. F. , Chinweike, N. G. , & Chukwuemeka, E. O. (2016). Perception of Health and Physical Education Teachers on Students Indiscipline in Secondary Schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research, 4(17), 1223-1230.
  • Uchenna, Ugwu Cosmas, Ugwueze Fabian Chibunine, Nji Godfrey Chinweike, and Ene Osmond Chukwuemeka. "Perception of Health and Physical Education Teachers on Students Indiscipline in Secondary Schools in Enugu State of Nigeria." American Journal of Educational Research 4, no. 17 (2016): 1223-1230.

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1. Introduction

Globally, indiscipline constitutes a serious problem in school system and has remained a threat to academic performances, security in and around the school, national development and attainment of educational goals. Indiscipline denotes lack or absent of discipline. In real sence, discipline is acknowledged to be essential for creating a positive school climate conducive to sound academic performance [1]. Salvador [24] sees school discipline as an essential element in improving the educational climate. To him, discipline is a mode of life in accordance with laid down rules of the society to which all members must conform, and the violation of which are questionable and also disciplined. Discipline is a basic necessity for successful teaching and learning in schools and a subject of concern for teachers [2]. The quality of discipline in every student is reflected in his or her behaviour or relationship with immediate relatives, peers, classmates and others in the society. Ideally, discipline means more than adhering to rules and regulations and entails the learner’s ability to discern what is right or wrong [3]. On the other hand, when a student’s behavior is not in accordance with the expectations of the teachers, parents and society, such behaviour is termed indiscipline. Therefore, in school system, indiscipline is any action considered to be wrong and not generally accepted as proper [4].

Available literature showed that indiscipline could be in the form of truancy, theft, sneaking, cheating, noise making, absenteeism, fighting, defiance, bullying, drug abuse, failure to complete assignments, sexual harassment, possession of pornography, destruction of school property, poor attitude to learning, immoral behavior, stealing, lateness to school, dirtiness, use of abusive or foul languages, rudeness, cultism among others [5, 6]. The consequences of indiscipline are felt in poor academic performances and lose of focus on educational goals [3] as well as fear of insecurity by the teachers. It is also seen as a threat to attainment of educational goals which indeed require hard-work, time management, respect for others and self determination.

The present study was borne out of the quest to establish HPE teachers’ perception on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. A close observation by the researchers revealed that indiscipline is common in almost all the secondary schools in the state. Secondly, about 55 per cent of teachers are glued by fear while a good number of them are on persistent absenteeism. This, however, has created a mixed-feeling on the integrity of teachers in general and HPE teachers in particular. Indeed, the researchers appreciate the fact that discipline is an important component of human behaviour and therefore, supported the assertion that without discipline, an organization cannot function well towards the attainment of its goals [5]. In educational institutions, discipline is a vital tool for students’ academic performance [7] and also necessary for effective school management and accomplishment of goals [8]. In actual sense, discipline is the actual training of the mind and character to create self-control, good habits and obedience among other traits.

The aim of discipline is to help the individual to be well adjusted, happy and useful to his society [25]. It also aims at inculcating good knowledge, desirable attitude and socially acceptable behavours in students. Achieving this singular aim is among the major responsibilities of HPE teachers in secondary schools. The HPE teachers are trained in the broad areas of discipline due to the content areas of the secondary school syllabus which involves sports, games and practical activities that require high level of discipline by the students to enable them acquire the skills. Besides, the Nigerian school system is guided by some relevant laws, policies and regulations on students’ discipline. The essence was to instill in students good manners and socially acceptable behaviours. Regrettably, the recent cases of vandalism, persistent absenteeism, examination malpractices, Boko Haram attack, activities of Fulani herdsmen, bullying among others, in schools and out-of-school settings have created a lot of doubts on the effectiveness of the existing laws, policies and regulations. Thus, suggesting that the root causes of indiscipline in secondary schools have not been traced nor addressed, unlike the previous decades, when the students are known for their high level of discipline and decency.

From the literature reviewed, it is evidenced that the present study is the first normative survey research focusing on the perception of HPE teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. In Nigeria, Umezinwa and Elendu [9] found that indiscipline among learners was high and experienced at all levels of education including primary schools. There is also a report that students’ indiscipline in schools is experienced in both developing and developed countries of the world [6]. Oyanoafoh [10] found that a greater number of teachers (122) representing (58.10%) have the perception that students' indiscipline could influence academic performance. Similarly, Gyan [11] found that both the teachers and the students generally agreed on what constitute discipline and admitted that some acts of indiscipline occur very often in the school. Recently, there is no available study on perception of teachers especially those in specialized areas like the HPE teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in the study location. In Kenya, it is reported that between 90 per cent and 100 per cent of teachers in primary schools encountered disciplinary problems among their pupils [12]. Also, Gakure, Mukuria and Kithae [13] found that 70% of selected 56 teachers indicated that their schools had cases of pupil indiscipline in Gatanga District of Kenya.

Based on the literature reviewed, it is evidenced that students’ indiscipline particularly in secondary schools is a general problem in schools system. Thus, the need for the present study which determined the perception of HPE teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. This was the gap the present study filled. The study was restricted to secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria.

1.1. Statement of the Problem

The problem for the study is specifically stated as follows: - Perception of health and physical education teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools of Enugu State, Nigeria.

2. Review of Related Literature

Abundant literature exists on the key areas of the present study. Those relevant and related to the study were reviewed and properly documented. Recently, Nicholas, John and Eric [14] conducted a study on the “Impact of discipline on academic performance of pupils in public primary schools in Muhoroni Sub-County, Kenya”. Their study revealed that 46 (5.6%), 214 (26.2%), 413 (50.6%), and 144 (17.6%) of the pupils had low, moderate, high, and very high discipline respectively. In 2014, a comprehensive study on “Types, causes and management of indiscipline acts among secondary school students in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos State” was conducted by Ali, Dada, Isiaka, and Salmon [6]. The study found that: various acts of indiscipline were prevalent among secondary school students. Gutuza and Mapolisa [15] conducted a study on the analysis of the causes of indiscipline amongst secondary school pupils in Nyanga District. The study revealed that indiscipline in secondary schools was largely caused by poor group influence, bad company within and outside the school, lack of discipline at home and in school, irresponsible parents and guardians, use of drugs and alcohol, family problems, poor teacher-student relationships and failure of the school to effectively enforce school rules and regulations

Gyan, Baah-Korang, Mccarthy and Mccarthy [16] conducted a study on “Causes of indiscipline and measures of improving discipline in senior secondary schools in Ghana”. Their study showed that majority of the respondents shared the opinion that it is the students themselves who cause such acts of indiscipline. The study further revealed that apart from the individuals themselves, the school is the next cause of most of the acts of indiscipline and the community closely follows with parents and the media being almost at par. Moyo, Khewu and Bayaga [17] investigated the disciplinary practices in schools and principles of alternatives to corporal punishment strategies. Their results revealed that 66.60% of the variation in the offence of vandalism was explained by the predictors.

In Kenya, The Kenya National Examination Council -KNEC [12] which monitored the learners’ achievement for class 3 in literacy and numeracy reported that between 90 per cent and 100 per cent of teachers in primary schools in Kenya encountered disciplinary problems among their pupils. Still in Kenya, Tikoko and Bomett [18] investigated the discipline practices in coeducational boarding schools and their impact on the academic performance of the boy-child in Kenya. The study found that the coeducational setting presented unique challenges to boys’ discipline. The study further showed that disciplinary practices adopted by teachers in the schools were unfavourable to the boy child’s general well being. Whisman and Hammer [19] studied the association between school discipline and mathematics performance with particular interest on positive discipline approaches. Their study revealed that about 29.6% of 160,480 students (from grade 3 to 11) had one or more referrals for inappropriate behaviours.

In Nigeria, Umezinwa and Elendu [9] conducted a study to determine the perception of teachers towards the use of punishment in Sancta Maria Primary School Onitsha, Anambra State. Their study found that: indiscipline among learners in Nigeria was high and experienced at all levels including primary schools. Ugwu, Ofuebe, Umoke and Samson (22) carried out a descriptive survey research study to determine the attitude of health educators towards their role as teaching professional in tertiary institutions in Southeast Nigeria. Their study revealed that the attitude of health educators towards their role as teaching professional in tertiary institutions in Southeast Nigeria is favourable. In 2009, a descriptive study was conducted in Malaysia by Yahaya, Ramli, Hashim, Ibrahim, Rahman and Yahaya [20]. Their study showed that the level of discipline problems among students was quite high especially for absenteeism problem. In Gatanga District of Kenya, Gakure, Mukuria and Kithae [13] evaluated the factors that affect performance of primary schools in Kenya. Their study revealed that 70% of selected 56 teachers indicated that their schools had cases of pupil indiscipline.

In 2008, Garegae [21] ascertained the crisis of student discipline in Botswana schools. The study showed that teachers feel disempowered by schools’ discipline regulations, and that students take advantage of such regulations to undermine teachers’ authority. Omote, Thinguri and Moenga [4] conducted a study on ‘critical analysis of acts of student indiscipline and management strategies employed by school authorities in public high schools in Kenya”. Their study showed that maintaining school discipline is a key strategy to foster academic achievement and promote socially and morally responsible behaviour among the students. Gyan [11] studied teachers' and students' perceptions of discipline in senior secondary schools: a case study of Sunyani secondary school. The main findings of the study were as follows: both the teachers and the students generally agreed on what constitute discipline; teachers and students admitted that some acts of indiscipline occur very often in the school; the majority of the teachers and students shared a similar idea that the indiscipline in the school were mainly caused by the students themselves; both the teachers and the students considered the measures used in the research for ensuring discipline in the school as very necessary. Oyanoafoh [10] studied the teachers' perception of the influence of students' indiscipline on academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in South-South of Nigeria. The study revealed that a greater number of teachers (122) representing (58.10%) have the perception that students' indiscipline could influence academic performance.

2.1. Significance of the Study

Globally, the act of indiscipline among students especially at the secondary level of education is a universal challenge that is facing both public and private schools in all parts of the world. The secondary school students usually referred to as in-school adolescents, constitute a larger percentage of every country’s total population of which the future of the nation lies on their abilities and potentials. It is a known fact that the potential human resources needed for the continuity of the nation is achievable through constructive disciplinary measures. Students’ indiscipline has been over time an issue of serious concern for educators, policy makers and public opinion in general, owing to the outbreak of aggressiveness among peers, violence within teacher – student relationship and vandalism as well, leading to perpetual existence of problem of drop out, deviant behaviours, examination malpractice, lateness and poor academic performance among students [6]. The increasing cases of students’ indiscipline in schools do not only affect the teachers’ security but also have remained a threat to the effective school management and accomplishment of educational goals. It equally creates a lot of doubt on whether what is taught in schools does not reflect in the students’ behaviours and practices. Indiscipline in its nature is multifaceted and has the tendency of disrupting normal classroom activities in schools, induce fear in teachers and create unhealthy atmosphere. The above worrisome situations trigger diverse perception and view on the teachers understanding and effectiveness in their profession especially those in special areas like the HPE teachers. Thus, the need to find out HPE teachers’ perception on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State becomes very essential for the present study.

The findings of the study are significant to teachers in general and HPE teachers in particular; curriculum planners; educational institutions; organized bodies such as Teachers’ Registration Council of Nigeria -TRCN; and policymakers. The finding will help the teachers especially the HPE teachers, in reconciling and harmonizing the quality of knowledge imparted on the students and the expected behaviour. It would also guide the teachers in bridging the gap between acquired knowledge and expected behaviours. The finding will no doubt provide an ample opportunity for the teachers to trace the root causes of increasing cases of students’ indiscipline in secondary schools. The curriculum planners would adopt the result in modifying the secondary school curriculum to incorporate appropriate measures that would constructively control the rate of indiscipline in schools. The policymakers through the findings of the study will develop new policies or strengthen the existing one in relation to disciplinary measures commensurate to cases of indiscipline in secondary schools. Since students’ indiscipline is a threat to achieving educational goals, the TRCN would adopt the findings in improving teachers’ competencies and skills needed in controlling indiscipline in schools.

The present study in its nature revealed a comprehensive and defined perception of HPE teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. The study further verified the differences within variables of the respondents which include: gender, location, years of teaching experience, and school type, in relation to their perception on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools. The concept of perception is indeed refers to as views and understanding of idea, concept, action or behaviour. On the basis of this, the researchers considered it very expedient to review and explore relevant and related literature and further investigate the HPE teachers’ perception on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. It is expected that the present study will make significant contributions to education in general and teachers’ perception and competencies in particular.

2.2. Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perception of health and physical education teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria and further verify differences within variables of gender, location, years of teaching experience and school type.

2.3. Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study:

1. What is the perception of health and physical education teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria?

2. What is the difference between the perception of male and female health and physical education teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria?

3. What is the difference between the perception of urban and rural health and physical education teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria?

4. What is the difference between the perception health and physical education teachers having less than 15 and above 15 years teaching experience on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria?

5. What is the difference between the perception of public and private school health and physical education teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria?

2.4. Hypotheses of the Study

The following null hypotheses guided the study and were tested at 0.05 level of significance:

1. There is no statistically significant difference between the perception of male and female health and physical education teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria.

2. There is no statistically significant difference on the perception of urban and rural health and physical education teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria.

3. There is no statistically significant difference on the perception of health and physical education teachers having less than 15 years and above 15 years teaching experience on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria.

4. There is no statistically significant difference on the perception of public and private school health and physical education teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria.

2.5. Scope of the Study

The present study was restricted to all the health and physical education teachers currently teaching in either public or private secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. This study was not an in-depth survey rather it was conducted at the surface level. The perception of health and physical education teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria was obtained by administering a researcher-developed questionnaire to the subjects in their respective schools. The differences within variables of gender, location, year of teaching experience, and school type of the respondents were verified and properly documented.

3. Method

The study falls within the paradigm of the normative survey research method.

3.1. Population of the Study

The population of the study comprised of all the health and physical education teachers currently teaching in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria, with a total of 320 public and private school teachers. The entire population was used for the study.

3.2. Sample and Sampling Technique

There was no sampling technique for this study. This is because the study population (320) is of manageable size. Thus, the entire population was used as sample size for the study.

3.3. Data Collection Instrument

A questionnaire developed by the researchers based on extensive literature review was used for data collection. The questionnaire is called Students’ Indiscipline Questionnaire (SIQ). It contained ten items with five point response options that is to say that, each of the items on the SIQ has five options for selection.

3.4. Statistical Technique

Mean Scores, Standard Deviation, and t-Test were the statistical tools used to analyze the data and test the null hypotheses. The cut-off point for the weighted mean was 3.00 accrued from the five-point response options, hence, any item that weighed 3.00 and above signifies negative while any item less than 3.00 implies positive perception on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria.

3.5. Data Analysis and Interpretation

The results of the present study are hereby organized and presented in two sections: data answering the research questions and data testing the null hypotheses.


3.5.1. Answering Research Question One

Table 1. Presenting perception on students’ indiscipline

From Table 1, it is found that the average mean score of 3.07 and standard deviation (.828) is above the cut-off point of 3.00 indicating negative perception. Thus, this implies that the perception of health and physical education teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria is negative. The finding of the study is a clear indication that the respondents do not support or encourage students’ indiscipline in secondary schools.

Table 2. Showing significant differences between variables


3.5.2. Answering Research Question 2 and Testing H01

From Table 2, it is indicated that the average mean score of female health and physical education (3.40) is above the cut-off point of 3.00 while their male counterparts had (2.82) which is below the cut-off point. This implies that the female health and physical education teachers have negative perception on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria while the males had positive perception.

Data in Table 2 also showed that H01 is accepted since the P value of 0.206 is greater than 0.05 level of significance. That is to say that, there is no statistically significant difference between the perception of male and female health and physical education teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria.


3.5.3. Answering Research Question 3 and Testing H02

From Table 2, it is found that there is difference between the perception of urban and rural health and physical education teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. The Table revealed the average mean score on the perception of health and physical education teachers in urban (3.74>3.00) and their rural counterparts (2.71<3.00) on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools. Based on data analysis, it was found that the perception of health and physical education teachers in urban location is positive while those in rural areas is negative on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria.

The available data in Table 2 revealed that H02 was rejected since the P-value of 0.042 is less than 0.05 level of significance. That is to say that, there is statistically significant difference between the perception of urban and rural health and physical education teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria.


3.5.4. Answering Research Question 4 and Testing H03

From Table 2, it is found that the perception of health and physical education teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria differs significantly based on years of teaching experience. The Table revealed that the health and physical education teachers with less than 15 years teaching experience had average mean value (2.71<3.00), while those with 15 years of teaching experience and above had (3.03>3.00). This implies that the perception of health and physical education teachers with less than 15 years of teaching experience is positive while those with 15 years of teaching experience and above are negative on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria.

From Table 2, it is shown that H03 is accepted since the P value of 0.369 is greater than 0.05 level of significance. That is to say that, there is no statistically significant difference on the perception of health and physical education teachers with less than 15 years and above 15 years of teaching experience on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria.


3.5.5. Answering Research Question 5 and Testing H04

From Table 2, it is indicated that there is difference between the perception of health and physical education teachers in public and private secondary schools in relation to students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. The Table revealed the average mean score of health and physical education teachers in public secondary schools (3.51>3.00) and those in private secondary schools (2.87<3.00) in relation to their perception on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. Thus, the perception of health and physical education teachers in public secondary schools is negative while those in private schools are positive on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria.

Available data in Table 2 also revealed that H04 is rejected since the P-value of 0.026 is less than 0.05 level of significance. That is to say that, there is statistically significant difference on the perception of public and private school health and physical education teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria.

4. Discussion

Based on data analysis, it is found that the perception of HPE teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria is negative. The expected finding could be attributed to the fact that teachers hold strong passion to their job as teaching professionals. In addition, available literature also supported that the attitude of health educators towards their roles as teaching professionals in tertiary institutions in Southeast Nigeria is favourable [22]. This is an indication that HPE teachers in secondary schools do not compromise any form of indiscipline from the students. The result is in line with Oyanoafoh [10] who revealed that a greater number of teachers (122) representing (58.10%) have the perception that students' indiscipline could influence academic performance. In addition, Gyan [11] submitted that both the teachers and the students generally agreed on what constitute discipline and admitted that some acts of indiscipline occur very often in the school. It is a known fact that the dignity of HPE teachers will be highly restored when the students’ indiscipline is eradicated.

The finding could also be attributed to the fact that the increasing cases of students’ indiscipline in schools and out-of-school settings is not only affecting the attainment of educational goals and high academic performance but also remains a threat to security, welfare and job satisfactions of the teachers. It is earlier reported that the consequences of students’ indiscipline are felt in poor academic performances and lose of focus on educational goals [3]. A very high level of discipline is expected on the students. Thus, Nicholas, John and Eric [14] revealed that about 50.6 per cent of the pupils in public primary schools in Muhoroni Sub-County of Kenya had high discipline while only 5.6 per cent exhibited low discipline. The result of the present study is not too far from Ali, Dada, Isiaka, and Salmon [6] who found that various acts of indiscipline were prevalent among secondary school students. It is also revealed that indiscipline in secondary schools was largely caused by poor group influence, bad company within and outside the school, lack of discipline at home and school, irresponsible parents and guardians, use of drugs and alcohol, family problems, poor teacher-student relationships and failure of the school to effectively enforce school rules and regulations [15].

The present study indicates that the female HPE teachers have negative perception on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria while the males had positive perception. This finding was quite surprising because, the male based on the societal and national recognitions are strong and war-like in nature. In general nomenclature and gender roles, the males are known for their braveness which is greatly influenced by high level of discipline. Therefore, the positive perception as shown by the male HPE teachers on students’ indiscipline was not expected. On the other hand, the negative perception shown by the female HPE teachers on students’ indiscipline could be attributed to the roles bestowed on the shoulders of women in the families and society at large. The women are mothers who understand and feel the impact of abnormal behaviours in children. They derive more joy and satisfaction seeing students are exhibiting desirable behaviours. Such understanding may have influenced their negative perception on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. Statistically, it is found that there is no significant difference between the perception of male and female HPE teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria.

From Table 2, it is revealed that the perception of HPE teachers in urban location is positive while those in rural areas are negative on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. The finding was not expected and could be attributed to availability and improved access to information and communication technology –ICT and other available social networks which might have contributed immensely to the perceptional dispositions of the respondents in rural areas. It is a fact that in urban locations, some abnormal behaviours such as indiscriminate dressing, stealing, among others are perceived as conventional by the city dwellers. This could have guided the respondents in urban area not to have seen or perceived indiscipline to be negative. It is obvious that the respondents in the city are familiar with some of the unacceptable social behaviours or actions by the students. Statistically, the study found that there is significant difference between the perception of urban and rural HPE teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria.

The study further shows that the perception of HPE teachers with less than 15 years of teaching experience is positive while those with 15 years of teaching experience and above are negative in relation to students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. This finding is not surprising since experience might have contributed immensely to the perception of the respondents on students’ indiscipline. The result is in line with Ugwu, Ofuebe, Umoke and Samson [22] and Debdas and Santosh [23] who indicated that year of experience, to a great extent, influences attitude of subjects. The respondents with older years of teaching experience might have routinely, seen or encountered the negative effects of students’ indiscipline both in the schools and out-of-school settings. Such practical experience may be a strong factor to the negative perception on students’ indiscipline by HPE teachers with younger years of teaching experience in the present study. Statistically, the study indicated that there is no statistically significant difference on the perception of HPE teachers with less than 15 years and above 15 years of teaching experience on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria.

The present study indicates that the perception of HPE teachers in public secondary schools is negative while those in private schools are positive on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. This finding was expected and could be attributed to the fact that every public secondary school in the State is guided by some functional and relevant principles and standard of administration. Such standards and principles may be available in private schools but might not be comprehensive enough when compared with the public schools. The HPE teachers in public schools in the state are recruited following definite criteria which include National College of Education Certificate -NCEC as the minimum educational qualification. These may also not be applicable for recruitment of HPE teachers in some private secondary schools in the state. Thus, the negative perception on students’ indiscipline as indicated by the HPE teachers in public schools may have been guided by such factors via: criteria for recruitment, educational qualifications and standard of schools. In addition, the result is quite encouraging and remains a clear indication that the HPE teachers in public secondary schools do not support students’ indiscipline in school system. Statistically, the study further revealed that there is significant difference on the perception of public and private school HPE teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria.

5. Conclusion

From the literature reviewed and data analysis, this paper has convincingly established that the perception of health and physical education teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria is negative, indicating that the teachers do not support or encourage the act of indiscipline among students. Although the paper revealed that differences existed within variables of gender, location, years of teaching experience, and school type, yet, it is documented that such differences were not statistically significant. Therefore, efforts should be geared towards advancing measures of encouraging appropriate discipline in secondary school students. This could be attainable when teachers especially those in special areas like health and physical education hold general perception on students’ indiscipline irrespective of their socio-demographic differences.

6. Educational Implications

1. The present study has shown that the perception of health and physical education teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria is negative. This is very crucial and therefore suggests the need for collaborative efforts by the ministry of education, teachers’ registration council of Nigeria and curriculum planners to map out appropriate sanctions that would be commensurate to any form of indiscipline in schools.

2. This study is very essential in that it revealed the perception of male and female; urban and rural; less than 15 and above 15 years of teaching experience; as well as public and private school health education teachers on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. Since the perceptions differ based on variables, there is need maximum representation of the all categories of teachers in general and HPE teachers in particular in devising measures in controlling indiscipline in schools.

7. Suggestions for Further Studies

1. Studies using other variables such as age, academic qualifications and lifestyle should be conducted for documentation and research generalization.

2. The present study was restricted to secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. It is important to conduct similar study in other state of the country especially the Northern parts of Nigeria.

3. The present study was a surface survey. A more in-depth survey should be conduct to investigate the reasons for varied responses on students’ indiscipline in secondary schools.

Acknowledgement

Nil.

Competing Interest

The authors have no competing interests.

Authors’ Contributions

UCU, UFC, NGC and EOC analyzed and interpreted the data and wrote the manuscript. EOC and UFC contributed to the study concept and design, acquisition of subjects and manuscript review. UCU drafted the manuscript and revising it critically for important intellectual content. All authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

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