Predictive Power of the Styles of Parental Treatment as Perceived by the Children in School Phobia f...

Saadi Jasim Attiyah

American Journal of Educational Research

Predictive Power of the Styles of Parental Treatment as Perceived by the Children in School Phobia for Pupils

Saadi Jasim Attiyah

AL-Mustansiryah University College of Basic Education, Baghdad, Iraq

Abstract

The current research aims to verify the following two hypotheses is no correlation statistically significant positive between parental treatment styles as perceived by children and school phobia second hypothesis foreshadows some parental treatment methods without other school phobia children. To investigate, has been building a measure of the methods of parental treatment (Mother image and the image of the Father) and scale phobia school for pupils, after verifying the characteristics of psychometric, applied research on a sample of 200 pupils from grade pupils first primary and the second from the General Directorate for Educational Rusafa second Baghdad chosen style random, The research found the following results: no correlation statistically significant between father treatment methods as perceived by children and of (extra protection, authoritarian, neglect) and phobia of school, and there is no statistically significant correlation between the treatment of Father (democratic style) as understood by children the school phobia, correlation statistically significant differences between the treatment of the mother methods exist as perceived by children and of (extra protection, authoritarian, negligence) The school phobia and there is no statistically significant correlation between the treatment of the mother (democratic style) as understood by children and school phobia. The researcher recommends parents and educators to follow the normal methods of parental treatment and care of their children and avoid methods style that develop the child's spirit of reliability and lack of independence and phobia school, it suggests a researcher studying the relationship between parental treatment methods and phobia of school, according to some of the variables (sex, sequence congenital, the work of the mother, and the interaction between them).

Cite this article:

  • Saadi Jasim Attiyah. Predictive Power of the Styles of Parental Treatment as Perceived by the Children in School Phobia for Pupils. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 4, No. 16, 2016, pp 1120-1130. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/4/16/1
  • Attiyah, Saadi Jasim. "Predictive Power of the Styles of Parental Treatment as Perceived by the Children in School Phobia for Pupils." American Journal of Educational Research 4.16 (2016): 1120-1130.
  • Attiyah, S. J. (2016). Predictive Power of the Styles of Parental Treatment as Perceived by the Children in School Phobia for Pupils. American Journal of Educational Research, 4(16), 1120-1130.
  • Attiyah, Saadi Jasim. "Predictive Power of the Styles of Parental Treatment as Perceived by the Children in School Phobia for Pupils." American Journal of Educational Research 4, no. 16 (2016): 1120-1130.

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1. Research Problem

The family is a small social system in which the individual learns of the prevailing thinking, and acquire habits and traditions of the society in which he lives, and make up most patterns of his behavior and psychological health. And Full parents all the psychological and social needs and begin child's social relationships that gain a sense of value and the same with the members of his family, and growing consciousness of itself and increase its growth to increase its interaction with those around him and his own turn, grows to display a sense of security and through this interaction takes his character to take shape and poise. And it grows to a friendly social merits The child entering school event psychologically important in his life, so we find kids to start joining the school in case of severe discomfort, stress and arousal and fear because it seems to them a whole new world in all its dimensions and features, having been a child of the closely limited relationship mother and father, home and relatives are limited, he finds a whole new world away geographically from his home, which is not one of his relatives or neighbors, as well as the absence of his parents with him [1] And enroll the child in school offer it for a disorder may be a first for many of the problems that can be experienced and lives with points. Later often ensue sick child from school fears at this age that make up the formative years of the child's personality negative effects if left without the spotlight to focus formed satisfactory. Hence, many of the children show different concerns and levels of anxiety when they are in school, especially when they started out, and longer phobias (phobia) of one school of more group symptoms prevalent among young children [6] The estimated prevalence of school phobia between 1% to 3 % of children in general, and especially primary school children [34] In light of the above it can be summarized in the following research problem of questions:

1. Is there a correlation between parental treatment methods relationship as perceived by children and school phobia

2. What are the parental treatment methods predictors in school phobia ?

2. Research Importance

The parental treatment styles in all communities aim to instill the specific controls for the desired behavior and social attitude and Acquire children the beliefs and social traditions and change the child from a biological organism to a social being for making a balance between the basic motivations and social motivations. The parents are usually follow a special styles of treatment with their children in different events and attitudes whether inside or outside the home, the father may follows the democratic method style with his son, and the mays follows the authoritarian and cruel.

Whatever the style, of is it treatment has a big impact in the future in formation of personality of the children and what are they suffering from deviations and disorders. Certainly, the positive and negative aspects in the personality of children. may return to the treatment they received from their parents, because the parents and the family form the first environment in the life of the individual.

There are parents who use authoritarian or strictness style in the education, they do not allow their children to express their opinions, and their views on the various topics of their patterns of behavior as they do not allow adjustment modification in any direction [1], A child who feels that his parent accept him feels safe and develop a positive self- concept, as is generally socially cooperative, stable emotionally face life with confidence and realize himself realistically while the child's sense of his parents rejection and discarded of threatens his feelings of security and provokes his feelings of frustration that could hinder the child's interaction and compatibility with others and with life [15] A lot of studies showed that the family fill of confidence, love, respect and democratic their children grew or of respect themselves and respect for others and treat people in a democratic way. like Khalil study which showed that there is a correlation between the parents acceptance their children and family harmony relationship. It was also showed that children whom living in families dominated by the emotional warmth and family compatibility were more acceptance to themselves and freer from anxiety factors, as they are more satisfied [20] Mouawad mentioned that the family living in a confused atmosphere full of extreme emotions for trivial reasons their members tend revenge, jealousy and malignance and intolerance of opinion and inactivity that separates between the feelings of parents and children and makes them a chasm Such models of the households do not create only patients individuals characterized by emotional disorder, and bad social adjustment [22], The parental treatment styles, that used on children is one of the most important influences in the formation of personality and mental health and their social and psychological development, which make the children stabilized statement and connected with social life as well as these methods are responsible for the emotional disorder and bad compatibility. School phobia is one of the most psychological disorders in childhood because of its Academic and dangerous social results on the future of the children that effect on their psychological and social formation, especially at the primary school. Riad Nile, 1995see that school phobia of the most common phobias in childhood that appear when the child in ten the school or of post-entry and continuous in the other cases. These children are expressing this fear through the difficulty in attendance to go to school, which is shown by their behavior during the protest and rejection and stubbornness and cry sometimes so when you force them to go to school, this protest often pairing with often extreme, emotional, disorder conducive to symptoms of satisfactory physical, such as: headaches and stomach pains nausea, vomiting.. . etc. [5]. The school also is one of the important in terms of its impact and contribution to the growth of the child's personality. Whenever the child joined in the first grade of primary school, the school become a center of the world for him in which he lives [32] confirmed Robertby and others, Robert, et al., (1990), an association between social skills and school phobia [6].

3. Research Aims

The current research is aimed know: -

1. parental treatment style for pupils in the first and second grades of primary

2. phobia school.

3. The relationship between parental treatment styles and school phobia

4. parental treatment methods predictors of school.phobia

To verify the aims of the research it is put the following hypotheses:

1. There is correlation of positive statistically significant between treatment methods as perceived by children and school phobia

2. predictive some parental treatment methods - but not others – school phobia for children.

4. Research Limits

This Research is limited as follows:

- Primary school pupils for grades (first and second) for the academic year (2015-2016), the Education Baghdad (Rusafa second).

- Parental treatment of the following methods: (democratic, authoritarian, extra protection, negligence).

5. Terms of the Research

First: (Parental Treatment Styles)

Defined by: - Pandora (1961'Bandura): they are behavioral models for parents include reinforcement or punishment in the treatment of children. [10]

- Boumraand (1966 'Bumrind): used by the behavior used by the parents in their relationship, attitude and interaction towards children which is caused by the impact of socialization for individuals and past experiences. [11]

(1973Good): reciprocal relationships or personal experience between parent and child is to subordinate and control, fear and hatred and dependency, loyalty and trust [17].

Zahran (1984) as a set of behavioral styles that represent educational and psychological processes that take place between parents and children in family circumstances experienced by the children and methods of upbringing parental them and look fathers to sons [36] the adopted a researcher Pandora of definition methods parental treatment.

6. Second School Phobia

Kearney and Christopher 1995, defined it is a voidance the school by the children and adolescents defined it as a because their compulsory fear and terror due to very irrational fear. in [18] Nile 1995 great fear related to the child gone to school, it is accompanied with an extreme emotional disorders appear in of symptoms of acute fear and volatile mood, and abnormal trends about the school, physical complaints without organic basis, the child resorts to it as a means of defensive for staying at home [5].

Mr. Bassiouni and Mahmoud Mohieldin, 1997 is the extreme and unreasonable fear from the school to the extent that some pupils do not go to school and prefer to stay at their homes. [9]

Through the above definitions and research the researcher defines school phobia: it is irrational fear or anxiety to come to the school that lead to the resistance to gone to school and is accompanied by physical symptoms and emotional and affection disorders.

Operational definition is the total score obtained by the pupil through his answers on the items of phobia school scale prepared for research purposes.

7. Theoretical Framework and Previous Studies

First: parental treatment styles: the socialization, styles, aims, standards are vary standards between communities and within secondary groups in the same community and within the community from time to time these styles are vary from one family to another and from the father to the mother, till the socialization styles are vary from time to time and this is what explains differences in the behavior of individuals and groups from community to another and the behavior of social and cultural groups per community.

It should be noted that these styles or patterns do not go on a routinely during different stages of child development they are overlapped and complicated as those patterns vary according to cultural frameworks social class, child gender and the type of parents (L. father) also cannot determine parental treatment by a patterns specific fixed dimensions because the individual Differences in this relationship makes it vary from family to family and from the mother or the father. A number of theoretical models have been proposed to describe the behavior of parents with their children from these early models Simmonds model (Symonds 1939) in [21], which included two dimensions: (acceptance- versus rejection) (control - versus undergo) Then Earl Skayvar and his colleagues Scheafer-E dual- pole presented, which can be classified into

1. Independence – versus the control or tolerances- versus the restriction.

2. love- - versus hostility or rejection.

Skayvar put a set of variables for each pole in each dimension. [30]

In 1963, Baker presented a default model for the treatment to the parents to the children depends on three dimensions,:which are

1. Love - versus hostility.

2. severe- versus tolerance.

3-. Emotional –worried integration versus neutrality quiet [14]

In a study by Sgelman 1965 he did factor analysis to fifteen scales of parental behavior the result that the methods that the parents used, with their children were:

(Parental control, maturity demands. Contact (contact between the child and his parents.) Tenderness and affection (it is intended to parental warmth). Diana Bomrend 1971 mentioned 1971 that there are five types of parenting styles to control children: is (firm style, tolerance style, authoritarian style harmony style, style of not to comply. [12]

However, the current research was based on the following methods in his research which measures

First, the democratic Style Democratic knew Pandora defined it (1961 'bandura):

Parental model, which depends on persuasion and counseling with the children in the decision-making Second: the authoritarian method (author itorid Style) Pandora defined it (1961'Bandura): behavioral model containing the parental punishment and excessive control without taking into account the wishes of the children. Third: extra protection method Protection) Extraordinary) Pandora define it (1961'Bandura): parental model which is based on the excess of interest in an interview with a view to the demands of their children to protect them. Fourth: careless style (negligence Style) Pandora: defined it parental model that leaves children without reinforcement there responses. [11]

8. Discuss Parental Treatment Theories

Although the differing trends explanatory theory of the methods of parental treatment in many aspects of the relationship of parents sons but they agreed to confirm the following:

A. The environment and containing alerts affecting children.

(B) the early experiences of the early years of a child's life are of vital importance to the upcoming psychological health.

(C) The family of the first importance in the upbringing of children and parents in the upbringing factors primary parenting process.

D. Children and effective force elements in the positive socialization process, not passive components, a child affects and is affected by the surrounding environment.

(E) the culture of the community and social and economic conditions have an impact in the upbringing parental operations.

9. Second, Theories of School Phobia

And explains Freud phobia based on "to annihilate Off" and turn into concern "objective" virtual sees "Freud" The phobia or phobias arise from the wishes of the unwanted, irrepressible child to be forgotten, and when the ego fail to suppress these desires, and beg to emerge, is aware of the ego threat, feel excessive fear of her appearance, and then drops this fear anything like water or a cat or a snake or a horse or other, and become these things a source of great fear for him, trying to avoid it and escape and so phobia from the viewpoint of Freud as a means escapes to protect person to disclose his wishes repressed or recognition of the fact his feelings [16] The analytical confirms that phobias (fears) are a kind of neurotic is Anxiety and thus Anxiety state of fear, tension and turmoil, focused on the illogical fear, makes the person pessimistic and expect the evil which it fears is an illogical without a specific and clear reason. [33]. Both dropping and displacement play a dynamic role in the effective fear (phobia),

Where is internal dropped threats on external threats in a unconscious way For example, fear of conscience punishment is dropped on an external threatened which is darkness becomes a fear of the dark is also is replaced its original source to a more acceptable alternative, example fear of school may be an anxiety because of the separation from the mother, and street fear has symbolized the fear of being assaulted [19]. Psychoanalysts believe that the occurrence of phobias be in the latency stage. (6-12 years) to accompany the growth of the Superego and complete, and that the ability of a child to use defensive tricks most complex or that you need is the other to the growth of the defensive ego capabilities, a child begins attempts to suppress conflict. Repress but this is not enough, so he resorts to transport or displacement and coding Symbol limitation that converts the subject of the original fear to another alternative subject ' the Psychoanalysts see that school phobia that arise from Separation anxiety Felt by both the child and his mother when he went to school, a child spoiled is usually related to his mother, and his mother related with him, nor can any of them to stay away from each other, and therefore operation anxiety occur when a child goes to school, because the child does not want to leave his mother and afraid separation of her, and the mother does not want to leave her son and afraid of it, school phobia symptoms appear when the child [34]. Psychoanalysis emphasizes the role played by the mother in the emergence and development of school phobia which confirms that the theory of school phobia Triggered by a excess separation anxiety as a result of the child unconscious fear on the life of his mother, who he sees at risk (and hence be his life is also in danger). This anxiety can be transmitted contagion from parent to child, and in turn, replies phobia do with the Child, which replaces the feelings of anger caused by Takaful conflict of feelings of extreme anger in the child, and that makes him appear in the form of bouts include reactions cytoplasmic, it is something dreadful to him too, and then his concerns of the school and his desire to return to Lam start [2]. the behavioral school explain phobia as a kind of conditional learning, the events of original associated to the unconditional events, an old incident experienced by the patient in his childhood _ so the conditional stimulus take the role of original one original and natural, and because of this relationship not be clear (mostly) in the mind of the individual for this exciting cop responds to stimuli from without to know the relationship between them, came here from his ignorance of the reasons [3]. As seen traditionalists behaviorists that the phobia is a horror sick of the subject or fear is not suitable to the actual threat posed by this subject and is also fear, banter and created a different way to fears striping In the case of condition fear the fear caused by a direct bad experience with the subject frightening while in the case of phobias fear are replaced form original subject to the alternative one, for example, it is replaced of the fear of separating from the mother to an external subject like dogs or fear of the street despite the lack of exposure to any bad experience directly on the part of these two themes and invests these concerns to ensure the survival next to the motherland [7] Eysenk believes that neurosis is a state of conditional response and theory of learning as a hypothesis state of response condition believe that the theory of education as a Muslim does not assume any unconscious reasons behind the symptoms, but simply considered neurotic symptoms just habits are learned. Eysenk believes that neurotic responses arise from three stages first involving the innate emotional responses either for sad event or for a series of shock events, second: a self-responses of un fear subjects are conditioned to become fear ones because of conditions, the third:

Extinguish this condition fear prevents: without avoiding frightened situations. [19]

10. Previous Studies

Researcher briefed on a number of previous studies that throw recognize parental treatment styles and its relationship with school phobia and a number of other variables.

Said study, 1981 aimed to answer questions relating to the styles followed by mothers in the upbringing of their children (boys, girls) and the differences between mothers and fathers in child-up bring styles according to the academic level variable the sample was (120) mother and father to the children of (51) years old from the province Mosul, and at a rate of (20) mother and father for each level of education, the researcher built a scale of the styles of socialization which consisted of (41) items. The results showed that encouragement and advice and counseling are styles often used by parents, but there is a tendency to use the advice and counseling with boys more than girls. The study showed that deprivation and ostracism style used by parents sometimes. Study the showed that the educational level impact of all used in the upbringing of children, boys and girls which are encouragement advice and counseling, encouragement comes in the first rank on the mothers and fathers of the low educational level the advice and counseling comes in the first rank on the mothers and fathers of the medium and high level of education the parents tend to use tolerance and leniency when material damage happened like refusing to listen, apologize for the mistake sometimes used oscillation style in the positions that need to an educational not the traditional prevailing one experience. [29]

- yamazaki 1983 studies, this study aimed to know the impact of the personal characteristics of the parents and prevailing affection relationship at home with school phobia in their children the study sample consisted of 20 children who suffer from phobia of school and their parents, the ranged of their age between (8-11) years the result showed that there is a child suffer from school phobia in eleven family, as there is two children or more suffer from school phobia in (nine family) the children who have school phobia described school (nine families), and other families, have children describe school phobia their parents authority toward them as negative authority and the relations between the parents is tense and emotional disorder, as well as weak ties phobia among children and Yin and their siblings within a family.

- Atkinson study, et al, 1987 aimed to sub- classification of disorders phobia of school, the sample was(72) children who have a phobia of school, aged between (6-12 years), the results showed that there are three sub- types of school phobia is the first group is composed of 15 children are afraid to break away from his companion, it have found that the mothers of these children the excessive of protection. second groups consisted of (28) children who had been depressed since it controlled the mothers on their children, the third group consisted of (29) children With severe disorders, many family problems, including those who suffer from an early separation or early loss. it is found five variables related with private mother helps to distinguish types of phobia school prominent variables, and these variables are holistic disorders, her mood at the beginning of the disorder, age, source of fear, kind

- Bondy study.1994 study aimed to know the factors affecting the school phobia in children, study sample consisted of 300 children aged (6-9 years) and the results showed that the reasons school phobia males were ranked as follows severe attachment with mother and fear of separation of her, many of homework, new experiences with new people, school failure, hard school system, away from the brothers and classmate, while the reasons for the female are the fear of disintegration or death of a person the child is attached with him, hard school system, the school system hard-line, the distance between home and school, fear of academic failure and the resulting of fatherly punishment fatherly

-Asma study, 1995 study aimed at clinical study of the psychological structure of children who suffer from phobia of school at the primary stage, the study sample consisted of 90 children aged (7-9 years), school phobia scale that he is prapered is used the results showed that psychological structure of the child who suffers from a phobia of school characterized by self-disorder to ward himself, bad relationship between the family, themselves the child who suffers from a phobia of school has feelings of sadness, depression, fear and aggressive tendencies, and lack of emotional affection and personal balance, as pressures and frustrations appear duet from the failure to satisfy his need to belong security and freedom, the study also showed that the causes of school phobia due to psychological, school, biological (genetic)factors, also proved a negative correlation between phobia school and social skills. [5]

-Abdel Moneim study and Mr. Ghazi 0.1996 study aimed to find a relationship between the school and attachment separation disorder on the children of the primary school, study sample consisted of 155 children aged between (6-9 years) The results showed that there is a positive correction of statistical significant between school fears and disorders of separation and attachment, as The results showed that there are no statistically significant differences between males and females in school fears scales, as the study showed the presence of a function a positive relationship between the common concerns in general and trends parenting that are protected and excess pampering and domination between school concerns in particular and all of the extra protection and neglect, and there is a significant negative correlation between the school fears and acceptance, parental in dependence. [8]

Naimi study, 1997: The study aimed to find the differences in the methods of socialization for male children between mothers teachers, according to the age variable for teachers, mothers the sample consist of 600 mother and teacher for age groups (20-29 years) and (30-39 years) and (40) years old and above, to verify the aim the researcher prepared a question are consisting of (37) items represent the behavioral attitudes of male children and included the following styles: (a reward, praise, advice and counseling, tolerance. And forgiveness, negligence, rebuke, hit). The researcher used the arithmetic mean and the percentage and Chi-square test as a statistical methods the results showed that there are a statistical sigh exist differences between the teachers and mothers in the six fields and there are of significant differences between the mothers depending on the three categories and all fields. And the emergence of statistical differences between the mothers in the categories and three levels and in all fields. [25]

Comment on Previous Studies: these studies varied where from of its objectives, study aimed Said to answer questions related to the styles followed by mothers and fathers in the upbringing their children (boys, girls) and the differences between mothers and fathers in children up bringing styles according to the variable of education level of, yamazaki study 1983 aimed to know the impact of the personal characteristics of the parents and the affective prevailing relationship at home with school phobia of their children Atkinson, et al, 1987 To study aimed the sub- classification of phobia disorders school, Bondy study 0.1994 aimed at knowledge the affected factors of the phobia school in children. Asma study, 1995 aimed to a clinical study of the psychological structure of the children who suffer from school phobia at the primary school Abdel Moneim study and Mr. Ghazi 0.1996 aimed to find a relationship between the school phobia and disorder of, attachment and separation at primary school children Naimi study, 1997 aimed to find the differences in the socialization styles of children (male) children between the mothers and teachers. The types and sizes of samples varied According to the aim of the study some of which dealt with the parents and some of which dealt with the teachers and others dealt with the children sample sizes ranged between (20 to 400) children and some of which dealt with the parents of (120) mother and father and some of which dealt with the teachers and mothers of (600) mother and teacher and previous studies varied in the age they ranged between (5-17 years) for children previous studies tools differed, according to their aims of some of which built a scale of parental treatment styles and others built a scale of school phobia and this applies to the current study, where the researcher built a scale of the parent treatment styles and a scale of school phobia, while the results of previous studies, the researcher will discuss them with the results in this research

11. Research Population

The determination of the research population is one of the methodological important steps in the educational and psychological research where the procedures and generalization of the results depends on, the population of the research is formed from all primary schools pupils (first and second stages) in the province of Baghdad second Rusafa of both genders total (149 826) male and female pupils by (79 156) male and female pupils in the first grade of (40 694) male and (38 462) female and (70 670), the second grade of (36 640) male and (34030) female distributed among 516 schools by (117) males and (66) female and (333) Mixed for the academic year (2015-2016)

12. The Research Sample

The sample of the research consisted of 200 male and female pupils who suffer from school, phobia were selected by stratified randomly method from 10 schools of the General Directorate Baghdad Education (Rusafa) of pupils first and second grades of primary by 100 pupils from the first grade and (100) male and female pupils of the second grade, and each school (20) pupils. Of (10) in the first grade, and (10) of the second grade, distributed equally between the sexes.

13. Methodology and Procedures

13.1 Research Methodology

It was followed descriptive approach that seeks to determine the current status of the studied phenomenon it depends on what there is in the fact and concern with as an accurate description, kind of comparative surveys studies fit to the aims of the research.

13.2. Research Tools

To verify the aims of the research the researcher built the following tools:

First, scale of parental treatment styles

In order to build a scale of the styles of parental treatment for primary school pupils the researcher benefited from theoretical the frame workscales and previous studies (Said, 1981, Hammad 1995, Naimi 1997, al-Qaisi in 1998, Khalil in 2006, and al-Saadi, 2011) the researcheradopted Pandora definition in social learning (1961, Bandura And Hyston) which is included four styles for the treatment of parenthood (democracy, authoritarianism, extra protection, negligence). After determining the scale components I was put items of the four components consistent with the theoretical definition the items were put as an behavioral attitudes, each attitude contains four alternatives and each alternative expresses a style of parental treatment styles, a number of items were (40), for four components. (Democratic, authoritarian, extra protection, negligence). It was prepared a clear, understandable and appropriate instructions for different levels of pupils it is demanded from pupils to write some preliminary information, such as gender and class, Moreover, the researcher put an illustrative example to help pupils understand the answer to items also the researcher hid the main aim of the research in order to avoid the of social desirability. The correct ions of pupils answers of the scale items considered each style of the four styles as an independent scale it was given (1) degree the democratic style, for example, the degree of this style and other styles is gathered for all the sample and the final degree that each pupil get indicate the prevailing style, the forms containing more than one answer or uncompleted has neglected. Thus, the highest score obtained by the respondent in the four methods is equal to the number of the items in the scale. To verify the face validity of the items of the scale it is shown on (10) Experts from specialists in education, psychology, set out in the Appendix (1) to express their opinions on the validity of the items if they measure the studied property and the clarity of the instructions and the appropriateness of alternatives to the (styles) the researcher found offer-experts responses analysis it necessary to amend number of paragraphs were accepted paragraphs that got the agreement of 80% or above and so I got (36) items got agreement proportion above than proportion of the specific the specific proportion of the experts acceptance on the item. measure and detect the clarity of the paragraphs of the scale in terms of language, content and the appropriateness of alternatives to the vertebrae and know the average the answer time all the items of the scale, it is shown that the instructions and items are clear and understandable and that it takes time to answer was (15) Minutes. A scale statistical analysis to examine individual responses to each item of the scale for to knowing its accuracy and its ability to measure what its designed to measure, and ensure its efficiency to achieve the principle of individual differences, so the researcher statistically analyzed the scale items in order to detect the degree the correlation of the item with the total degree of the scale, for the scale is applied on (200) pupils (male and female) for item analysis (Nunnally) mentioned that the sample of statistical analysis should be at least five members for each item of the scale in order to reduce the effect of the accident [25]. the researcher calculates the relationship between the degree of the item and, total degree of the scale for 200 male and female pupils of the four methods (neglect, authoritarian, democratic, extra protection), it is showed that the correlation coefficients of the item with total degree of the scale ranged (41.0 to 73.0) and it statistically significant because it is larger than the value of the correlation coefficient (0.098) at the level of significance (0.05) degree of freedom (198), except for four items then they excluded from the scale, and thus the number of scale items measure of parental treatment styles (32) item.

Scale Validity: the researcher got to the current indicators of validity which are face validity and construct validity as mentioned above.

The reliability of the scale the researcher calculated the reliability by half-split method for each style of the four styles by using Pearson formula there liability of style neglect coefficient (0.57) and then corrected (Spearman-Brown) totaled reliability coefficient (0.73)the reliability coefficient of authoritarianism style authoritarianism (0.71) then it is corrected Spearman formula Brown reliability coefficient was (0.83) reliability coefficient for extra protection (0.49) and then corrected formula Spearman Brown was (0.66)the reliability coefficient of democratic style was (0.79) and then corrected by Spearman Brown formula was (0.88)the scale has two identical forms one for the father and the other for the mother and the difference between the two forms is just replace the word father with the word mother and vice versa with a linguistic consequential amendments in each sentence. the scale also contains in its final form on (32) items with several modifications and deletions. And those who answer the paragraphs of the scale are the teachers after asking the pupils and clarify the items and the way of answer.

Second scale school phobia

To build a scale of school phobia to primary school pupils its benefited was to take advantage of the theoretical framework, scales and previous studies (school phobia scale: Prepare Asma, 1995 for pupils of (6-9) years and scale of school phobia for children as understood by the teacher: Preparation by Hijazi 2005 and test of school phobias: prepare Abdul Rahman Saied Suleiman 1988) for ages (6-9 years) and a scale of sick fear from school: prepare Awad Medhat, 1990 applies to pupils in four and five grade in primary,scale of school and preparation of Abdel Moneim Mr. Ghazi 0.1996 and scale of fear for children prepare scale Shakir 0.2000After that, the researcher defined school phobia and put three components have a (physical, emotional, behavioral) then put items for the three components consistent with the theoretical definition and taking into account the purposes of the scale and the characteristics of the sample, which will be applied by the scale the item were put as an behavioral attitudes, each attitude contains three alternatives (often, sometimes, a little bit) the teacher have to choose one alternative only applies to the pupil, so the scale includes (60) items distributed evenly over the three components it were put a Clear understandable and appropriate instructions for various levels of teachers, the instructions have demanded from the teacher to records some initial information about the pupil who suffers from a phobia of school, such as gender and class, as well as the researcher put an illustrative example to help teachers understand the answer of the item, the correction of pupils answers on the scale items scale by giving the pupil degrees (3) if he chooses the alternative(lot) often the degree of (2) if he chooses the alternative sometimes the degree of (1) if a (little) alternative has chosen) for positive items and the reverse to the negative items, the forms that contain more than one answer or in completed answers are neglected. To verify the face validity of the items the scale offered to (10) Experts specialists in education and, psychology, (Annex (2)) to express their opinions on the validity of the items if they measure the studied property and the clarity of the instructions, the appropriateness of alternatives to items (styles) the researcher found after-experts responses analysis that ten items should omit and amend other items, the items that got agreement of 90% or above were (50) items got agreement proportion above than proportion of the specific proportion of the experts acceptance on the items the researcher applied the scale on (20) pupils-males female-to know the clarity of the scale instructions, and revealing the extent and the clarity of the scale in terms-language and content-appropriateness the alternatives to the scale, and know the time average it takes to answer all the items of the scale, it is shown that the instructions and items are clear and understandable and the answer time was (10) minutes a scale statistical analysis to examine individual responses to each item of the scale for knowing its accuracy and its ability to measure what its designed to measure and its ensure efficiency to achieve the principle of individual differences, so the researcher statistically analyzed the scale items in order to detect the correlation degrees of the item with total degree of the scale. The scale is applied on (200)pupils (made and female)(teacher answer son the scale items).for item analyst is the researcher calculates the relationship between the degree of the item and total degree of the scale for (200)pupils it is showed that correlation coefficients of the item with the total degree ranged from(31.0 to 83.0) and they are significant because they are larger than the tabular value of the correlation coefficient (0.098) at the level of significance (0.05) degree of freedom (198), except for five items and then they excluded from the scale, thus the number of the items of school phobia scale are (45) item Distributed evenly on the three components (physical, emotional, behavioral)

Scale Validity: the researcher got for the current scale two indicators of validity, face validity and construct validity. Face valid it is verified of this kind of validity by giving the scale to a jury in education and psychology as mentioned. construct validity indicators: the correlation coefficient degree of each item with total degree of the test is an indicator of construct validity, it has verified this kind of validity in the current scale when a researcher got relationship item degree with and total degree of the scale as signal formerly.

Scale reliability: the researcher calculated the reliability by half-split method the total reliability of school phobia scale was (0.72) then corrected by (Spearman-Brown) formal the total reliability was (0.81)

Research Procedures: It has been applied school phobia scale on the pupils first and second grade, then got the degree of the pupils on the scale and selected pupils who have gotten the highest scores on the scale of school phobia. (200) pupils from grades (first and second) primary were chosen at equal numbers of both genders. Then parental treatment styles scale has applied on the pupils who got highest degree at school phobia scale. The teachers of the school have answered the two scales phobia school pupils and the scale of parental treatment styles in order to know how the sample under standard the scale items and by asking pupils about the items. The application period lasted (15.2.2016) to (03/10/2016).

Statistical methods used: To verify the aims and research hypotheses the researcher used bagful of Social Sciences, SPSS and used the following statistical methods) Pearson correlation coefficient, (Spearman-Brown), for emuldT- test. Regression Analysis)

14. Results and Discussion

First goa: Know parental treatment styles for pupils To verify this aim, the researcher applied t-test for one sample for each style of parental treatment styles (the father) (mother) it was shown as in the Table 1.

It is shown from Table 1 that fathers sample don’t describe by (extra protection style) and the style of ostracism and neglect in dealing with their children. the research sample of fathers describes of (authoritarian style) in the upbringing of children. Democratic style in dealing with their children.

Table 1. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation theoretical mean, value of T degree for the degree of fathers on parental treatment styles parents to gauge parental treatment styles

Table 2. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation of the average theoretical value of T degrees sample moms in the measure of parental treatment methods

It is shown from Table 2 that the sample mothers are described by the following styles (extra protection style) (democratic style) (the style of neglect and ostracism) in dealing with their children. And they are not describe for their style of authoritarian parents in the rearing of children.

15. Discussion of the First Aim

The result of this aim agrees with the results of Saeedstudy 1981, which indicates that the encouragement advice and guidance are styles that often used by parents used by parents, but there is a tendency to use the advice and guidance with boys more than girls. The study showed that deprivation and ostracism is a style used by parents some times, and the parents tend to use tolerance and leniency when material damage happened like refusing to listen and apologize for the mistake, as sometimes used oscillation style in the treatment in the positions that need to educational experience not the traditional prevailing one.

The second Aim:

To verify the second aim, which states: know school phobia for pupils the researcher applied school phobia scale on the sample of (200) male and female were chose by random method. To verify this aim the researcher used selected randomly proportionate to this end, use the T-test for one sample, the results are shown that the mean is(13,22) and standard deviation (7,23) and there is statistically significant differences between the Tow means where the T value was (-18. 16-) which is smaller than tabular value (1.96) at the level of (0.05) and the degree of freedom (199) see Table 3.

Table 3. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation of the average theoretical value of T degrees sample of pupils at the school phobia scale

The results indicated that the pupils of (first and second) grade primary in primary school have no school phobia.

16. Discussion the Results of the Second Aim

The results of current study agree with the results of (yamazaki 1983) study which is shown that there is a child suffers from school phobia in eleven family also she found two or more children are suffering from school phobia in (nine families) Other families.

The third aim to verify this aim and hypothesis which states: "There is a correlation of positive statistically significant between parental treatment styles as perceived by children and school phobia". to verify this hypothesis the researcher used person correlation coefficient between parental treatment style father and school phobia also shown in the Table 4.

Table 4. Pearson correlation coefficients between parental treatment styles (father) and school phobia

Evident from the Table 4

1. There is correlation of statistically significant between father treatment as perceived by children which are (extra protection, authoritarian, neglect) and school phobia

2. There is no statistically significant correlation between the style of parental treatment (democratic style) as perceived by children and school phobia.

Also the researcher calculates correlation coefficients between parental treatment as perceived by the children from the mother and school phobia see Table 5.

Table 5. link to Pearson coefficients between parental treatment methods (the mother) and school phobia

Evident from the Table 5

1. There is correlation of statistically significant between the treatment of the mother as perceived by children which are(extra protection, authoritarian, neglect) and school phobia

2. There is no statistically significant correlation between the style of parental treatment (democratic style) (the mother) as perceived by children and school phobia.

Results of the second hypothesis states on this hypothesis: perceive some parental treatment styles without other of school phobia for pupils to verify the this hypothesis it was used multiple regression analysis of the steps and the results see Table 6. The following are the results:

Table 6. shows the treatment of Father predictors styles phobia in school for pupils

Table 6 shows that the value of hard = (1,48). Perceive some of the treatment styles (father one) as perceived by the children, a) the excess of protection, and the authoritarian style) of school phobia for pupils.

Table 7. shows the treatment of mother predictors styles phobia in school for pupils

Table 7 shows that the value of hard = (2,60)

It is clear from the Table 7 perceive some of treatment styles (mother) perceived by the children, a which are) the excess of protection, and the authoritarian style) in a schoolphobia pupils

17. Discussion the Third Aim and Its Hypotheses

The results confirms that parental treatment styles (father side), predictors in pupils school phobia, is the style of extra protection and authoritarian style whereas the extra protection and pampering are the most anticipated parental treatment styles leading to the phobia of school, because the excessive fear to the child, the excessive protection and pampering makes him worry when faced a new situations alone. Also it deprives the child from in dependence and initiative and be dependent if he stay depends on his parent for along time The authoritarianism and lack of consistency in the treatment are the more styles that make the child feels of psychological in security, in order the child feels psychological security he has to grow warm stable relationships with parents The instability of the parents on one style in treatment with the child loses him the credibility of the parents, which leads to feelings of fear when he separates from them and he will not be back again contrary to what the father says, for example - he lives in permanent fear of not being able to meet the demands of the parents because he does not know that he will be rewarded of his done or be punished.

The mother's treatment styles predictors in school phobia are the same predictors in school phobia on parents (style of extra protection and style of authoritarian) where the mother becomes the basic source of love and psychological security (extrastyle protection) to the child. If mother style characterized in excess anxiety the child suffers from phobia of school when he is left alone, has no ability to face life alone so feels fear of separation from the mother. The feelings of fear and anxiety transmitted from mother to the child by the direct methods of learning, keen and worried mother spreads fear of separation inside her child so he feels anxiety separation about him broadcast feelings Fear of separation in d same because of the predictors mother treatment of in school phobia the child compels under threaten of his psychological security to strictness and authoritarianism from his mother to relate with his father more, and cruelty on the part of the mother to link as he represents a source of protection from authoritarian or strictness more father style of his mother in dealing with her it also grows on the child as a result of strictness treatment unsafe attachment with the family members family members as a result of feeling threat of punishment makes him always tension and concern. Does not find security from anyone except the father so he increases attachment with him. This result agreed with results of previous studies as authority to wards them one a yamazaki 1983 study mentioned that Children who suffer from phobias described their parents as negative the relations between the parents are in tension and emotional disorders, as well as the weakness of the relations between the kids who feel the phobia and between their brothers in the family. Atkinson, et at 1987 study indicated that children who suffer from school phobia their mothers were excessive protection. Bondy 1994 study indicated that for the reasons school phobia of males, including severe attachment with mother, fear to separate of her while the reasons for the female is the fear of disintegration or death of a person the child is related with him, the hard school system hardline, The farness distance between home and school, the fear of academic failure and the parental punishment resulting. Abdel Moneim and Mr. Ghazi 1996 study clarify the existence of a positive correlation of statistically significant between the school fears and separation and attachment disorders.

18. Interpreting Search Result

The current research found that primary school Pupils suffer from phobia of school, and there is a relationship between parental treatment methods (extra protection, bullying, neglect) and school phobia. The interpretation of this result is the school phobia one of neurotic disorders that affect the psychological and social composition of the kids and it growth from Separation Anxiety that felt by child, as well as the poor security situation in Iraq and the fear of kidnapping and murder when he went to school, a child usually related to his mother and they actually they cannot stay away from each other. When the child goes to school, school phobia symptoms appear, in the form of anger and bouts of visceral reactions and severe anxiety. Perhaps arising from school phobia adaptive response is not linked closely educated Conditional fear of pain, or the loss by observing the behavior of others.

19. Recommendations

1. the parents and educators should to follow the normal styles of parental treatment and care the children and avoid the abnormal styles that cause of independency and school phobia to the child.

2. the child must separate from his family gradually by joining him in kindergarten before joining in primary school.

3. create a normal family, which climate full of security and peace, avoid conflict between the parents, accept the child, in his treatment and to encourage the child to independence from the family.

20. Suggestions

In light of the search results researcher suggests the following research:

1- study school phobia to the pupils (joining and not joining) in kindergarten.

2-. The relationship between the school phobia. social skills

3 –study the relationship between parental treatment styles and school phobia, according to some of the variables (gender, deliver sequence, the work of the mother, and the interaction between them).

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