Attitude of College Teachers towards Teaching Profession

Debdas Sarkar, Santosh Kumar Behera

American Journal of Educational Research

Attitude of College Teachers towards Teaching Profession

Debdas Sarkar1,, Santosh Kumar Behera1,

1Department of Education, Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University, Purulia, West Bengal, India

Abstract

The holiest place on the earth is not a Temple or a Church or a Mosque but a School. The sacred person in the world is not a Priest or a Pope or a Moullabi but a Teacher. Teacher was compared to a God and treated as a combination of the Trimurty (Brahma, Vishnu and Maheswar) as well as the supreme one i.e., “Guru Brahma, Guru Bishnu, Gurudeb Maheswar, Guru Sakhat Paramabrahma Tasmeisri Gurabe Namah”. According to the Indian culture a child receives his first physical birth from the parents and the second birth of the hands of the teacher. The teacher is given a higher position than parents, because he opines the pupil’s eyes of knowledge and moulds his character. Teacher plays an important role as friend, philosopher guide and helper of the student. The society places high hopes on a teacher. Keeping the importance of Teaching Profession an attempt has made through this study by the investigators to know the attitude of College teachers towards Teaching Profession in Cooch Behar District of West Bengal. The present study was based on survey method, particularly, the normative survey research method. One hundred eighty teachers (both male and female) teaching in Social and General Science streams were taken as representative sample of the whole population. An attitude scale was used for collecting the data. The means of both groups were tested for significance of difference by using ‘CR’ test. It was found that, the attitude of College teachers of Cooch Behar district of West Bengal is neither more favourable nor unfavourable towards Teaching Profession i.e., satisfactory or average in attitude towards Teaching Profession.

Cite this article:

  • Debdas Sarkar, Santosh Kumar Behera. Attitude of College Teachers towards Teaching Profession. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 4, No. 11, 2016, pp 834-839. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/4/11/9
  • Sarkar, Debdas, and Santosh Kumar Behera. "Attitude of College Teachers towards Teaching Profession." American Journal of Educational Research 4.11 (2016): 834-839.
  • Sarkar, D. , & Behera, S. K. (2016). Attitude of College Teachers towards Teaching Profession. American Journal of Educational Research, 4(11), 834-839.
  • Sarkar, Debdas, and Santosh Kumar Behera. "Attitude of College Teachers towards Teaching Profession." American Journal of Educational Research 4, no. 11 (2016): 834-839.

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1. Introduction

Education helps cushion high rate of literacy effect, emancipate the masses from the shackle of ignorance, equipping them with cognitive skills to induce development and make them aware politically economically, socially and enable them produce and develop teaming human resources, producing caliber of personnel imbued with skills for productivity- Ogunna cited in Okemakido (2013). Education is a lifelong process. In this process of education, the teacher plays an important role. Without teacher the process of education is ineffective. He is the heart of the matter of this process. Education takes place through the interaction between the teacher and the taught. A teacher is the most important element in the teaching-learning process. It is said that no system of education is better than its teacher, because the quality of education depends upon the teacher who serve it. [12]. A good teacher can certainly give best result out of the worst system [11]. The teacher occupies a pivotal position in the system of education. The teacher is the backbone of the educational system, maker of the mankind and architect of the nation. Anikweze, Ojo and Mayanya [1] assert that teachers should be the carrier of the culture of the society, the agent for its propagation, perpetuation and renewal, as well as the architect for its change for the better. Considering the above, a person who performs this role should be counted first before others in the society without him the society may remain in the dark. Teacher’s function should not be confined in the classroom teaching only rather he should be the role model before the students in all activities in and around the school. Teaching profession is a noble profession. The University Education Commission (1948) emphasized the importance of the teacher and his responsibility. The aim of education is the all round development of child’s personality. This need of education can be realized only when the teaching profession is effective. Effective teaching is the development of total attitude towards teaching profession. The attitude can be effective when the teacher is able to motivate the learners to learn in desired direction. When it has universally acknowledged that a teacher is the pivot in any educational system and professional efficiency of teacher depends to a considerable extent upon attitude which he bears towards the profession. Kothari Commission (1964-66) has aptly observed that “the future of the nation is shaped in her class room”. The teacher has a powerful and abiding influence in the formation of the character of every future citizen. He acts as a pivot for the transmission of intellectual, technical skills and cultural traditions from one generation to the other. The responsibility of the teacher is very great, therefore the nation depends upon the teacher well being. National Policy of Education [17] has rightly stated that, “The status of the teacher reflects the socio-cultural ethos of a society, it is said that no people can rise above the level of its teacher”. NCTE [7] in Quality Concerns in Secondary Teacher Education, - “The teacher is the most important element in any educational program. It is the teacher who is mainly responsible for implementation of the educational process at any stage”. The American Commission on Teacher Education rightly observes, “The quality of a nation depends upon the quality of its citizens. The quality of its citizens depends not exclusively, but in critical measure upon the quality of their education, the quality of their education depends more than upon any single factor, upon the quality of their teacher.” The religious leaders, social reformers and educationists are also given much more importance to teacher in different periods. Tagore says that “a lamp can never light another lamp, unless it continues to burn its own flame. A teacher can never truly teach unless he himself continues to learn”. Therefore teacher has to adopt improve ways of teaching and learning. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan says that “the teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. He acts as the pivot for the transmission of intellectual traditions and technical skills from generation to generation, and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. He not only guides the individual, but also, so to say the destiny of the nation”. Teaching is a profession-indeed a noble one, conceptually and ideally. It is also different from other professions because of its multitude of dimensions. Teachers are the largest professional group engaged in human development activities. It is only in the case of teaching there is much more that is required to be accomplished than in the case of other professions. Training of the practitioners is considered to be one of the important characteristics of a profession. Therefore, in order to befit the teachers to their roles, a sound professional training is needed. Induction training and continuous education thereafter equips the teachers with adequate knowledge and skills to perform their professional functions. Hence, the training of the teachers assumes special importance. Professional training of a teacher implies his mastery in knowledge of the subject, in pedagogy and teaching techniques.

Best on the commission reports, several positive steps have undertaken to improve the quality of teacher education by organizing a suitable climate and improving the socio-economic status of the teacher. But unfortunately these measures have neither help to improve the morale of the teachers nor enabled them to have a favourable attitude towards teaching profession by upholding the dignity and status of the teaching profession. Hence, improving the quality of education in the continuing to be a burning problem the educationist have concentrated more on secondary and higher levels of education than on primary education. Several studies may have to be undertaken to arrive at a class concerns on the matter. The present study is a modest attempt in this direction. In recent period there is a general feeling that the teachers do not have satisfaction in their profession. There seems to be a growing discontentment on the part of the teachers towards their teaching profession, as a result of which standards of education are failing. It is a fact that the teachers are really dissatisfied in spite of the various plans and programmers which have been implemented by the state and central government to improve their a lot. Maximum teacher have no real love for their profession or interest in their students. The progress and standard of any nation cannot be beyond the standard of her system of education and the standard of her educational institutions. The standard of any educational institution, in turn, cannot rise beyond the levels of its teachers. Naturally, the question arises: what is the real situation? Do the teachers really have unfavourable attitude towards teaching profession? In order to get answer to the above question, the researchers decided to take up a systematic and objective attitudinal study of the College teachers towards their teaching profession. Therefore, the present investigators intended to restrict their research work to Cooch Behar district of West Bengal.

1.1. Statement of the Problem:

The problem for the present study is specifically stated as below:-

Attitude of College Teachers towards Teaching Profession.

1.2. Review of Related Literature:

NCERT [8] conducted a study to know how teachers related to various issue related to their professional life and efficiency and to study as to how the attitudes of teachers difference significantly under different managements. Gupta, [5] conducted a study on Attitude of Teachers and found that male and female teachers differ significantly in attitude towards teaching profession. Ramakrishnaih, [13] analyzed the attitude of college teachers towards teaching profession and it was found that (i) generally college teachers have a favourable attitude towards teaching (ii) Teachers below 35 years of age have a more favourable attitude towards teaching than the middle age group and the high age group. Saxena [14] and Magar [6] found that private colleges have better attitude towards the teaching profession than govt colleges. Zayapragassarazan and Pughazhendi [19] observed that there was an overall favourable perception among the student teachers of the different education colleges of Pondicherry and Karaikal region. There was no significant difference between male and female, language and science group, arts and science group, arts and language B.Ed. student-teachers perception of teaching practice programme. Barwal [2] in her study revealed that there exists significant difference in the attitude of male and female, graduate and post graduate, rural and urban secondary school teachers towards their teaching profession. Oruc [9] run his study with a sample of 80 trainee teachers studying at a state university's Faculty of Education of English Language Teaching Department in Turkey. The research findings showed that the attitudes of participants towards the teaching profession were very positive. Banerjee, Srijita & Behera, S.K. [4] have conducted a study on “The Attitude of Secondary School Teachers towards Teaching Profession in Purulia District of West Bengal, India.” The study revealed that: The attitude of school teachers of Purulia district of West Bengal is neither more favourable nor unfavourable towards Teaching profession that is, satisfactory or average in attitude towards Teaching profession. There is significant difference in attitude towards teaching profession between female and male teachers, Rural and Urban teachers. The study also revealed that: There is no significant difference in the attitude of Trained (Pedagogical training) and Untrained (No Pedagogical training); social and general science teachers towards Teaching Profession.

1.3. Need and Significance of the Study:

Teachers who are generally unenthusiastic about the teaching profession (i.e. having a negative job orientation) reported in one study, that they were more distressed about their teaching situation than were teachers who were enthusiastic. Thus, for the professional growth of the teachers and improvements in education, the attitudes held by them are very important. How a teacher performs his/her duty as a teacher is dependent, to a great extent, on his/her attitudes, values and beliefs. A positive favourable attitude makes the work not only easier but also more satisfying and professionally rewarding. A negative and unfavourable attitude makes the teaching task harder, tedious and unpleasant. In addition, a teacher’s attitude also influences the behaviour of her / his students. Thus effective and productive learning on the part of students can be achieved only by teachers with desirable attitudes. Thus, teacher’s attitude towards teaching profession forms the major variable for the present study on College teachers.

The study is significant for a number of reasons. Firstly, a deeper understanding of teachers’ attitudes towards teaching profession in the content area will be gained. Secondly, the results from this study can help the Government as well as the different department of Colleges to develop positive attitudes in teachers towards teaching profession. Finally, the information gained from this study can benefit to the new comers in this profession. Importance of the study of teacher’s attitude towards teaching profession is generated in the mind of investigator to study the influence between moderator variables. From the psychological point of view the teachers' attitude is most influential in teaching profession. Attitudes are generally the outcome of values and more implied in the environment surrounding the young mind. Colleges should build up a good environment where favourable teacher’s attitude towards teaching profession may find healthy sustenance. Hence there a great need for a study of teachers attitude towards teaching profession in College level in relation to gender and locality.

Therefore, the researcher feels that particularly the College teacher’s opinions or their attitudes can never be ignored, rather those should be reviewed or re-explored time to time, it is this feeling that has urged this investigator to take up the present study on a particular region of West Bengal. It is expected that, this study, through small, will be able to make some significant contributions in the field of education.

1.4. Delimitations of the Study:

(A) Geographical Area

The investigation was delimited to only Cooch Behar district of West Bengal.

(B) Level of Education

(i) The study was restricted to the college teachers in Cooch Behar district.

(ii) Among the College Teachers, only the General and Social Science teachers were considered as the subjects of the present study.

(C) Type of Study

This study was conducted only at surface level. It was not an ‘in-depth’ study. Attempt to know the subject’s attitude by administering an attitude scale constructed by the researchers. No inter-state comparison was done. Only intra- district comparison between the male teachers and female-teachers, between General and Social science teachers, rural and urban teachers, Permanent and Part Time teachers, teachers having teaching experience between less than 5 years and above 5 years, and bases on their caste i.e. General and SC/ST, General and OBC were done.

1.5. Research Questions:
1.5.1. Overarching Question

What are the teachers’ attitudes towards Teaching Profession at College Level in Cooch Behar District of West Bengal?


1.5.2. Sub-questions:

a) Is there any significant difference between the attitude of male and female college teachers towards Teaching Profession?

b) Is there any significant difference between the attitude of rural and urban college teachers towards Teaching Profession?

c) Is there any significant difference between the attitude of Arts and Science college teachers towards Teaching Profession?

d) Is there any significant difference between the attitude of Less and above than 5 years teaching experience college teachers towards Teaching Profession?

e) Is there any significant difference between the attitude General and SC / ST College teachers towards Teaching Profession?

f) Is there any significant difference between the attitude of General and OBC College teachers towards Teaching Profession?

g) Is there any significant difference between the attitude of Permanent and Part-time college teachers towards Teaching Profession?

1.6. Objectives of the Study

1. To ascertain the attitude of college teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar District of West Bengal.

2. To find out the difference between the attitude of Male and Female college teachers towards teaching profession.

3. To find out the difference between the attitude of Rural and Urban college teachers towards teaching profession.

4. To find out the difference between the attitude of Arts and Science college teachers towards teaching profession.

5. To find out the difference between the attitude of Less and above than 5 years teaching experience college teachers towards teaching profession.

6. To find out the difference between the attitude General and SC / ST College teachers towards Teaching Profession.

7. To find out the difference between the attitude of General and OBC College teachers towards Teaching Profession.

8. To find out the difference between the attitude of Permanent and Part-time college teachers towards teaching profession.

1.7. Hypotheses of the Study

H1: The college teachers will have more favorable attitude towards Teaching Profession in Cooch Behar district of West Bengal.

H2: There is significant difference between the attitude of Male and Female college teachers towards teaching profession.

H3: There is significant difference between the attitude of Rural and Urban College teachers towards teaching profession.

H4: There is significant difference between the attitude of Arts and Science college teachers towards teaching profession.

H5: There is significant difference between the attitude of Less and above than 5 years teaching experience college teachers towards teaching profession.

H6: There is significant difference between the attitude of General and SC / ST college teachers towards teaching profession.

H7: There is significant difference between the attitude of General and OBC college teachers towards teaching profession.

H8: There is significant difference between the attitude of Permanent and Part Time college teachers towards teaching profession.

2. Methodology

The present study is based on survey method, particularly, the normative survey research method.

2.1. Population of the Study

The College Teachers of Cooch Behar district of West Bengal comprised the population of this study.

2.2. The Sample and Sampling Procedure

70 Teachers of four Rural Colleges and 110 Teachers of five Urban Colleges teaching in Permanent (95) and Part Time (85) in Cooch Behar district of West Bengal were taken as representative sample of the whole population. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted for selecting the Colleges. At first separate lists of Rural and Urban Colleges in Cooch Behar District were prepared. From among the lists of colleges, four rural and Five Urban colleges were selected through random sampling procedure. From among the three streams –Arts, Science and Commerce, only two streams (Arts and Science) teachers were treated as the subjects of the present study. Hence, total sample of this study consisted of 180 teachers.

2.3. The Tool Used

An attitude scale (Likert Type) was used for knowing the attitude of the College Teachers towards Teaching Profession. The tool was a five-point scale; that is to say, there were five scale points. Where 30 items and each of items have 5 alternative answers are present.

2.4. Statistical Techniques

Mean, Standard Deviation and ‘CR’ test was used to analyze the collected data and verify the hypotheses.

2.5. Analysis and Interpretation of DataA
2.5.1. Testing of H1

The college teachers will have more favorable attitude towards Teaching Profession in Cooch Behar district of West Bengal.

Table 1. The attitude of college teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar District of West Bengal

Through the help of cut-off point the Investigator verified the H1. Here Cut-off Point is M + 1σ. It means, Mean=122.82, N=180 and σ=10.64. Hence M +1 σ is 122.82+ 1 x 10.64= 133.46. And M -1 σ=122.82 – 1x 10.64=112.18. Most of College Teachers (116 in number) i.e., 64.44 % of Teachers were lies between 112.18 to 133.46 scores.

Hence, it can be said that the attitude of College Teachers in Cooch Behar district of West Bengal is neither more favorable nor unfavorable towards Teaching Profession i.e., satisfactory or average in attitude towards Teaching Profession.

Table 2. Showing significant differences between variables


2.5.2. Testing of H2

From Table 2, it is observed that the calculated CR value (2.64) is greater than the table value (2.58 at 0.01 level & 1.96 at 0.05 level). That is to say that, the difference between the two groups (Male and Female) is significant at 0.01 & 0.05 level.

Hence, the Ho2 is rejected and the researcher’s H2 is retained; that is to say that, there is significant difference between the attitude of Male and Female college teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar district.


2.5.3. Testing of H3

From Table 2, it is found that the calculated value of CR value (0.62) is less than the table value at 0.05 level (0.62<1.96). Thus the difference between the two groups (Rural and Urban) is not significant at 0.05 level.

Hence, the H03 is accepted and the researcher’s H3 is rejected; that is to say that, there is no significant difference between the attitude of Rural and Urban College teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar district.


2.5.4. Testing of H4

From Table 2, it is observed that the calculated CR value (2.67) is greater than the table value (2.58 at 0.01 level & 1.96 at 0.05 level). That is to say that, the difference between the two groups is significant at 0.01 & 0.05 level.

Hence, the Ho4 is rejected and the researcher’s H4 is retained; that is to say that, there is significant difference between the attitude of Arts and Science streams college teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar district.


2.5.5. Testing of H5

From Table 2, it is found that the calculated value of CR (0.82) is less than the table value at 0.05 level (0.82 <1.96). Thus the difference between the two groups is not significant at 0.05 level.

Hence, the H05 is accepted and the researcher’s H5 is rejected; that is to say that, there is no significant difference between the attitude of college teachers having Less than 5 years and above than 5 years teaching experience towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar District.


2.5.6. Testing of H6

From Table 2, it is found that the calculated value of CR (2.34) is greater than the table value at 0.05 level (2.34>1.96). Thus the difference between the two groups is significant at 0.5 level.

Hence, the H06 is rejected and the researcher’s H6 is retained; that to say that, there is significant of difference between the attitude of General caste and SC / ST college teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar district.


2.5.7. Testing of H7

From Table 2, it is found that the calculated value of CR (0.47) is less than the table value at 0.05 level (0.47 <1.96). Thus the difference between the two groups is not significant at 0.05 level.

Hence, the H07 is accepted and the researcher’s H7 is rejected; that is to say that, there is no significant difference between the attitude of General Caste and OBC College teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar district.


2.5.8. Testing of H8

From Table 2, it is found that the calculated value of CR (1.84) is less than the table value at 0.05 level (1.84<1.96). Thus the difference between the two groups is not significant at 0.5 level.

Hence, the H08 is accepted and the researcher’s H8 is rejected; that is to say that, there is no significant difference between the attitude of Permanent and Part Time College teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar district.

3. Discussion

The major findings of this study revealed that the attitude of College teachers in Cooch Behar district of West Bengal is neither more favourable nor unfavourable towards teaching profession i.e., satisfactory or average in attitude towards teaching profession.

It is found that there is significant difference between the attitude of Male and Female college teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar district. It is also found that, the attitude of Female college teachers is comparatively more favorable than that of Male college teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar district. It may be due to the fact that, female college teacher have realized more the importance of teaching profession for their better future. It may also seems to be that the female college teachers have more prefer teaching profession because they feel that is – acquaints them with the wealth of knowledge in different areas of life. The finding of this study is also corroborated with other findings of the studies done by- Trivedi, Tripta, [15], Belagali, H.V. [3], Banerjee, Srijita & Behera, S.K, [4]. They also reported that the attitude of Female teachers is more favorable than that of Male teachers towards teaching profession.

The present study indicates that there is no significant difference between the attitude of Rural and Urban College teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar district. It is also found that, the attitude of rural college teachers is comparatively more favorable than that of urban college teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar district.

The present study indicates that there is significant difference between the attitude of Arts and Science streams college teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar district. It is also found that, the attitude of Science stream college teachers is relatively more favorable than that of Arts stream college teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar district.

However, it is found that there is no significant difference between the attitudes of college teachers having Less than 5 years and above than 5 years teaching experience towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar District. It is also found that, the attitude of Above than 5 years teaching experience college teachers is comparatively more favourable than that of the Less than 5 years teaching experience college teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar district.

The major findings of this study revealed that there is significant difference between the attitude of General caste and SC / ST college teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar district. It is also found that, the attitude of General Caste college teachers is reasonably more favorable than that of SC/ST college teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar district.

It is also found that there is no significant difference between the attitude of General Caste and OBC College teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar district. It is found that, the attitude of General Caste college teachers is moderately more favourable than that of OBC college teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar district.

The last findings of this study revealed that there is no significant difference between the attitude of Permanent and Part Time College teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar district. It is also found that, the attitude of Permanent college teachers is comparatively more favourable than that of the Part Time college teachers towards teaching profession in Cooch Behar district.

4. Educational Implications

1. It is a humble attempt in his direction to assess the level of knowledge and attitude of College teachers towards teaching profession.

2. This study is very much essential for acquiring of rights skill, offering knowledge and shaping the desirable attitude towards teaching profession.

3. This study is very much essential that promotes the equal educational opportunities of College teachers.

4. The need of the day is to make College teachers realize their capabilities and improve upon capabilities to help solve the problem of their life through teaching profession.

5. This study is very much essential for development of professional efficiency and quality education of College teachers.

6. This study will be of immense use for the educational administrators, which will throw light upon the attitude of teacher‘s of all level of education.

7. Special efforts should be made in order to develop teaching profession attitude among the College teachers.

8. Special efforts should be made in order to develop teaching profession attitude among the College Male teachers.

9. Special efforts should be made in order to develop teaching profession attitude among the College Rural teachers.

5. Suggestions for Further Studies

1. This study suggests that the attitude of teachers towards teaching profession must be tested on some other variables like pay structure, teaching experience, caste etc. it is also recommended that recommended that such type of study must be investigated outside of Cooch Behar District for its rationality. This study can be conducted in other university.

2. Similar studies can be conducted by taking large sample of from other parts of the country.

3. Similar studies can be done at various levels of education in India.

4. Similar studies can be undertaken in different states of India.

5. ‘In-depth’ studies may be conducted in order to know real attitude of the subject. A team-work may be required for the purpose.

6. If comparative surveys indicate unusually adverse attitude of a group of subjects towards teaching profession, causal studies may be undertaken to know the reasons behind such unusual attitude.

7. Causal studies may be undertaken to know the reasons behind unfavourable attitude.

References

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[17]  The National Policy on Education (1986).
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[18]  The Report of Kothari Commission (1964-66).
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[19]  Zayapragassarazan, Z, & Pughazhendi, S. (2007) Perception of B.Ed. Student-teachers towards Teaching Practice Programme. Educational Tracts, Vol-6, No-6.
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