Exploring the Quality of Learning of Integrated Fader-based Domain at Department of Islamic Religiou...

Lailial Muhtifah, Zaenuddin, Ma’ruf

American Journal of Educational Research

Exploring the Quality of Learning of Integrated Fader-based Domain at Department of Islamic Religious Education of Teacher Training and Tarbiya Faculty Iain Pontianak

Lailial Muhtifah1,, Zaenuddin2, Ma’ruf1

1IAIN, Teacher Training and Tarbiyah Faculty Pontianak Indonesia

2IAIN, Ushuluddin, Adab and Dakwah Faculty Pontianak Indonesia

Abstract

This research aims to explore the quality of learning of integrated FADER-based domain at the Department of Islamic Religious Education (PAI) at the Teacher Training and Tarbiya Faculty (FTIK) State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Pontianak. Specifically the goals are formulated based the research questions, i.e. to explore: 1) the quality of learning prior to treatment of integrated FADER-based domain; 2) the quality of learning of integrated FADER-based domain in the control class; 3) the quality of learning of integrated domain in the class that received treatment; 4) the level of differences in the quality of learning of integrated FADER-based domain in the control class and the class that received treatment. The method used in this research was the True Experimental Design) with qualitative-quantitative approaches abbreviated to TEDQ2. TEDQ2 is a study conducted to two groups, one as the treatment group and the other as a control. Class A served as a control class and Class C received the treatment. The objects of the study were 78 students. The control class consisted of 39 studentse (23 males and 16 females) and the treatment class consisted of 39 people (17 males and 22 females). The data collection tools used in this research were observation, interviews, group discussions, and documentation. The process of data analysis was conduted in two stages. First, the analysis was carried out in the field at the start of data collection which consisted of 1) checking, 2) organizing, and 3) coding. Second, after the data were collected: 1) meaning, 2) interpretative, and 3) conclusion. Research findings showed that the indicator of integrative FADER-based domain in the class that received treatment had a higher quality than the control class as a whole. Finally, it is recommended that based on the findings the integrated FADER-based domain learning quality is necessary to be applied in order to improve the quality of learning holistically especially on the subject of Islamic Religious Education (PAI).

Cite this article:

  • Lailial Muhtifah, Zaenuddin, Ma’ruf. Exploring the Quality of Learning of Integrated Fader-based Domain at Department of Islamic Religious Education of Teacher Training and Tarbiya Faculty Iain Pontianak. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 4, No. 11, 2016, pp 847-853. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/4/11/11
  • Muhtifah, Lailial, Zaenuddin, and Ma’ruf. "Exploring the Quality of Learning of Integrated Fader-based Domain at Department of Islamic Religious Education of Teacher Training and Tarbiya Faculty Iain Pontianak." American Journal of Educational Research 4.11 (2016): 847-853.
  • Muhtifah, L. , Zaenuddin,, & Ma’ruf. (2016). Exploring the Quality of Learning of Integrated Fader-based Domain at Department of Islamic Religious Education of Teacher Training and Tarbiya Faculty Iain Pontianak. American Journal of Educational Research, 4(11), 847-853.
  • Muhtifah, Lailial, Zaenuddin, and Ma’ruf. "Exploring the Quality of Learning of Integrated Fader-based Domain at Department of Islamic Religious Education of Teacher Training and Tarbiya Faculty Iain Pontianak." American Journal of Educational Research 4, no. 11 (2016): 847-853.

Import into BibTeX Import into EndNote Import into RefMan Import into RefWorks

1. Introduction

Examining quality of learning is very urgent. Another term is a excellence learning. Gill Nichollas asserts that the increasing demands for teaching excellence in higher education have led to new academics needing induction into what it is to teach and how students learn. Quality of instruction in essence refers to the extent to which the instruction makes it easy for students to achieve the intended learning outcomes.Quality instruction covers a variety of aspects and elements of instruction, the most significant of which is the lecturer's transactions with the students and the content, structure and organisation of the learning medium. students learn in different ways and it is important to understand the elements that constitute tha basic learning processes. [1]. Determinants of quality according to Candy P adalah learning ideas and skills of quality and high quality learning outcomes [2]. Quality of learning can be formulated from three aspects, i.e. intellectual quality, quality of learnng, and the significance of what students are doing. Learning requires an implementation process in accordance with what has been planned. One of the aspects that determines the quality of learning is the significance of what the students do. The determinants of the quality in this context are background knowledge, cultural knowledge, knowledge integration, inkulisiveness, narrative and connections [3]. This research focuses on the integration of knowledge with regard to integrated learning, i.e. learning that integrates the, cognitive, affective and psychomotoric domains. Asrat Dagnew and Aster Asrat outlined that many countries today simultaneously introduce complex reforms in the learning process associated with a form of active learning that pomotes more participation [4].

Education and Islamic education in particular has a strategic role and a fundamental mission to shape human character. The main task of Islamic education is to build a strong foundation of monotheism education and students’ character development. Abdul Mujib and Jusuf Mudzakkir explained that the task of Islamic education is a process that continues incessantly as the nature of Islamic education is an endless process in line with the universal consensus set by Allah and His Messenger [5]. In addition, the task of Islamic education is to help the development of students in piety and good moral competencies outlined in the six aspects of the faith, five aspects of Islam and many aspects of righteousness, enhancing intelligence, and competence, advancing science and technology including its benefits and application.

From the observation while revealing some facts that identifies the problem as described below. First, conceptually subjects of Islamic education aims and functioning as described above, but some of these functions are less performing well in the learning process, because the functions related benefits and the application can improve the quality of life by maintaining, developing, and enhancing cultural and the environment, and expand the view of life as a human being communicative on the family, community, nation and fellow human beings and other creatures. Second, lacking the affective domain raised and eksplisitkan in learning. In general, the lecturers and teachers tend to be difficult to provide insight and guidance to students so that they better understand and more skilled in preparing lesson plans, implement and evaluate it. It is therefore necessary tool for quality improvement process PAI learning of theory that has been proven one of them is the fader. Fader stands for Focus, analysize, Development, Excute, and Review. Fader is one of the tools to improve the quality of TQM theory. Third, in general, students in SK and KD preparing the syllabus and RPP less understanding and less skilled integrate the three domains (affective, cognitive and psychomotor) learning. SK and KD tends preparation of the syllabus and lesson plans tend to be dominated by cognitive and psychomotor competencies. Third, the curriculum in 2013 and formulate competency-based curriculum KKNI attitude becomes quite urgent and beckoned all competencies, but his learning practices tend competence through learning attitude is not directly processed as nurturent efect. Fourth, in general, the students prepare KD, indicators, TP, learning materials, learning steps, methods and strategies for learning and assessment are less likely to use the verb operational three domains (affective, cognitive and psychomotor).

The above explanation is reinforced by the opinions Muchtar Buchari (2000) considered that PAI still fail. This failure is caused by the practice of education only emphasizes cognitive aspects alone and turned into religious teaching, so it is not able to form unscrupulous persons, whereas the essence of PAI is moral education and character education. Islamic education tends to secular-materialistic and have proven failed to bear man whose character and has a holistic personality. Similar opinion by Abudin Nata (2009: 25) argues that the factors idiil that underlies the implementation of Islamic education has not been studied and researched more in depth which produces Islamic education oriented to the three basic human skills (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor) and the result [6].

Some of the issues mentioned above it is important to be solved or look for solutions through research, namely; 1) raise the competence of attitude (KI.1 and KI. 2) or affective domain competence through hands-on learning process and the learning process is not directly not only through the learning process is indirect and will know the results, 2) students as prospective teachers will be more skilled at using the whole domain (affective, cognitive and psychomotor), so that all three domains are integrated in the learning process directly, and 3) the study will examine more deeply which resulted in Islamic education-oriented third basic human skills (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor) and the results,

 Facts determinant that gives hope solving through research to be carried out can be assessed in the following description. First, the results of a study conducted by Kerry Shephard (2007: 95) concludes in his paper that it is necessary to consider key aspects of teaching and learning in the affective domain that could potentially have applications in education for sustainability. This includes the need to design a specific approach for evaluation penilaiandan, the need to give academic credit for affective outcomes, an important role darimodel role, and the need to achieve a realistic, can be assessed and accepted from the learning outcomes in the affective domain [7].

The added value obtained in this study compared with the results of previous studies namely; 1) enhance the weaknesses of the curriculum SBC 2006 and the curriculum SBC 2013 from the aspect raises integrtif domain in learning, 2) improving the weaknesses of the learning process carried out so far are likely to affective domain implemented in the learning process not just be a learning process directly and not direct, and 3) finding an integrative teaching model domain through quality improvement tool in TQM called faders. The learning model in the process of aligning the three domains of learning process directly. Kerry Shephard (2007: 87) asserts that educators have traditionally been reluctant to pursue affective learning outcomes of study programs but often fail to identify and describe their legitimate objectives in these terms. Kerry Shephard (2007: 86) further outlines that the relevant theory separates affective learning of cognitive learning. Affective learning with regard to values, attitudes and behavior and emotional involve students. Cognitive learning more related to knowledge and its application. It is possible to construct an argument that the essence of education for sustainability is the search for affective outcomes.

2. Discussion

a. How is the exploration of the quality of learning prior to treatment of integrated FADER-based domain?

b. How is the exploration of the quality of learning of integrated FADER-based domain in the control class?

c. How is the quality of learning of integrated domain in the class that received FADER-based treatment?

d. What is the level of differences in the quality of learning of integrated FADER-based domain in the control class and the class that received treatment?

2.1. Research Design
2.1.1. Subject

The main objective of this research is explore the quality of learning of integrated FADER-based domain in the control class and the treatment class at the Department of Islamic Religious Education (PAI) at the Teacher Training and Tarbiya Faculty (FTIK) State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Pontianak. The research method used in this study was the True Experimental Design with qualitative-quantitative approaches abbreviated to TEDQ2. TEDQ2 is a study conducted to two groups, one as the treatment group and the other as a control. According to George W. Fairweather, Louis G. and Tornatzky [8] the use of research methods in social innovation, experimental research aims to find important conditions whose results are then disseminated as a successful model. TEDQ2 tries to control all the activities and behavior that are seen, heard and felt in the two groups, then tries to pay attention to and determine if the treatment actually leads to an increase in quality. The treatment in question is to explore the quality of learning of integrated FADER-based domain. In accordance with the main characteristics of qualitative research, the procedures of this study followed the procedures introduced by Spradley [9].


2.1.2. Data Collection Instruments

To collect qualitative data, this study used the instruments of observation, interviews, and documents. The quantitative data in this study were collected through questionnaires.

2.2. Data Analysis Technique

The data were collected through questionnaires, observations, interviews and documents. Reviews were made using the process of analysis of data found on the field and collected data. First, the analysis was carried out in the field at the start of data collection which consisted of 1) checking, 2) organizing, and 3) coding. Second, after the data were collected: 1) meaning, 2) interpretative, and 3) conclusion. The items for questionnaire were organized into five-level of Likert scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Therefore, the analysis was carried out through activities of examining the data, organizing, dividing into units that can be managed, synthesizing, looking for patterns, discovering what is meaningful and what is studied and decided by the researchers to be systematically reported [10].

2.3. Analysis and Discussion of Result

Presentation, interpretation, analysis and discussion of the results of the study are provided in tabular form as follows:

Table 1. Integrative Learning Quality Domain Current Programs in FITK PAI

As shown in Table 1, the analysis of the quality of teaching integrative current domain in Islamic education major of FTIK IAIN Pontianak were found out significantly that are less explored domain integrative learning. In the preparation of lesson plans, learning is still dominated by the cognitive domain of all aspects of the preparation in the lesson plans. Such as core competence formulation, formulation of indicators, formulation of TP, structuring materials, preparation of teaching methods, formulation of learning steps and formulation of learning assessment. As well as in the implementation of learning, integrative learning domain that has not been implemented in detailed. It is also similar in the implementation of learning evaluation that still not raised and explore assessment forms of integrative learning domains which maximize the authentic assessment.

Table 2. Exploration of Domain-Based Integrative Learning Quality FADER on Control Class

As shown in Table 2, the results of qualitative data analysis shows the quality of teaching integrative exploration fader-based domain was found that the first, less students understand, analyze and evaluate the preparation of RPP integrative domain of all aspects, such as; KD preparation, development of indicators, TP preparation, preparation of materials, preparation of teaching methods, preparation of learning steps and preparation of evaluation. Evaluation of learning tend to be organized less refers to the evaluation of authenticity. Second, the implementation of learning tend to be less able to integrate domain integrative learning in the 5-step scientific approach (to observe, to question, explore, associate and communicate). Thirdly, the evaluation of learning tends to be less implemented fully and less reference to authentic assessment, assessment both process and outcome assessment and implementation tend to only carry out the assessment tests, namely cognitive domains only.

Table 3. Exploration Domain-Based Integrative Learning Quality Fader  in Treatment Class

As shown in Table 3, the results of the exploratory qualitative analysis based domain integrative learning quality faders first show, students are able, skilled and professional in preparing the RPP domain integrative learning from all aspects; KD preparation, preparation indicator, TP preparation, preparation of learning materials, preparation method, preparation of learning steps, and the preparation of authentic assessment. Second, the implementation of integrative learning domains tend to be students of professional, skilled and capable in preliminary activities, the core activities and closing activity. Third, students tend to be professional in carrying out an authentic evaluation.

4. Difference Level Domain Exploration on Integrative Learning Quality Control Class and Class Treatment Based Fader

Posttest results with the calculation of the percentage of the treatment group and the control group can be read in the following tables. The results of this assessment are discussed in detail in the following description.

In general, the experts judge the quality of a wide range of viewpoints, adjusted to the notion of quality itself. But in this study assesses the quality of teaching given to the group that received treatment and control groups. The ratings use a scale levels; 1) Highly Qualified (HQ), 2) Qualified (Q), 3) Enough Qualified (EQ), and 4) Lack of Qualified (LQ).

Table 5. Quality Levels Treatment Group and Control Group

The number of items on the component quality levels as much as 39 grains. Determining the level of quality based on the range of values as follows.

The calculation result shows that the percentage of respondents who said the quality level post test results of the exploration of the quality of learning-based domain integrity faders to treatment group and the control group with the description of the data as follows.

Table 5.2. Description Data Quality Levels Treatment Group

Based on the analysis of data in Table 5 it is seen that the quality of the post test treatment groups showed highly qualified quality levels as much as 70%. This means that; 1) the process used by using faders can significantly improve the quality of the exploration of the quality of teaching integrity based domain faders in direct learning, (2) exploration activities learning quality of integrity-based domain faders in direct learning allows students to achieve performance proficiency, (3) the exploration of the quality of learning integrity-based domain fader proven effective in hands-on learning for each learner, (7) the systematic monitoring of all processes associated with the ability of students.

Table 5.3. Description Level Data Quality Control Group

Based on the analysis of the data in Table 5 it is seen that the quality of the control group showed the level of quality; 1) highly qualified a number of 0%, 2) quality amount of 20%, 3) is of sufficient quality for 50%, and 4) the lack of quality number of 30%. Having analyzed the matter tests proved that their weakness on the statements relating to the exploration of the quality of learning-based domain integrity faders in direct learning, is as follows. First, do not understand the concept of learning exploration of the quality of learning domain integrity and operational verb in the affective domain. Second, less skilled in preparing SK, indicators, and the learning objectives in the exploration of learning, this is caused by lack of understanding of the concept of learning domain integrity. Third, less understanding and less skilled preparation of learning steps in the learning domain integritaf. Fourth, lack of understanding and lack of skilled define strategies and methods of learning in domain integrity. Fifth, lack of understanding and integrating skilled domain integrative learning with a scientific approach.

3. Results Discussion

The main objective of this study was to find the exploration of the quality of teaching integrative based domain faders to discover the quality of learning at this time before being given treatment through integrative based domain fader, to discover the quality of teaching integrative based domain faders and level differences in the quality of teaching integrative based domain faders on a control class and classes are treated. As the results shown, first, to discover the quality of learning at this time before being given treatment through the study of integrative-based domain is seen in the preparation of lesson plans, learning implementation, and evaluation of learning integrative domain tend to be less exploring and integrating the three domains (affective, cognitive and psychomotor) learning, Implementation of learning more dominated by cognitive domain. David Birbeck and Kate Andre confirms that affective learning outcomes is more important to the success and the success of graduates from the community on specific cognitive learning outcomes are emphasized in the current program. There is a need to think of ways to embed affective teaching strategies, assessing the cognitive learning [11].

Second, students who receive treatment by exploring integrative learning quality faders based domain tend to be more aware of, understand, and skillfully create a syllabus and RPP integrative and holistic. Because students have followed the process fader from phase 1 (one) to stage all five (5), namely of finding focus problem and the solution of problems, analyze the problem and collect data and evidence to identify problems, develop it by finding the best solutions, develop a solution that will eliminate the problem permanently, develop and implement action plans to implement the solution up to do a review, which was found by themselves. This is in contrast to the control group, the group that did not receive treatment. The findings indicate that the fader and steps likely to improve the quality of learning in the learning domain integrative PAI. Improved quality according to Nazanin Meshkat (2011: 1) confirmed that quality improvement is a formal approach to performance analysis and systematic effort to fix it. The system is any assembly procedures, resources and routines to carry out certain activities. Second, the fader is one model of quality improvement. Nazanin Meshkat (2011: 6) describes the last several models of quality improvement, namely; PDCA, Fader, Six Sigma, CQI, TQI and 7 step method. Third, the level of difference in the quality of learning-based domain integrative fader on the control classes and classes that are subjected to the treatment class data shows that more qualified than the control class. This proves that the process is very powerful faders to address the problem of improving the quality of integrative learning domain. Fader process can also be called by the cycle of improving the quality of sustainability (Continuous Quality Improvement Circle). According to Kevin T. Martin BVE, RRT, RCP, the purpose of CQI is to involve everyone in the process of quality, eliminate the cause of the problem, changes in work behavior, and changes in work culture CQI recognizes that quality is the result of a process that extends to everyone in the institution.

4. Conclusion

The study was conducted in two classes, class A as a treatment class and class C as a control class in Islamic Religious Education, Teachers Training and Tarbiya Faculty in The State Institute of Islamic Studies Pontianak. The classes were selected from the six (6) by using purposive sampling technique. The subject of research is 78 people (40 men and 38 women). In collecting the data the researcher used qualitative method by using observation, interviews and documentation. For collecting the quantitative methods to collect data using a data collection tool four-scale questionnaire containing 30 items. Quantitative data were analyzed using percentage data analysis. The method used in this research is the method of this research method is experimental research methods actually (True-Experimental Design) with qualitative approaches - quantitative shortened to TEDK2. TEDK2 a study conducted for two groups, one group as the treatment group and a control group of another group. Data collection tools in this study are; observation, interviews, group discussions, and documentation. The process of analyzing the data in this study through two stages. First, the analysis of field data that starts at the time of data collection, consisting of; 1) checking, 2) organizing, and 3) coding. Second, the analysis of data collected overall after covering; 1) meaning, 2) interpretative, and 3) conclusion.

From the analysis of the data obtained the following findings exploration domain-based integrative earning quality FADER as follows.

1. There is a difference in the quality of learning in exploring domain-based integrative learning in the course Islamic Religious Education FADER on aspects of the preparation of lesson plans, implementation and evaluation related to their knowledge and skills as compared to the control group.

2. There is a difference in the quality of learning in the domain integrative quality post test results showed the treatment group at the level of quality, as much as 70% of highly qualified, qualified as much as 15%, 10% is of sufficient quality and lacking in quality as much as 5%. This means that; 1) the process used by using faders can significantly improve the quality to explore the quality of teaching integrative domain, (2) activity explores the learning integrative domain in learning allows students to achieve performance proficiency, (3) the exploration of learning integrative domain (affective, cognitive and psychomotor) proved effective in learning for each learner, and (7) the systematic monitoring of all processes associated with the ability of students. In contrast to the post test control group with the level of quality; 1) highly qualified 0%, 2) quality 20%, 3) sufficient quality to 50%, and 4) are less qualified 30%.

5. Recommendation

Quality of integrative learning domains (affective, cognitive and psychomotor) based FADER is expected to provide additional insight and depth of knowledge to the improvement of the quality of teaching in Indonesia in general and in Teachers Training and Tarbiya Faculty in The State Institute of Islamic Studies Pontianak in particular. The findings of this study can be developed with an emphasis on integrative learning quality faders based domain by using R & D in all subjects. Some policy suggestions can be submitted in order to improve the quality of learning, namely:

First, Religion Ministry of Indonesia Center and Kemendikbud especially Diktis and Kemenristek Higher Education to follow up the findings of exploratory research based domain integrative learning quality FADER can be transformed into the learning process in all courses. Second, the Rector of The State Institute of Islamic Studies Pontianak to follow up the results of this study as an integrative learning quality improvement policy domain. Third, the Dean Teachers Training and Tarbiya Faculty The State Institute of Islamic Studies Pontianak Pontianak to establish the results of this study as policies to improve the quality of learning in all subjects.

References

[1]  Nicholls Gill. (2002). Developing Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. New York: Routledge.
In article      
 
[2]  Candy, P. C. (1995). Developing lifelong learners through undergraduate education. In Summers, L. (Ed), A Focus on Learning, p ii-viii. Proceedings of the 4th Annual Teaching Learning Forum, Edith Cowan University, February 1995. Perth: Edith Cowan University. http://lsn.curtin.edu.au/tlf/tlf1995/candy.html.
In article      
 
[3]  Jennifer M.Core Jame, G. Ladwig. (2004). Professional Learning Pedagogical Improvement and The Circulation of Power. The University of Newcastle and M. Bruce King, University of Wiscounsin- Madison. Paper prepared for presentation at the AARE Annual Conference Melbourne, December 2004.
In article      PubMed
 
[4]  Asrat Dagnew, and Aster Asrat. (2016). Teachers’ Perception toward Quality of Education and Their Practice: The Case of Godar Secondary Schools, Ethiopia . American Journal of Educational Research, 2016, Vol. 4, No. 3, 248-253.
In article      
 
[5]  Mujib Abdul, Mudzakkir Yusuf. (2008). Ilmu Pendidikan Islam. Jakarta: Kencana.
In article      
 
[6]  Green Frank. (2000). The Head Teacher in the 21 st Century, Being a Successful Schooll Leader. Great Britain: Pearson Education Limited.
In article      
 
[7]  Nata, Abudin. (2009). Perspektif Islam tentang Strategi Pembelajaran. Jakarta: Kencana.
In article      
 
[8]  Kerry Shephard. 2007. Higher education for sustainability: seeking affective learning outcomes. Higher Education Development Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Vol. 9 Iss: 1.
In article      
 
[9]  George W. Fairweather, Louis G. dan Tornatzky. (1997). Experimental Methods for Social Policy Research: Oxford, New York, Toronto, Sydney, Paris, Frankfurt. Pergamon International Press. Inc.
In article      
 
[10]  Bogdan dan S.K. Biklen. (1992). Qualitative Research for Education, an Introduction to Theory and Methods. Boston: Allyn and Bacon Inc.
In article      
 
[11]  Birbeck, David, and Andre Kate. 2009. The affective domain: beyond simply knowing. Australia; Learning and Teaching Unit, University of South Australia.
In article      
 
  • CiteULikeCiteULike
  • MendeleyMendeley
  • StumbleUponStumbleUpon
  • Add to DeliciousDelicious
  • FacebookFacebook
  • TwitterTwitter
  • LinkedInLinkedIn