Mental Health and Adjustment of Prospective Secondary Education Teachers

P. Srinivasan, L. Arokiyavanitha Senkolemari

American Journal of Educational Research

Mental Health and Adjustment of Prospective Secondary Education Teachers

P. Srinivasan1, L. Arokiyavanitha Senkolemari1,

1Department of Education, Tamil University, Thanjavur, India

Abstract

The present study is an attempt to explore the level of mental health and adjustment of prospective secondary education teachers. For the present investigation the investigators adopted descriptive method incorporated with survey technique. Sample consists 300 B.Ed students from rural and urban colleges of Thanjavur District, TamilNadu. Random sampling technique was followed. Mental Health battery constructed and standardized by Singh & Sengupta and Adjustment inventory constructed and standardized by Sinha & Singh were used to collect data. Descriptive, differential, correlation were used for data analysis. The mental health of samples of prospective secondary education teachers is average and good. The adjustment of male and female prospective secondary education teachers is very unsatisfactory and unsatisfactory respectively. Correlation between mental health and adjustment variables is very low and negative. Results also revealed that prospective secondary education teachers have favorable mental health and less adjustment.

Cite this article:

  • P. Srinivasan, L. Arokiyavanitha Senkolemari. Mental Health and Adjustment of Prospective Secondary Education Teachers. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2016, pp 76-81. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/4/1/12
  • Srinivasan, P., and L. Arokiyavanitha Senkolemari. "Mental Health and Adjustment of Prospective Secondary Education Teachers." American Journal of Educational Research 4.1 (2016): 76-81.
  • Srinivasan, P. , & Senkolemari, L. A. (2016). Mental Health and Adjustment of Prospective Secondary Education Teachers. American Journal of Educational Research, 4(1), 76-81.
  • Srinivasan, P., and L. Arokiyavanitha Senkolemari. "Mental Health and Adjustment of Prospective Secondary Education Teachers." American Journal of Educational Research 4, no. 1 (2016): 76-81.

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1. Introduction

The demand for quality secondary education is steadily increasing. It is recommended that the aim should be to reach universal secondary education as early as possible. The problems of inadequate quality in most secondary schools due to poor infrastructure and insufficient and poorly equipped teachers, the need for addressing the professional education of secondary teachers acquires great importance. The importance of competent teachers to the nation’s school system can in no way be overemphasized. It is well known that the quality and extent of learner achievement are determined primarily by teacher competence, sensitivity and teacher motivation. It is common knowledge too that the academic and professional standards of teachers constitute a critical component of the essential learning conditions for achieving the educational goals. The teacher must be equipped not only to teach but also to understand the students and the community of parents so that children are regular in schools and learn. The RTI Act mandates that the teacher should refrain from inflicting corporal punishment, complete the entire curriculum within the given time, assess students, hold parent’s meetings and apprise them and as part of the school management committee, organize the overall running of the school [1]. This view of education points to the need to take a fresh look at teacher preparation. Education is not a mechanical activity of information transmission and teachers are not information dispensers. Teachers need to be looked at as crucial mediating agents through whom curriculum is transacted and knowledge is co-constructed along with learners.

Quality education is necessary for the students for their better future and also for the future India. The OECD report “Quality in Teaching” (1994) defines teacher quality in five dimensions; “

- Knowledge of substantive areas and content;

- Pedagogic skill, including the acquisition and ability to use a repertoire of

teaching strategies;

- Reflection and ability to be self-critical, the hallmark of teacher professionalism;

- Empathy, and commitment to the acknowledgement of the dignity of other;

- Managerial competence, as teachers assume a range of managerial responsibilities within and outside the classroom.”

The report adds; “These dimensions of teacher quality should not be seen in terms of narrow behavioral competencies, but more in terms of dispositions. Teacher quality should be regarded as a holistic concept, i.e. as a gestalt of qualities rather than as a discrete set of measurable behaviors, to be developed independently from each other. The integration of competencies across these dimensions of teacher quality is thought to mark the outstanding teacher” [2]. For the quality education mental health and adjustment should be necessary for the teacher. Then only the teacher can be a effective teacher to educate the students.

Secondary teacher education course provides would be secondary education teachers for future India. They have to possess the above said qualities in order to perform their job professionally. Mental Health and Adjustment are two important variables that contributes for teacher behaviour. In this piece of research the investigators wants to measure the mental health and adjustment of prospective secondary education teachers and to find correlation between the measures.

Mental health is how one feels about oneself and others, able to meet the demands of life and to develop psychologically and emotionally. Being mentally healthy is having the strength to overcome the difficulties and challenges the person can face at times, to have confidence and self esteem, to be able to take decisions and to believe in oneself [3]. Mental health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being.

The concept of adjustment is as old as human race on earth. Men has that highest capacity to adapt to new situations. Man as a social animal not only adapts to physical demands but also adjust to social pressures. Psychologists use the term adjustment for varying conditions of social or interpersonal relations in the society. Thus adjustment means reaction to the demands and pressure of social environment imposed upon the individual. The demands may be external or internal to which the individual have to react. Human adjustment is a never ending process [4]. It starts right from the birth of the child and continues till its death. It does not stop at any time; rather it goes on with life.

The word adjustment means that behavior that permits people to meet the demands of the environment. It is also defined as a response to stress and adjustment. Different psychologists and the leaders of educational thoughts defined the process of adjustment in different terms.

Generally, adjustment is discussed from various points of view namely biological, statistical and psychological, which are describe below,

Biological meaning:

From biological points of view Adjustment is a mode of survival. It is a process of living in which, individual strives to satisfy his needs and even modifies them.

Psychological meaning:

From the psychological point of view, ‘adjustment is the process by which, individual strives to satisfy his needs and even modifies them.

Statistical meaning:

According to statistical view, “adjustment is a matter of views”. Statistically, an individual can be regarded well adjusted only when, he approaches the norm or group average and avoid deviations to either end psychologically.

This view does not sound well as it ignores the fundamental doctrine of the uniqueness of the individual that is individual differences [5].

2. Background

Following are the studies reviewed which is relevant to this investigation.

• Mohanasundaram and Sugasini, (2011) [6] studied conflict resolution and mental health of secondary teacher trainees and found significant relationship between the perception about conflict resolution and the mental health of secondary teacher trainees. Further the men and women teacher trainees differ significantly in their mental health. The women teacher trainees have higher level of mental health then the men teacher trainees.

• Mundia, (2012) [7] did his research on the mental health profiles of student teachers: relevance to teacher education and in identifying potential future teacher problems and found primary factors and summary indicates correlated negatively with achievement test scores. Moreover, multiple regression analysis subsequently confirmed them to be poor predictors of academic success. Further the male sample scored higher and were significantly different from their female counterparts on six primary factors.

• Ashraffi, (2011) [8] examined the Adjustment of B.Ed students in Thanjavur district was revealed that the analysis of the data indicates that the adjustment of B.Ed students in high. Further there is no significant difference between male and female B.Ed students and government and private students in their adjustment.

• Panchavarnam, (2012) [9] conducted the study on relationship between emotional maturity and adjustment of B.Ed trainees and found significant relationship between emotional maturity and adjustment. Further there is significant difference among emotional maturity, socio economic status and adjustment.

3. Hypotheses of the Study

The following are the hypotheses of the study:

• The mental health of samples of prospective secondary education teachers is high.

• The adjustment of male prospective secondary education teachers is excellent.

• The adjustment of female prospective secondary education teachers is excellent.

• The adjustment scores of male prospective secondary education teachers is excellent with respect to Emotional adjustment, Social adjustment and Educational adjustment.

• The adjustment scores of female prospective secondary education teachers is excellent with respect to Emotional adjustment, Social adjustment and Educational adjustment.

• There is significant difference in mental health of prospective secondary education teachers between/among Types of management, Gender, Educational qualifications, Locality of college, Locality of house, Parents annual income, Study habits, Father’s qualifications, Mother’s qualifications and Parents occupations.

• There is significant difference in adjustment of prospective secondary education teachers between/among Types of management, Gender, Educational qualifications, Locality of college, Locality of house, Parents annual income, Study habits, Father’s qualifications, Mother’s qualifications and Parents occupations.

• There is significant relationship between mental health and adjustment of prospective secondary education teachers.

4. Methodology of the Study

Descriptive method incorporated with survey technique were used for the study.

5. Samples for the Study

300 B.Ed students were selected using random sampling technique from rural and urban colleges of Thanjavur District of TamilNadu.

6. Tools Used for the Study

The investigators used the following standardized tools. “Mental Health Battery Scale” constructed and standardized by Arun Kumar Singh and Alpana Sengupta. This scale consists of 130 statements; each statement is in Yes or No type. “Adjustment inventory” constructed and standardized by A.K.P Sinha and R.P. Singh. This scale consists of 60 statements; each statement is in Yes or No type.

7. Analysis of Data

The data is analysed through SPSS pack version 21. Hypothesis wise analysis of data is discussed below.

Hypothesis 1:

The mental health of samples of prospective secondary education teachers is high.

Mental Health Scores

Table 1 shows the mean, standard deviation, & range of the mental health of samples of prospective secondary education teachers.

Table 1. Descriptive Statistics of Mental Health Scores

From the Table 1, it can be seen that scores between 59 - 69 which corresponds to 10 - 50 percentiles falls on average mental health & scores between 72 – 82 which corresponds to 60 – 90 percentile has good metal health. Hence the hypothesis 1 is rejected.

Hypotheses 2 - 5

2- The adjustment of male prospective secondary education teachers is excellent.

3- The adjustment of female prospective secondary education teachers is excellent.

4- The adjustment scores of male prospective of secondary education teachers is excellent with respect to

• Emotional adjustment.

• Social adjustment.

• Educational adjustment.

5- The adjustment scores of female prospective of secondary education teachers is excellent with respect to

• Emotional adjustment.

• Social adjustment.

• Educational adjustment.

Adjustment Scores

Table 2 shows the mean, standard deviation, & range scores of the adjustment scores of male, female prospective secondary education teachers.

Table 2. Descriptive Statistics of Adjustment of Male, Female Scores

From the Table 2, it can be seen that the mean score of the adjustment of male prospective secondary education teachers is 32.69, which is very unsatisfactory. Hence the hypothesis 2 is rejected.

The mean score of the adjustment of female prospective secondary education teachers is 29.59, which is unsatisfactory. Hence hypothesis 3 is rejected.

The mean score of the adjustment scores of male prospective secondary education teachers with respect to Emotional adjustment is 12.13, which is very unsatisfactory. Social adjustment is 9.47 and Educational adjustment is 10.29, which are unsatisfactory. Hence the hypothesis 4 is rejected.

The mean score of the adjustment scores of female prospective secondary education teachers with respect to Emotional adjustment is 11.68, which is very unsatisfactory. Social adjustment is 8.59 and Educational adjustment is 9.19, which are unsatisfactory. Hence the hypothesis 5 is rejected.

Hypotheses - 6

There is a significant difference in mental health of prospective secondary education teachers between / among Types of management, Gender, Educational qualifications, Locality of college, Locality of house, Parents annual income, Study habits, Father’s qualifications, Mother’s qualifications and Parent’s occupations.

Mental Health Scores

Table 3 shows the mean, SD, ‘t’ and ‘F’ value of mental health of prospective secondary education teachers between / among the groups.

Table 3. (A) Summary of Differential Analysis of Mental Health

It is inferred from the above Table 3, that there is a significant difference in the mean scores of the mental health of prospective secondary education teachers with respect to gender. Hence the research hypothesis is accepted. The score of mental health for the female sample is more than the male prospective secondary education teachers.

There is a significant difference in the mean scores of mental health of prospective secondary education teachers with respect to educational qualification. Hence the research hypothesis is accepted. PG sample mean is more than the UG prospective secondary education teachers.

There is a significant difference in the mean scores of mental health of prospective secondary education teachers with respect to study habits. Hence the research hypothesis is accepted. The individual study habit mean is more than the group study habit of prospective secondary education teachers.

There is a significant difference in the mean scores of mental health of prospective secondary education teachers with respect to father’s qualification. Hence the research hypothesis is accepted. The sample mean whose father’s qualification is school level is more than the college level.

There is a significant difference in the mean scores of mental health of prospective secondary education teachers with respect to mother’s qualification. Hence the research hypothesis is accepted. The sample mean whose mother’s qualification is school level is more than the college level.

There is no significant difference in the mean scores of mental health of prospective secondary education teachers with respect to types of management, locality of college, locality of house & parents annual income. Hence the respective research hypotheses are rejected.

Table 3. (B) Summary of Differential Analysis of Mental Health

It is inferred from the above table that the F value (115.615) is significant at 0.05 level with 2 & 297; therefore research hypothesis is accepted. Therefore the mental health of prospective secondary education teachers among parent’s occupation differs significantly.

By post hoc test, it is found that there is significant difference between private & self employed parents and government & self employed parents whereas there is no significant difference between government and privately employed parents.

Hypotheses - 7

There is a significant difference in adjustment of prospective secondary education teachers between / among Types of management, Gender, Educational qualifications, Locality of college, Locality of house, Parents annual income, Study habits, Father’s qualifications, Mother’s qualifications and Parent’s occupations.

Adjustment Scores

Table 4 shows the mean, SD, ‘t’ and ‘F’ value of adjustment of prospective secondary education teachers between / among the groups

It is inferred from the above Table 4, that there is significant difference in the mean scores of the adjustment of prospective secondary education teachers with respect to types of management. Hence the research hypothesis is accepted. The adjustment scores of samples of private management is more than the government management.

There is significant difference in the mean scores of adjustment of prospective secondary education teachers with respect to gender. Hence the research hypothesis is accepted. Male sample mean is more than the female prospective secondary education teachers.

There is significant difference in the mean scores of adjustment of prospective secondary education teachers with respect to locality of college. Hence the research hypothesis is accepted. The urban sample mean is more than the rural sample.

There is no significant difference in the mean scores of adjustment of prospective secondary education teachers with respect to educational qualifications, locality of house, parent’s annual income, study habits, father’s qualification & mother’s qualification. Hence the respective research hypotheses are rejected.

Table 4. (A) Summary of Differential Analysis of Adjustment

Table 4. (B) Summary of Differential Analysis of Adjustment

It is inferred from the above table that there is no significant difference in the mean scores of adjustment of prospective secondary education teachers among parent’s occupation. Hence the research hypothesis is rejected.

Correlation (Pearson’s product moment co-efficient):

Hypotheses - 8

There is significant relationship between mental health and adjustment of prospective secondary education teachers.

Correlation values

Table 5 shows the correlation value of the mental health and adjustment of prospective secondary education teachers.

The results in the Table 5, it is evident that the correlation between mental health and adjustment variables is -0.308 which is very low and negative. Hence the research hypothesis 8 is rejected.

8. Discussion of Results with other Studies

The investigators results were compared with the results of reviewed studies

Finding:

• The mental health of samples of prospective secondary education teachers average and good.

The above finding is supported by [6].

Finding:

• There is significant difference in adjustment of prospective secondary education teachers between

• Types of management: Government & Private

• Gender: Male & Female

The above finding is not supported by [8]

Finding:

• There is no significant relationship between mental health and adjustment of prospective secondary education teachers.

The above finding is supported by [9]. and not supported by [6].

9. Conclusion

In the present days stress levels are hitting the home life of teachers. Increasing workloads and stress levels are severely affecting the work and life balance teachers. Teaching was never an easy career pathway. The education of young people is still the chief concern of all teachers, but the work load and stress levels that today's teachers experience are having a severe impact on their health and work/home life balance. Sometimes work-stress leads to illness also. The first common feature is that the victims of illness are almost all conscientious people. They care about their work and want to do their best for those they teach. They typically work long hours in trying to meet the demands of the job. There is no limit to the things a teacher can do, or be asked to do, in attempting to help pupils. So the victim will find themselves working longer and longer chasing growing demands. Eventually this becomes unsustainable. There must be a point beyond which working for longer hours leads to a worse outcome. It must be remembered, tha most of these teachers have many years of very successful practice and often hold senior positions within a school. However, unless those who manage the school are adequately trained to deal with crisis, things will soon move on from bad to worse. This is when serious illness can develop. So the teacher should take care about his/her mental health. Possessing good mental health will reduce stress levels. Teachers should be very clear about what their role within a school. So, to qualify as good teacher, mental health of teachers have to improved.

New teachers often struggle with adjustments, unsure of when they’re needed. Teachers have to deal with these problems by adjusting the work environment. Adjustments primarily need to be based on each learner’s ability to participate and achieve outcomes. So the teachers should improve their adjustment quality for their better teaching.

If the teachers improve their mental health and adjustment qualities, they can teach better than before and their good teaching leads to the quality teacher education.

The present study explored the Mental Health and Adjustment of Prospective Secondary Education Teachers. The findings of the present study reveal that prospective secondary education teachers have favorable mental health and less adjustment.

References

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[4]  Ruch, F. L. (1970). Psychology and life. Bombay, India: (DB): Taraporewala Sons & Co.
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[6]  Mohanasundaram, K., & Sugasini, A. (2011). Conflict resolution and mental health of secondary teacher trainees. Indian journal of psychometry and education, Patna, 42(1), 30-33.
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[8]  Ashraffi, H. (2011). A study on the adjustment of B.Ed students in Thanjavur district. Unpublished M.pill, Dissertation, Tamil university, Thanjavur.
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[9]  Panchavarnam, D. (2012). A study on relationship between emotional maturity and Adjusttment of B.Ed trainees. Unpublished M.pill Dissertation, Tamil university, Thanjavur.
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