Evaluation of Entrepreneurship in Unit Production Vocational High School (SMK) Simalungun Northern S...

Eka Daryanto, K. Panjaitan, Muslim

American Journal of Educational Research OPEN ACCESSPEER-REVIEWED

Evaluation of Entrepreneurship in Unit Production Vocational High School (SMK) Simalungun Northern Sumatra

Eka Daryanto1,, K. Panjaitan1, Muslim1

1Educational Mechanical Engineering Study Program, Faculty of Engineering Unimed

Abstract

The study examines the implementation of production unit in vocational high school (SMK). The study was conducted using quantitative evaluation approach is descriptive and made judgments on the research products. This study was conducted in six SMK at Regency Simalungun. The population in this study is the executive Production Unit in SMK at Regency Simalungun. The research sample was taken 30 people caretaker of production unit. The results showed that; (a). In the six SMKs have become researh sample in Regency Simalungun had applied management functions with different performance quality, (b). Vision and mission management of production unit is developed in order to achieve the vision and mission of SMK, (c). Production unit at SMK of Regency Simalungun can not develop as unit which is equivallent with bussiness unit should be.

Cite this article:

  • Eka Daryanto, K. Panjaitan, Muslim. Evaluation of Entrepreneurship in Unit Production Vocational High School (SMK) Simalungun Northern Sumatra. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 3, No. 9, 2015, pp 1072-1076. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/3/9/2
  • Daryanto, Eka, K. Panjaitan, and Muslim. "Evaluation of Entrepreneurship in Unit Production Vocational High School (SMK) Simalungun Northern Sumatra." American Journal of Educational Research 3.9 (2015): 1072-1076.
  • Daryanto, E. , Panjaitan, K. , & Muslim. (2015). Evaluation of Entrepreneurship in Unit Production Vocational High School (SMK) Simalungun Northern Sumatra. American Journal of Educational Research, 3(9), 1072-1076.
  • Daryanto, Eka, K. Panjaitan, and Muslim. "Evaluation of Entrepreneurship in Unit Production Vocational High School (SMK) Simalungun Northern Sumatra." American Journal of Educational Research 3, no. 9 (2015): 1072-1076.

Import into BibTeX Import into EndNote Import into RefMan Import into RefWorks

1. Introduction

Entrepreneurship has been recognized as an important basis for economic changes in a country [1] because of its effect on the macro and micro level [2]. In addition, entrepreneurship is important because it can give birth to new ideas, create new companies and jobs, and to improve the economy of a country as a whole [3]. Thus, all the mentioned proves that, in today's world, countries that consider economic development cannot ignore the 'entrepreneurship.

Entrepreneurship is the implementation of a knowledge-based economy has a key instrument to promote the development of the economy by providing opportunities for everyone to be able to think creatively. According Lundstrom and Stevenson [4], entrepreneurship is accepted as a necessary factor in the knowledge-based economy to support the fields of employment, economic development and innovation. It further explains that creativity is emphasized because of its role in bringing the competitiveness of the enterprise environment. It is claimed that the new entrepreneurial movement will increase productivity and will put pressure on the improvement of the efficiency of the organization, the market, and others. Then the results will improve competitiveness in the economy, which means that the new company, new jobs, opportunities and a decrease in the unemployment rate [5].

This study aims to describe the implementation of entrepreneurship education at various vocational schools in Simalungun North Sumatra. Accordingly, the research questions of the study are mentioned below:

1. How is planning production unit at SMK ?

2. How the role of the principal and committee in the coaching of production unit ?

3. How optimizing the role of production unit in the coaching of human resources of school ?

4. How the coaching of SMK as worker preparation medium ?

How the internalization of entrepeneurship value in production unit ?

2. Literature Review

Entrepreneurship education has a broad definition, which includes economic, social and cultural factors [6]. Therefore, entrepreneurship education is a dynamic and social process in which a person, either individually or in collaborative groups, identify opportunities for innovation and action to transform the idea into practice and activities that have been targeted in the context of social, cultural, or economic [7]. In other words, entrepreneurship rests on a broad range of skills and characters, ranging from a multidimensional thinking skills to the ability to identify new opportunities and put ideas into practice.

Currently entrepreneurship education has become one of the most hotly discussed topic, especially in schools of business and engineering in the United States. This is evident from the number of schools that teach the creation of new businesses or the kind that has grown up to 1600 schools in the next 20 years [6, 7, 8]. Training and seminars entrepreneurship has also been widely offered by practitioners and universities. In addition, a variety of academic literature and articles appearing entrepreneurship has shown an active interest towards the study of entrepreneurship [2, 7, 9].

Entrepreneurial spirit cannot be taught by conventional educational methods, so that the necessary changes not only in the learning process but also the development of an entrepreneurial culture. On the other hand, the increasing levels of competition for employment, the knowledge and skills in the field of entrepreneurship into the main capital in self-employment opportunities. The development of an entrepreneurial culture can be developed independently in line with the increase in the activity of students in conducting teacher competence and can also be captured through the development of cooperation (partnership) through income generating concept. To that end, pengindustrian intelligence needs to be done to empower all human resources and educational facilities owned and establish cooperation with the stakeholders through mutualisma Contributions, procurements, networking, exchanges, cooperative and joint ventures that can be developed through the School-based entrepreneurship (SBE).

School-based entrepreneurship (SBE) is a productive activity of vocational school students who produce a product or service to the school or community. SBE can also provide a course that is not tied to the academic curriculum. SBE is very important for several reasons: 1) to provide linkages, context, and realize the learning resources that are not learned in the classroom, 2) to provide a product or service to the problems that exist in the community or school; 3) face the challenge of a different nature with modern education to engage students in a cooperative effort (community collage); 4) increase students' awareness about the relationship between social welfare and employment; 5) allows the students to feel proud of their work; and 6) allow students to develop confidence in their leadership abilities [10]. Entrepreneurial learning in the production unit is also recommended by Tuatul Mahfud and Pardjono [11], which states that entrepreneurial learning requires real activities (hands-on) to engage students in real business activities in the production unit.

Alberti et al., [12] in her study of entrepreneurship education teaching refers to the Vespers [10] describes four kinds of useful knowledge for entrepreneurs, namely : (1) the general knowledge of the business, (2) the general knowledge of the company, (3) specific knowledge about business opportunities, and (4) specific knowledge of the company / business. Meanwhile, [13] teaches students about the entrepreneurial process, identification of opportunities, entered the business strategy, market opportunities and marketing, creation of a successful business plan, financial projections, venture capital, financing in the form of debt or other external assistance to start a business and small business, legal and tax issues, intellectual property rights, franchising, harvesting, as well as an entrepreneurial economy

Based on the above, it appears that in order to achieve the objectives of entrepreneurship education needed proper education model. The literature has many models assessing entrepreneurship education, ranging from content -based (theoretical), practical, until a combination of both. Albert and Marion [14] makes a teaching model of entrepreneurship education through three stages, namely sensitization, specialization, and experimentation. The first phase teaches entrepreneurship case studies, business simulations, and business plan competitions. The second phase teaches the real nature of case studies and company projects. The last stage, it leads to realization.

The importance of the role of education in vocational high school (SMK) became one of the most hotly discussed topic. This is evident from the number of schools that teach the creation of new businesses or similar which has grown up to 1600 schools within the last 20 years. Training and seminars entrepreneurship has also been widely offered by practitioners and universities. Successful implementation of school-based entrepreneurship is found in Mexico because the central government has conducted training for personnel to be employed in a variety of workplaces are required. In the meantime, independence and creativity required schools to manage education and learning behind its autonomy. Schools also must be able to observe the varied needs of the students, staff wishes different, diverse environmental conditions, people's expectations that entrust their children to school so that their children can become independent, as well as the demands of the workforce to obtain productive power, potential, and quality.

Unit Production and Services at SMK as a form of entrepreneurship is a process-based business activities conducted continuously school, academic and business by empowering citizens school and the environment in the form of a business unit of production / services professionally managed [15]. Furthermore, added Bambang Sartono [15], the production unit at SMK is also an incorporated business or a container-Enterpreuneur entrepreneurship within an organization that requires special authority of school leadership to the manager to perform the duties and responsibilities in a democratic. Because the production unit is a container of entrepreneurship in school, it must be managed in an academic / business and institutionalized in a container business. The purpose of production units are to: improve the quality of graduates in many respects, especially in terms of knowledge and skills [16].

Effectiveness success SBE approach requires strategic efforts from planning, implementation to evaluation based on the analysis of strengths and weaknesses as a self-evaluation activities. It was the focus of improvement in self-evaluation is the availability of resources in the school and the area, and what the priority program. Strategic plans of School-Based Management refers to indicators of school on school performance, namely ; (1) quality, (2) effectiveness, (3) efficiency, (4) productivity, (5) innovation, and (6) employee satisfaction [17].

3. Reaearch

3.1. Methods Design

This research was conducted by using a quantitative evaluation approach is descriptive and do judgment on the research findings. Evaluation indicators and descriptors were developed with reference to a variety of school-based management guidelines both policy and technical. And evaluation criteria are developed by using the concept of fidelity, meaning that the criteria used were made prior to the evaluation carried out and developed from the concept of school-based management itself.

3.2. Sample

The research was conducted in six Vocational High School in Simalungun, namely ; (1). SMK Swasta Cinta Rakyat Pemantang Siantar, (2). SMK Swasta Melati Pemantang Siantar, (3). SMK Swasta HKBP Pemantang Siantar, (4). SMK Negeri 2 Pemantang Siantar, (5). SMK GKPS 2 Pemantang Siantar and (6). SMK Negeri 1 Raya. The sampling frame used in this study was obtained from the Directorate of Elementary Teachers Education (2012) focusing on total number of vocational school teachers from state and private vocational schools in the Simalungun Distric Province of North Sumatera, Indonesia. The population of this study was all teachers who are specialized on the subject of Mechanical Engineering Skills amounting 182 teachers in total. The sample size of this study was gathered based on the proportional random sampling which further resulting a total number of 30 teachers who were found having the expected qualification

3.3. Data Collecting

Data were collected by using a questionnaire to design mechanisms as follows: Open questionnaire indicated to determine the mechanism; 1). Planning Production Unit in Vocational High School, 2). Implementation of Production Unit in Vocational High School, 3). Evaluation of Production Unit in vocational and 4). The role of schools and school committees to coaching Production Unit in Vocational High School.

Techniques are applied to check the validity /authenticity of data in the study is by triangulation of data sources and how data collection techniques, triangulation time. Examination of the validity of the data in this study followed the criteria proposed by Moleong [18], namely: credibility, transferability, dependability and conformability. In order for this research is credible, then the researcher: (a) seek to know the respondent well and understand the state of the field, so getting the opportunity to collect data and check the data needed, (b) do triangulation data by checking the accuracy of data in other data sources, (c) do provide a check that is requesting the opinion of the research subjects. Researchers describe this research data in a systematic, detailed and clear making it easier for users to transfer research results to different situations

3.4. Data Analysis

The data collected will then be analyzed by descriptive analysis to look at the trends that occur. These results will be used in the next stage is the development of a model SBE vocational schools based on the results of the evaluative analysis.

4. Findings and Discussion

1. Planning of Production Unit

Planning of production unit at SMK in Kabupaten Simalungun has done to achieved school goal by effectively and efficiently. Planning is done in this research is learning and bussiness planning because the function of production unit in all SMK is learning and education funding sources. Production unit at SMK used as entrepreneurship learning media in working practice as they do industry working practice.

2. The Role of The Principal and Committee in The Coaching of Production Unit

The tasks is did by production unit at SMK implementation are: (1) Making plan and program implementation involving stakeholder, (2) coordinating and harmonizing all resources in and out production unit at SMK to achieve the target. (3) doing the program effectively and efficiently by implementing Total Quality Management (TQM) principle and the system approach, (4) doing supervision and mentoring implementation so fidelity of implementation can be guaranteed to achieve the target, (5) at the end of each academic year doing to evaluate the achievement of predetermined targets. Its result define new target next year. (6) making a report on the implementation and its results completely and correctly to be submitted to the district/city’s Department of Education, the Committee of SMK and the local foundation (for Private SMK). (7) to responsible the results of implementation to stakeholders.

In learning activity with curriculum implementation, SMK helds production activities in the achievement of expected competency. It implies that all individual aspects proceed in learning activities and can be measured. Cognitive, affective and psychomotor aspect integrated in the form of the final learning outcomes as good, services and other works. The learning result have been achieved by SMK student will be more valuable if it can be recognized by the public as can be useful something and saleable for sale. SMK student of automotive skill programme can produce various kinds of services.

3. Optimizing The Role of production unit in The Coaching of Human Resources of School

a. The Empowerment of Students in Production Unit.

Some of the SMK in Kabupaten Simalungun has involved students, but the involvement of student is still very limited even just as a complement, are just helping the operation of production unit. The production unit of SMK condition should be maximized with the management support of reliable. In the fact, production unit of SMK often involves student just only as workers. Even student are given the task to be involved in the production unit as compensation for task completion, But can not be involved in the management or following get income or operation result benefit of production unit. From this condition showed that student just involved in certain parts in the process of production units as a way for training entrepreuneurship. Not even a little student involvement is only as a worker, that does not give any benefit, so that student only gets experience. This condition can make production unit become less interest organization and not interested by student because only reduces their time hanging out.

b. The Coaching of production unit as Human Resources Source and Equipment

The most expensive investment in SMK is a teacher, because teacher component is education component that in addition to be paid, requires continuous development by learning, training, refreshing, internships in industry and other types of development in order to educating and learning students to be more optimal. The competent teacher still need education and training to update education and mastery of education in accordance with the need of development of knowledge and technology. The second expensive component in SMK is equipment. The equipment besides require maintenancing and repairing also needs update so that the practice is did by student in SMK can be adjusted with development of technology and demand of bussiness and industry world.

4. The Coaching of SMK as Worker Preparation Medium

The labour potential in Indonesia is very large, a part of them is SMK graduate who unskilled. Nowadays, the bussiness and industry world are more selective in labour recruitment so that only the really competent would be received to operate bussiness. According to this condition, SMK should be more challenged to prepare competent labour at his field who ready to fill the job and can win the competition. Another fact shows many youth in Indonesia enter the job field at the youngest age.

Production unit at SMK is capable of growing and managed profesionally, usually tends to be closed for student who will be doing work practice. This condition makes production unit as a separated organization from regular learning programme at the school. In order for production units are able to be a part of SMK organization who can prepare skill labour, so production unit should be developed and when have achieved sufficient growth can be an industry practice medium for student.

5. The Internalization of Entrepeneurship Value in Production Unit

So that its graduate can develope entrepreneurship, so SMK must be able to develop an activity that becomes a method and forum that can help its graduate to entrepreneurship, especially for them who are not intrested or not able to enter the industry. In that way, so the SMK graduate can fill job world with entrepreneurship. All this time, SMK often talked to grow entrepreneurship spirit. It could be never seen its result, because the effort is made just only planting effort wihout monitor how growth or further development. For that, it’s time for SMK doest not only planting entrepreneurship again, but also growing it. With terminology grow this, so SMK realize its responsible so that planting is made can be seen its growth and be picked its result.

Growing entrepreneurship spirit in learning environment and training to run bussiness becomes developing climate in the school. The student and teacher can develop types of effort activities by individual or together in responding various opportunities that exist around the school. In this way student will be ready to face the challenges and bussiness opportunities when they have graduated later.

The readiness can be created because beside their productive competency become sharper, bussiness experience has also been honed. Production unit at SMK was ideally be a forum where student does not only sharpen his competency but also study how to develop entrepreneurship skill. Because through the production unit at SMK, the students study various bussiness operating experience. How do they learn about customer taste, product eligibility, financial administration, marketing, negotiating, customer service and much more.

The above description is an ideal condition, but in fact in six SMKs in Kabupaten Simalungun, Production unit at SMK does not role optimally. Production unit at SMK oftens involve student as only a worker. Even student got the task to be involved at production unit as compensation of task finishing, but can not be involved in management or joined to got income or benefit of production unit operation result. From this condition shows that students is only involved in certain parts at production unit activity process as entrepreneurship training medium. Not even a little student involvement is only as worker, that does not give any benefit, so that student only get experience. This condition can become production unit as an uninterested organization and unliked by student because only reduce their hang out time and does not give plus value for himself.

5. Conclusions and Implication

5.1. Conclusions

a) In the six SMKs have become researh sample in Kabupaten Simalungun had applied management functions with different performance quality.

b) Vision and mission management of production unit is developed in order to achieve the vision and mission of SMK

c) Production unit at SMK of Kabupaten Simalungun can not develop as unit which is equivallent with bussiness unit should be.

5.2. Implication

a) Realizing the existence of production unit at SMK is not yet developed maximally, the SMK’s headmaster and productive teachers should be begin to coaching and developing production unit so that can achieve goal and have plus value with its existence in the school. The coaching and developing of production unit is expected to sustain the SMK ability to give productive competency supply with skill in effort management. With the competency and skill are expected the absorption of SMK graduate becomes higher and will make health economic climate.

b) So production unit can become part of SMK organization that can prepare skill labour, so that production unit at SMK needs to develop again to achieve adequate growth so that can be industry practice medium for student.

References

[1]  Bruyat, C. and Julien, P.A. (2000). Defining the Field of Research in Entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 16, No.2, pp.165-80.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Henry, C., Hill, F. & Leitch, C. (2003). Entrepreneurship Education and Training. Ashgate Aldershot.
In article      
 
[3]  Waspodo Tjipto Subroto, (2012), Entrepreneurship Development Course to Foster Character Merchandise in Support Economic Growth, International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 3 No. 24.
In article      
 
[4]  Hajimanolis, A. (2007) 'Entrepreneurship Education in Cyprus: From Humble Beginnings to a Promising Future?' Journal of Business and Society.
In article      
 
[5]  European Union- Europe: http://ec.europa.eu/.
In article      
 
[6]  Katz, J. (2003). The Chronology and Intellectual Trajectory of American Entrepreneurship Education 1876-1999. Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp. 283-300.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Kuratko, D. (2003). Entrepreneurship Education: Emerging Trends and Challenges for the 21st Century. White Papers Series, Coleman Foundation, Chicago, IL.
In article      
 
[8]  Solomon, G.T., Duffy, S. & Tarabishy, A. (2002). The State of Entrepreneurship Education in The United States: A Nationwide Survey and Analysis. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 1-22.
In article      
 
[9]  Vesper, K.H. & Gartner, W.B. (1996). Measuring Progress in Entrepreneurship Education. This paper presented at the the National Academy of Management Association Meeting, Cincinnati, Ohio, 9-14 August.
In article      
 
[10]  John Gugerty, Colleen Foley, Amanda Frank, and Christine Olson, 2008, Developing and Operating School Based Enterprises that Empower Special Education Students to Learn and Connect Classroom, Community, and Career-Related Skills, The Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education, Vol 31, Numbers 1-3, Fall 2008.
In article      
 
[11]  Tuatul Mahfud dan Pardjono (2012), Praktis Pembelajaran Kewirausahaan pada Unit Produksi Jasa Boga, Jurnal Pendidikan Vokasi, Vol. 2, Nomor 1, Febuari 2012.
In article      
 
[12]  Alberti, F., Sciascia, S., and Poli, A. (2004). Entrepreneurship Education: Notes on an Ongoing Debate. In: 14th AnnualIntEnt Conference, Italy, July 4-7.
In article      
 
[13]  Donath.R. Olomi, Deo Sabokwigina, 2010, Entrepreneurship Education in Tanzanian Business Schools : A National Wide Survey, 12 thInternational Conference on African Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development, Mei 2010.
In article      
 
[14]  Carayannis, E. G., Evans, D., and Hanson, M. (2003). A Cross-Cultural Learning Strategy for Entrepreneurship Education: Outline of Key Concepts and Lessons Learned from a Comparative Study of Entrepreneurship Students in France and the US. Technovation 23, 757-771.s.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Depdiknas. (2007). Pedoman manajemen unit produksi /jasa sebagai sumber belajar siswa dan pengendalian dana pendidikan persekolah. Direktorat Tenaga Kependidikan Direktorat Jenderal Peningkatan Mutu Pendidik dan Tenaga Kependidikan.
In article      
 
[16]  Dikmenjur. 2007. Pembinaan Unit Produksi. Jakarta: Dikmenjur.
In article      
 
[17]  Nanang Fattah, 2003, Konsep Managemen Berbasis Sekolah (MBS) dan Dewan Sekolah, Bandung : Pustaka Bani Quraisy.
In article      
 
[18]  Moleong, Lexy. (2002). Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya.
In article      
 
  • CiteULikeCiteULike
  • MendeleyMendeley
  • StumbleUponStumbleUpon
  • Add to DeliciousDelicious
  • FacebookFacebook
  • TwitterTwitter
  • LinkedInLinkedIn