The Civic Educational (PKn) Learning through Thematic Principle in an Effort Developing Moral Intell...

Nina Nurhasanah, Nadiroh

  Open Access OPEN ACCESS  Peer Reviewed PEER-REVIEWED

The Civic Educational (PKn) Learning through Thematic Principle in an Effort Developing Moral Intelligence (Study of Qualitative in SD Laboratorium PGSD FIP UNJ 2010)

Nina Nurhasanah1, Nadiroh1,

1State University of Jakarta, Indonesia


The objective of this research is to find out the implementation of PKn learning through thematic principle in an effort to develop moral intelligence, especially about feeling of respect toward others and empathy for students at first grade of SD Laboratorium PGSD FIP UNJ. This research is using qualitative method. The process of accumulation data is done through triangulation which consisted of (1) observation, (2) interview, and (3) document analysis. The data is being analyzed with focused observation, taxonomy analysis, chosen observation, component analysis, and theme analysis. The data’s validity is done by extension of participation, tenuously observation and triangulation. This research finding shows that: (1) moral intelligence of the first grade elementary school student had abled to develop moral intelligence, especially feeling of respect towards others and empathy, but there are some students still have difficulties in developing respect; (2) factors that are influencing feeling of respect toward others and empathy consist of supporting factor such as curriculum; teacher; book; and student. Where the factors that become obstacles consist of curriculum; book; student; media; (3) the strategy which is used by the teacher in developing feeling of respect toward others and empathy is consist of introduction, main activity and closing. With this thematic learning that is implemented through PKn (civil education) in SD Laboratorium PGSD FIP UNJ absolutely can develop the moral intelligence of student especially feeling of respect toward others and empathy.

Cite this article:

  • Nurhasanah, Nina, and Nadiroh. "The Civic Educational (PKn) Learning through Thematic Principle in an Effort Developing Moral Intelligence (Study of Qualitative in SD Laboratorium PGSD FIP UNJ 2010)." American Journal of Educational Research 3.6 (2015): 683-688.
  • Nurhasanah, N. , & Nadiroh. (2015). The Civic Educational (PKn) Learning through Thematic Principle in an Effort Developing Moral Intelligence (Study of Qualitative in SD Laboratorium PGSD FIP UNJ 2010). American Journal of Educational Research, 3(6), 683-688.
  • Nurhasanah, Nina, and Nadiroh. "The Civic Educational (PKn) Learning through Thematic Principle in an Effort Developing Moral Intelligence (Study of Qualitative in SD Laboratorium PGSD FIP UNJ 2010)." American Journal of Educational Research 3, no. 6 (2015): 683-688.

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1. Introduction

By seeing the definition of Law No. 20/2003, the attempts of educational improvement continuously being committed by government, one of them is in the level of elemantary school. the attempt of educational improvement in elemantary school is one of the elements in educational development in Indonesia. one of the solving problem in order to rise the quality of educational improvement is by repairing learning system which no longer use conventional learning but using innovation in learning.

Problems in PKn Learning in elemantary school is process of learning which is not yet correct, so that not yet fulfill hope as load of value order in a hope that can be internalized at students themselves. Learning situation impressed very stiff, less flexible, less democratic, and teacher tend to be more dominant. Teacher teaches to chase targets more in orienting of value of final exam, besides that still use conventional model which monotone. Morale education learning only learnt cognitively (Theresia: 2006) whereas stand of students to science which is studied by them, to fellow being and community around, not to be learnt.

One of the attempt of change is by using learning based on thematic in PKn in the class 1 of elemantary school. This thing is appropriate with the development of reality student itself which is being in the midle of the phase of unique development, where student look into something they learn having the character of holistic (whole and inwrought). But in reality PKn's learning still not yet optimal which is based on thematic approach that is done by teacher.

1.1. Intelligence of Morale Reality

Every human requires an ability to be able to become moral. In according to opinion of Borba (2008), the ability is to understand true and wrong things and has strong ethics confidence and acts based on it which is named by intelligence of morale. That intelligence of morale which later can make someone capable to behave well and true also august. But that strong ethics confidence is need to be growth and developed, so that it can be a smart ability in conducting action morale, even can be studied through process of education in the school.

Building intelligence of morale within student can be grown through seven main benefactions that is empathy, conscience, self control, respect, heart kindness, tolerance, and justice. that benefactions which make human with quality (Borba:2008.) That seventh main benefactions are expected will be able to grow and develop in process which happens during the human life. In growing the development of that seventh of the main benefaction, human can reach intelligence of morale in themselves so that will protect them in a hope that remain to be good and moral.

In line with theory of Borba, Jamaris (2003) found that intelligence of morale also develop in creativity development, where there is intelligence of emotion is in the form of tenacity, the patience to face uncertainty, firmness in defending idea and product which are produced. Its also related to respect as a part of intelligence of morale that very relevant, it means that the creative students of course have respect to truth values which is developed through creativity. It means that when students develop their creativity, they also concurrently learn and exercise to respect that values.

In Indonesia, through PKn learning, students learn morale education. While in Malaysia, Menurut Rahimah (1998) in Bambang Sumintono, dkk from Fakulti Pendidikan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia is introduced lesson of mandatory morale which taught for nonmuslim temporary student, whereas for moslem students follow Islam education. In curriculum of elemantary scholl in 1983, a committee is formed to formulate the morale education syllabus which will be taught to nonmuslim students. Finally, it is decided a sixteen main values (the so-called as ‘pure value’) which agreed, there are: (1) Respectfull and (2) affection. Besides that it is expressed that morale education is committed through interaction in school (classicaly in class) and also outside school, is not other intend is to give situation which help the students to apply pure values in daily life. Seeing comparison between both states, apparently morale educations comprised some of values that much the same as those in this research, respect and empathy, while in Malaysia also developed value of respectfull and affection. Besides that, morale education not only happen in the school but also in outside the school.

So, intelligence of morale is an ability which is fulfilled by morale idea and the action to differentiate true of wrong. With the purpose to form and develop the ability in capable to think truly as according to moral value that is believed, before doing the true morale and in the end, will built strong character inside them. For the intelligence of morale which is developed in the class 1, based on PKn’s standart competence and basic competence, so respectfull and empathy as an elements of morale intelligence can be maped as follows:

Table 1.1 The Mapping of Morale Intelligence According to Borba

In elemantary school curriculum in 2006 (KTSP), PKn is subject which focuses in self formation self which is various from the angle of religion, socioculturals, language, age, tribe, to become smart Indonesian citizen, skillful, and having the character which commendated by Pancasila and Constitution 1945. In elementary school, especially at class 1 semesters 2 as the focus of this research, so based on at standard competence (SK) and basic competence (KD) the subject of PKn which is there in KTSP (2006) is mapped intelligence of morale as following:

Table 1.2. Mapings Intelligence of Morale Students Class 1 Semesters 2 at Elementary school

PKn's learning based on thematic need to applied in the class 1 of elementary school in remembering that the learning is appropriate with the phase of students development which is available at age between 6 to 7 years old in seeing something in their community as a whole and inwrought unity. Besides that, with learning based on the of thematic, the purpose of PKn in developing intelligence of morale can be reached more optimal because of student can get more opportunities in learning to develop their intelligence of morale through various kinds of subjects related with theme which is learnt. Students can be develop intelligence of morale through Bahasa, social science (IPS), natural science (IPA), mathematics, Art of Culture and and skills, sports, and Religion approprite with the understanding of thematic learning (Jihad: 2008), it is inwrought learning which uses the theme to correlate some subjects, so that it can give beneficial experience to students. Jamaris (2004) expressed that the inwrought learning is a learning approach which sets systematically and holisticly the attempts of child clumps development. that attempt committed with setting development clumps into important themes which available in an area of development or some areas of development which is set in crossing development through thematic approach. while in its article, Jamaris (2005) expresses that integrated learning curriculum application especially for young children emphasize on development cluster of young children, which occur in a holistic process. The cluster consist of (1)physical development: (2) intelligence development which acre divided into four sub cluster, they acre (a)cognitive, (b)emotional intelligence, (c) spiritual intelligence and (4) multiple intelligence; (3) social-emotional development; (4) language and communication development. The developer team of Undergraduate (S1) PGSD and postgraduate (S2) Initial Class of elementary school (1997) express that thematic is a learning system which enables student, either in individual and also group, active to look for, dig, and find concept and science principal holisticly, beneficially and othentically. As according to marking of thematic learning of Jihad and Haris: 2008), there are: 1) experience and learning activity are very relevant with the level of development and need of elementari’s age, 2) activities elected in execution of thematic learning starting from enthusiasm and need of student, 3) learning activity will be more have a meaning and impress for student so that study result can outwear, 4) helping to develop skill in thinking, 5) presenting learning activity in pragmatic as according to problems that often met by students in their community, and 6) developing social skill of student, as cooperation, tolerance, communications, and listen carefully to others idea.

In line with morale education in Malaysia, that morale education which teaches pure values like the one emphasized by curriculum in the class, is more committed with teachings directly (direct teaching), which for at the time same also that values must be integrated in other subject. it means that, This research supported by statement of Bambang Sumintono (2012) that morale education will be effective if it done fully and integrated with other subject which comprises values which will be inculcated. While in other article which found by Deny Setiawan expresses that morale design training in developing intelligence of morale, claiming to shift it conventional learning towards innovative learning. Learning based on thematic as learning of innovative with all its markings so that learning is more sees need of student in learning so that this research supporting each other. With learning based on thematic in PKn as morale education in the school will be more effective in reaching the development of morale intelligence especially student’s respect and empathy.

The purpose of this research is to obtain data in the field to solve problem as to know manifestly execution process of PKn through thematic learning so that it can grow and develop intelligence of morale especially student’s respect and empathy in the class 1 at elementary of Laboratorium PGSD FIP UNJ.

2. Experimental

Research is done in Elementary school of Laboratory PGSD FIP UNJ, at class 1. research is committed in school year 2009/2010 in the class 1 semesters 2, months of february-June 2010. This research’s subjects are students and teacher of class 1 elementary school of PGSD FIP UNJ's laboratory.

The method used in this research is qualitative method with descriptive explorative technique, main Instrumen in this research is the researcher itself, where researcher will perform participation observation, interviewing exhaustively with teacher about process of PKn's learning based on thematic which can grow and develop morale intelligence of student especially respect and empathy in the class 1 elementary school of PGSD FIP UNJ's laboratory.

Primary data Source is gotten from result of field annotation and interview, while secondary data source is gotten from document as in the form of Learning Applied Plan (RPP) which is made and used by the teacher in developing PKn's learning based on thematic in the class 1 elemtary school of PGSD FIP UNJ's laboratory. Besides that, other data source comes from video and photographs taken during the learning process in the class 1 semester 2.

The activity of data analysis uses principle of data collecting, where from the beginning of research, process of data analysis have been begun. The process of data analysis was begun at time of making annotation of field. The activity of data analysis is done till the theme found, then it formulated to the form of job hypothesis which becomes substantive theory of bottomside. Processing data analysis covered activity to make domain analysis, taxonomy analysis, component analysis come up with theme analysis.

After a number of required datas were being obtained and analysed, the later process is to perform data authenticity inspection with audit technic. In this research committed by data audit technic with three ways, that are: the extention of involvement, assidinity observation, and triangulation.

3. Results and Discussion

The image concerning about intelligence of morale especially respect and empathy of students class 1 of elementary school of Laboratory PGSD FIP UNJ, that initially students were not able yet to develop it, but after through the process of PKn's learning based on thematic, most students generally had been able to develop intelligence of morale especially respect and empathy, except students with special need. Remembering that students class 1 of elementary school in this research were following learning in the early of semester 2, so that in its basic, they are not able to develop their own respect and empathy. Within the students, respect and empathy are still something which are brought by tem from house that are a result of its parent caring pattern. But after being committed by process of thematic learning in PKn, student already can develop respect and empathy as part of intelligence of morale.

The ability to develop the respect is visible from their ability in honour to respect orders in the class and school, as: throw away garbage at its place and not roar in class while learning runs, following flag ceremony, wearing complete hat and necktie in the Monday at time of flag ceremony, using uniform on schedule. Whereas ability to develop empathy is visible from their ability tempathy with friends and teacher, as: helping its friend without selfless, applying togetherness and affection in friends at time of eat toghether activity and do not disturb good friend in the class and in the school.

For factors which affects development of studenst morale intelligence especially respect and empathy through learning based on thematic in PKn, there are two kinds of factors, supporter and resistor factors. Supporter factors are: curriculum where easy indicator related to various subjects; teacher which accustomed to thematic learning; book which is enough available; and student, which exciteds with playing situation in thematic learning.

For resistor factors are: curriculum, to determine indicator which match with thematic learning which was being done; book, where matter still separate and sometime random; student, which considers that learning must be one by one called and done does not united in thematic; media which appropriate to learning PKn is hard to find.

PKn's Learning strategy based on thematic in the class 1 elementary school cover beginning activity, the main activity, and final activity of learning. beginning activity or introduction is done to create initial situation of learning. In this phase can be dug student’s experience about theme that will be studied. beginning activity or introduction is committed with greeting, praying together, checking students presence, collecting homework books before lesson is begun, opening lesson, and performed apperception.

Teacher and Students activities in the early of learning activity is in the form of greeting. Greeting which is spoken is good morning, assalamualaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh, and selamat pagi. Greeting activity always committed in the beginning of learning process at morning when the student had begun ready to study. Praying together with committed in Islam way is pray before start the study with Arabic and with its meaning in bahasa. Pray together done in class room after all students sit consecutively in their own chair. The reading of pray lead by one of the student which take hold as the class leader. Prayer followed by all students with order.

Student’s presence in learning process is something which must available, except if existence of barrier which cannot be avoided. So the teacher better always checks to student who absent. The way is with only ask name of absent student at other friends.

Start lesson with doing apperception is an effort which is committed the teacher to connect last lesson matter with lesson matter which will be studied by students. Apperception in beginning activity of learning process is a way which is used by teacher in intended to know student’s understanding about lesson matter which have been given previously, and teacher can decide to give new lesson matter or redo lesson which have been studied. Student is conditioned in learning process which can develop respect and empathy through various activities committed together with teacher start frpm pray together until the time of teacher ,with student, performs apperception with question and answer activity.

For main activity in learning is activity which covering: activity of learning of matter, matter development, attention of student’s concentration, learning media usage, question and answer, inuring and teacher as model, giving strengthening, motivating student to learn, assignation, guiding student when doing task, asking result of student job, and knowing student’s understanding to matter which is studied.

Focusing students attention activity is the teacher strategy to call student’s attention to lesson matter is something which require committed by teacher before explained lesson matter. That thing is committed by teacher in a hope that all students pay attention and consider well at time of teacher explains the learning matter. Whereas learning media is the lesson auxiliaries which fully play important part in learning process. The usage of learning media shall accomodated with learning matter which is studied. Learning matter will be easier understood by student if it used learning media. Learning media consist of picture of examples of student’s rights and obligations in the school and photograph concerning student’s rights and obligations in the school. The usageof media in learning, especially in morale education (PKn) be hardly required. Teacher as informant or facilitator require learning media as auxiliaries in explaining difficult matter understood by student and have the abstraction character, can be made simple with existence of media (Sahlan: 2012). So learning media is something important and very useful for student in class1 elementary school for studying things which have the abstraction character as values which constitute the forming of respect and empathy.

Next Stategy is by doing inuring and teacher as model. Perform inuring means to apply respect and empathy of student continually and repeatedly practices that morale behavior. By teaching consistently and continuous, student will be successfully master the benefaction which means, it fufilled their morale intelligence, like the one told by Borba (2008), that the habit which forms us now. So inuring is an effective way to form human personality, because student’s character and personality are formed from inuring process that continuously and consistently done.

Teacher is as model, because teacher is adult which become the easiest person who being imitated in the school. The intelligence of morale in aware must be studied and grown, and teacher as important morale instructor and more better for student in awakening morale benefaction (Munir: 2010). In line with Noddings in Shambaugh (2006), telling that first teacher requirement to teach careness ethics in learning is be model of ethics and behaviour to care at student. So in developing intelligence of morale especially respect and empathy, require good model and easy to be imitated and can be met by student at their teacher itself in the school. Correct teacher as model will be ever greater give opportunity to its student to build bottomsides which required for formation of strong character, and opportunity to develop ability to think, convinced, and act as according to moral values.

Next strategy is give strengthening or reinforcement. Strengthening is given as encourageous to student in a hope that they will be motivated to repeat their good behaviour o stop negative behavior, where the behaviourous experts conceptualize learning as a forming relation process between stimulus and response (Bransford et. 2000). The motivation to study is considered as trip that has presumably in human itself, as existence of appreciation and punishment. This thing strenghtened by Sahlan (2012), skill in giving strengthening, in its bottomside is teacher response effort to student’s learning behavior. Strengthening which in the form of appreciation and punishment, also function as a form of inversion for student and teacher at learning process and result which have been done. For active student and have good behavior then teacher gives response in the form of appreciation as praise in forms of words, clap, symbol, or present. On the contrary, teacher gives punishment in the form of commemoration with words for student who still have less good behavior of unfavourable.

Doing task or practice is one of learning activity which is committed by student, for that purpose, so it required teacher strategy in a hope that student can do their task well. Task gift which is committed by teacher to student either in individual and also group. Task gift method in learning which is done in individual, is in the form of activity of answering problems in the student exercise sheet, for example writing down objects description around school by using tying letter on orderly, identifying student obligation in the school, and identifying the consequence if they not execute their obligation in the school. Task gift in group, with example compiling in group, a form awaking up flat of match stick.

The importance of assignation in group in learning process is social side of learning. It means that there is social impact existence with the group activity during the process of learning. Student’s social competency will develop, as skill to cooperate, appreciate their friends opinion, appreciate difference of individual ability, achievement through team, and discusing with others. This thing supported by Bruner in Silberman (1996), that social side in learning is required by human basic need is to respond to others and to running together to reach a purpose. This thing which is called with reciprocity which is source of motivation which teacher can do to stimulate learning. When the common action in group is required, then reciprocity required by group to reach the purpose, so that it will happen process that initialy committed by individual in learning, able to bring them whole ability which is required at situation in group.

Asking for result of student job is way of the teacher to focus student’s attention in working practice task given, so that student can finish it punctually. Teacher asks result of student job to the whole student. After the problem of practice is written down on blackboard, then teacher pass in the student to labor it. Whereas student labors its practice task, teachers running to the student bench to oversee their in working task. If teacher gets student who face difficultn experiences in working their practice task, then teacher directly guides so that they can finish the task well.

Final activity is one of chain of learning process. Final activity in PKn's learning based on thematic in the class covers embrace learning, perform evaluation, and close lesson. Close lesson according to Sahlan (2012) can be done with connecting school activity start from beginning till end which is spoken briefly. Its purpose is in a hope that student catch core of learning matter which is explained. Besides that, this activity are done to ascertain that the learning matter nothing is left behind and explain message interconnected with application of morale values from what have been studied during the process of learning which has run.

4. Conclusion

By applying learning based on thematic in PKn in the class 1 of elemtary school at PGSD FIP UNJ's laboratory, student are more easy to understand matter which is related because thematic learning presents interrelationship of one subject with other lesson fully and variously in several activities. in supported by the usage of interesting learning media as like colored pictures and photographs. through learning media which is used by teacher, makes students more interested and motivated to follow learning, more concrete in examplizing stand of respect and empathy in their daily life. With as such that learning condition, will be able to increase student’s morale intelligence especially respect and empathy.

From intelligence of morale which is available, respects were stand and behavior which are still difficult to develop in students at class 1 elementary school at PGSD UNJ's laboratory compared to empathy. Student still often unalive to orders which not only apply in the class and but also in the school, especially for student with special need. This thing requires special study, because it stays beyond outside ability of researcher.

For empathy, is more developed at student itself. Through learning which can give opportunity to student to develop empathy like team-work and discussion. Despite for student with special need. Besides that, through inuring and model of teacher which is done during the process learning interraction, and existence of pleasing activity during the process of learning. These all things happen in process of PKn's learning based on thematic which is committed in the class 1 of elementary school at PGSD FIP UNJ's laboratory.

Some recommendations which is wanted to be presentated by researcher for teacher of class 1 are as follows: (1)developing students morale intelligence can use strategy which matchs with characteristic of student development, for example with learning based on thematic, (2)teacher who has not applied yet PKn's learning based on thematic, better familiarize to use it, for it can increase active act, spirit and interesting for student, (3)to apply interesting PKn's learning based on thematic is by using media so that can create pleasing learning and optimal understanding for student concerning about morale values.


We are grateful for the research grant to Author 1.


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