Status of Female Education in Jammu and Kashmir Since 1950

Status of Female Education in Jammu and Kashmir Since 1950

Ruhee Rashid, Santosh Kumar Maharashi

American Journal of Educational Research OPEN ACCESSPEER-REVIEWED

Status of Female Education in Jammu and Kashmir Since 1950

Ruhee Rashid1,, Santosh Kumar Maharashi1

1Department of Education OPJS University Churu Rajasthan

Abstract

Educated women in Jammu and Kashmir can play an important role in all round development of the state. The most powerful tool that changes the position of society and nation is only women’s education. Women’s education spreads very slowly in past but very fast in present period. Education improves the status of women within the family as well as in society. So we cannot ignore the importance of women’s education in reference to women empowerment in Jammu & Kashmir. For every citizen there is a need of positive attitude towards women’s education. The aim of this study is to examine the status of women’s education, causes of increasing and decreasing female literacy rate and sex ratio in some districts of Jammu and Kashmir from 1950 to present. The present study is based on secondary sources (census).

Cite this article:

  • Ruhee Rashid, Santosh Kumar Maharashi. Status of Female Education in Jammu and Kashmir Since 1950. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp 731-735. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/3/6/10
  • Rashid, Ruhee, and Santosh Kumar Maharashi. "Status of Female Education in Jammu and Kashmir Since 1950." American Journal of Educational Research 3.6 (2015): 731-735.
  • Rashid, R. , & Maharashi, S. K. (2015). Status of Female Education in Jammu and Kashmir Since 1950. American Journal of Educational Research, 3(6), 731-735.
  • Rashid, Ruhee, and Santosh Kumar Maharashi. "Status of Female Education in Jammu and Kashmir Since 1950." American Journal of Educational Research 3, no. 6 (2015): 731-735.

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At a glance: Figures

1. Introduction

Education means all round development, this all round development means intellectual, social and emotional development. It is only education that moulds the behavior of an individual.

Education is the birth right of every human being, so this means we cannot educate only boys. It is necessary to educate women, when women are educated that means every family is educated and educated women can face all challenges in her life. Education plays an important role to bring harmonious development. Any desired change in society can be done with the help of education which is accepted throughout the world. Such changes can be done only if schools become real of learning centers. Education not only helps the development of human being but also determines his future. It is only education that solves all type of problems. We can promote good habits, values and awareness towards corruption through education. Education helps in communication of one known person to other unknown persons through mass media and technology. Education gives power and strength to the human being .It is education which helps an individual to discriminate what is good and what is bad. We define the values in readers and students through education. Geographically both male and female have same space in society, yet male and female are not treated equally in the society. Women are unequally access to education, physical, health care and financial resources opportunities in the economic, social, political and cultural field. Female are a lower status than male in everywhere of the world. Women and men are just like the two sides of the same coin, so they should work together in life. There should be given equality in each and every step of life. Education is the responsibility of both men and women. In rural areas of Jammu and Kashmir, women work inside the houses, but completely depend upon men. In urban areas women work in various government as well as private organization. The women have power to take decisions regarding to purchases household things or go outside alone. But in present time the movement of women has locked in the society because of having low educational status.

Z. Ullah et al. [1] stated that the importance of education for woman has been accepted worldwide, making decision about their family size, delay marriages, use family planning methods for small family and play an important role in society. It is education by which women are allowing to go out of their houses and work in different organization of the country. The couple mutually takes the decision about the family size if women are educated.

E. Bbaale et. al. [2] discusses about the positive impact of women’s education on their late marriages, autonomy and lower fertility. This study also shows female education making women more autonomous and giving more control about various dimensions in their life.

Acharya [3] said that the major instrument for empowering women is only education. Through education by which woman helps to gain her rights and make her confident about her possibilities, including decisions of her family and personal affairs within the family. In case of female is educated, her family members and husband may consult her before make any major decisions.

According to Mohiuddin et. al (1995) [4], the lower status of women gives low wage rates than men in all fields and their large number of responsibilities of family due to abandonment, divorce, etc. in the developed countries. Women's lower status is not only affected their work but also their services such as education and health. Women’s status can also be judged by indicators.

According to Rustogi et. al (2004) [5] women’s status can be measure with the help of a diverse set of indicators. Some broad indicators by her across all states of India namely health and education in public/private decision making to measure the women’s status in the society.

Swami Vivekananda was the great philosopher of the development of women society. According to Swami Vivekananda “There is no chance for the welfare of the world unless the condition of the women is improved. It is not possible for a bird to fly on only one wing.” In reality, the status of women in question of gender equality is far from their legitimate right.

2. Methodology

This study is based on secondary data collected from the census reports of the national sample survey organization, government, Registrar General of Jammu and Kashmir etc, but census 1991 has not been conducted in Jammu and Kashmir due to disturbance.

The educational status of female in Jammu and Kashmir is examined on the basis of female literacy rate and sex ratio. Status of female education in all district compared with overall sex ratio and overall female literacy rate of Jammu and Kashmir and India.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Sex Ratio and Female Literacy Rate in Jammu and Kashmir

The distribution of sex ratio in Jammu and Kashmir which remains mostly tilted towards men and Table 1 shows the district wise sex ratio in Jammu and Kashmir from 1951 to 2011.

Table 1. District wise sex ratio in Jammu and Kashmir from 1951 to 2011 (Females per 1000 males)

This table represents the district wise sex ratio of female per 1000 male in Jammu and Kashmir. In 1951 district Leh has highest sex ratio as 1011 which was 138 greater than J&K 65 greater than India and Budgam district has lowest 838 which was 35 less than J&K, 108 less than India.

In 1961, again district Leh has highest sex ratio as 1010 which was132 greater than J&K, 69 greater than India and Pulwama district has lowest sex ratio 848 which was 30 less than J&K, 93 less than India.

In 1971 district Leh has highest sex ratio as 1002 which was 124 greater than J&K, 72 greater than India and Kupwara district has lowest 841 which was 37 less than J&K, 89 less than India followed by district Budgam 845 which was 133 less than J&K, 85 less than India and district Anantnag 847 which was 31 less than J&K, 83 less than India.

In 1981, district Jammu has highest sex ratio as 918 followed by Kathua district 917 which were 26 and 25 respectively greater than J&K but 16 and 17 respectively less than India and Kargil district has lowest sex ratio 853 which was 39 less than J&K, 81 less than India.

In 2001, district Pulwama has highest sex ratio as 938 which were 38 greater than J&K, 5 greater than India and Leh district has 805 which were 95 less than J&K, 128 less than India. In 2011 district Srinagar has highest sex ratio as 979 which were 90 greater than J&K, 39 greater than India and Leh district has lowest sex ratio 583 which were 306 greater than J&K, 357 less than India.

Figure 1. shows the variation of sex ratio of female per 1000 male with all districts of Jammu and Kashmir since 1951

Table 2. District wise female literacy rate in Jammu and Kashmir from 1981 to 2011

This table represents the district wise female literacy rate in Jammu and Kashmir from 1981 to 2011. In 1981, district Jammu has highest female literacy rate 32.24 which were 24.26 less than J&K, but 2.48 greater than India and Kargil district has lowest female literacy rate as 3.14 which were 53.36 less than J&K and 26.62 less than India.

In 2001, again district Jammu has highest female literacy rate 68.75 which were 26.53 greater than J&K and 14.59 greater than India and Kupwara district has 26.83 which were 15.39 less than J&K and 27.33 less than India.

In 2011 district Jammu has highest female literacy rate 77.41 which were 28.29 greater than J&K followed by district Samba 74.39 which was 25.27 greater than J&K and 8.93 greater than India and Ramban district has lowest female literacy rate 40.04 which were 9.08 less than J&K and 25.42 less than India.

Table 3. Urban and rural female literacy rate in Jammu and Kashmir from 1981 to 2011

Figure 2. district wise variation of female literacy rate in Jammu and Kashmir from 1981 to 2011

This figure represents variation of female literacy rate from 1981 to 2011.

This table shows urban and rural female literacy rate in Jammu and Kashmir from 1981 to 2011. In 1981 female literacy rate in urban area was 41.05 which were 22.68 greater of total and rural female literacy rate were 12.19 which were 6.18 less than total female literacy rate of Jammu and Kashmir. In 2001, the female literacy rate increases from 41.05 to 62.22 in case of urban area and in rural area this figure increases from 12.19 to 35.09. In 2011 female literacy rate also increases. In urban area this figure reaches 70.19 and rural area this was 53.36.

Figure 3. represents the variation of urban and rural female literacy rate in Jammu and Kashmir from 1981 to 2011

This Figure represents the comparison of urban, rural and total female literacy rate from 1981 to 2011. This shows that urban area has highest percentage of female literacy rate in 1981, 2001 and 2001.

4. Conclusion

Female education not only with entire women realms but also with the future of whole nation. Prominent educationists view ‘a literate mother will never have an illiterate child’, or we can say that an educating woman means an educated future. It concluded from the above analysis that district Leh of Jammu and Kashmir has highest sex ratio 1011, 1010 and 1002 from 1951-1971 which remains in top twenty districts in India and Budgam district falls lowest in 1951, Pulwama district in 1961 and Kupwara district in 1971. It is observed that the sex ratio of district Leh decreases from top 1011 in 1951 to bottom 583 in 2011 which is very low at state as well as in national level. Other districts of Jammu and Kashmir fall in average of state and national level. This decrease in sex ratio is due to the following reasons:

Medical technology and sex selection is misused for detecting unborn female child and ultimately aborted. A number of studies have shown that Pre Natal Sex Determination is the big reason of low sex ratio. That is the sex ratio in district Leh (583) which is too low at state and national level. This district is totally hilly, undeveloped and belong to very far flung area in 1983 the sex determining techniques banned the practice of sex determination in all public institutions. But the prime legislation Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques act, passed in 1994, after a long campaign by the civil society and women organization and certain. This law is implemented at both regional and national levels. Srinagar district is fully developed and sex ratio increases from 846 to 979 because bane on sex determination.

District Jammu has highest female literacy rate among all the districts of Jammu and Kashmir from 1981 to 2011 but remain less at state level. In 1981 Kargil district falls at lowest female literacy rate. Some districts improves their female literacy approximately from 10 % to 50 % When we come to urban and rural areas, it is observed that the female literacy rate in urban areas is more than rural area of Jammu and Kashmir from 1981 to 2011. Another reason for low female literacy in Jammu and Kashmir is due to lack of female teachers in schools, colleges and universities and the establishment of these institutions in faraway places, etc. It is also observed that there is link between sex ratio and female literacy rate. With the improvement of sex ratio, the female literacy rate also increases in various districts of Jammu and Kashmir.

Suggestions to Improve the Present Status of Female Education;

For increasing sex ratio, government should adopted many awareness programs, multi-pronged strategy entailing schemes and to build a positive environment to save and protect the girl child through gender sensitive policies, provision and legislation. For increasing female literacy rate government should provide free and compulsory education to all females at all level of education. Govt. should provide reservation policy for female in all sectors. Society and family should cooperate for enhancing interest and support for girl’s education. They should provide sympathetic attitude towards girl’s education.

References

[1]  Z. Ullah, K. Z Kakar, & Dr. A. B. Khilji, (2011) “Effect of Female Education on Family Size in Pakistan: A Case Study of Quetta City”. Journal of International Academic Research, Vol.11, No.2. pp. 231-239.
In article      
 
[2]  E. Bbaale, & P.Mpuga, (2011) “Female Education, Contraceptive Use, and Fertility Evidence from Uganda”,The Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol.6, No,1, pp.20-47.
In article      
 
[3]  Y. Acharya, “Women’s Education and Intra-Household Autonomy: Evidence from Nepal”, Journal of Development and Social Transformation, Vol. 5, 2008.
In article      
 
[4]  Mohiuddin, Yasmeen (1995), “Country Rankings of Women's Status: an Alternative Index,” Pakistan Development Review, Winter.
In article      
 
[5]  Rustogi, Preet (2004), “Significance of Gender-related Development Indicators: An Analysis of Indian States,” Indian Journal of Gender Studies, Sage Publications Vol. 11, No.3, , pp. 291-343.
In article      CrossRef
 
[6]  Census of Jammu and Kashmir, 1951, 1961, 1971, 1981, 2001 and 2011.
In article      
 
[7]  Census of India, 1951, 1961, 1971, 1981, 2001 and 2011.
In article      
 
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