Improving Environmental Awareness of the 4-6 Years Old Children through Neurosensory Instructional A...

Martini Jamaris, Edwita

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Improving Environmental Awareness of the 4-6 Years Old Children through Neurosensory Instructional Approach

Martini Jamaris1, Edwita1,

1School of Education, State University of Jakarta, Indonesia

Abstract

The research was aimed to study the role of neourosensory instructional approach in improving environmentalalal awareness of the of the 4-6 years old children. The instructional approach was applied in the form of multiple intelligences holistic integrative instruction, in which, the instruction was fuctioned as bridges to improve the children environmental awareness. The eight types of mutiple intelligences used as bridges to empower environment awareness of the children were consisted of: (1) verbal linguistic intelligence, (2) logical mathematical intelligence, (3) visual spatial intelligence, (4) intrapersonal intelligence, (5) interpersonal intelligence, (6) bodily kinesthetic intelligence, (7) music rhythmic intelligence, and (8) naturalistic intelligence. The research was used mix method research, in which, it applied quantitative and qualitavite research methodologies. The mix method research was apllied in the form of action research, particulary, Martini Jamaris’ action research model. The research was participanted by inclusive group of 15 children, who came from the low social economics background. The result of the research revealed that environmental awareness of the 15 children were increased. It could analysize from the difference between the cildren average score on pre- assessement of environmentalalal awareness which was 90.40 and their average score on post-assessment which was 188. 53. Therefore, the children envirinmental awareness was increased 230. 70 % Beside that, the research revealed that verbal linguistic intelligence was fuction as the most effective brige to improve the 4-6 years old cildren’s environmentalal awareness.

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Cite this article:

  • Jamaris, Martini, and Edwita. "Improving Environmental Awareness of the 4-6 Years Old Children through Neurosensory Instructional Approach." American Journal of Educational Research 3.4 (2015): 427-438.
  • Jamaris, M. , & Edwita, (2015). Improving Environmental Awareness of the 4-6 Years Old Children through Neurosensory Instructional Approach. American Journal of Educational Research, 3(4), 427-438.
  • Jamaris, Martini, and Edwita. "Improving Environmental Awareness of the 4-6 Years Old Children through Neurosensory Instructional Approach." American Journal of Educational Research 3, no. 4 (2015): 427-438.

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1. Introduction

Environment is one of global critical issues. It is because environment is important substances which are needed by living thing to live. Now days, environment demolish are done in almost place in the world. By cutting trees, breaking up earth for mining, constructing industries and building to fulfill human being needs which bring about a lot of environment demaged. All of these actions should be manage well for the saving the living thing, included human being in order to live continuously. Therefore, environment sutainable is an important issue. For the purpose of the preceding rationale, it is nesassery to do some efforts related to environment sustainable. There are many ways to do, one of them is education, especially environment education. This kind of education should be done through early childhood environment education which emphasis on empowering environmental awareness. Empowering environmental awareness can be done by applying neurosensory instructional approach in the form of multiple intellgences holistic integrative instruction.

The selection of implementing the sensory instructional approach, is based on considerations of the power of neurosensory functions, which enable human being to live in their environment. Therefore, this reasearch was aimed to empower the 4-6 years old children’s environment awareness based on neurosensory instructional approach, in the form multiple intelligences holistic integrative instruction. This research is related to the prior research which done by Martini Jamaris, in which, the research was focused on the development of 4-6 years old children’s multiple intelligences and side by side the development of their multiple intelligences, awareness of environment were also developed.

Based on the need in empowering environmental awareness of the 4-6 years old children, therefore, the research questions were formulated as followed: (1) how to design and to implement neurosensosy instructional approach in the form multiple intelligences holistic integrated instruction in order to empower environment awarenees of 4-6 years old children? (2) after participating in the implementation of the holistic integrative instruction aimed to empower environmental awareness, did the environment awarenees of the 4-6 years old children increase ? The research was participated by an inclusive group of 15 kindergarten children.

1.1. Research Objectives

Based on the on considerations which have described in the previous paragraphs, the aims of this research was to find the instructional approach which was matched to the efforts in impowering e nvironmental awareness since early age, especially in the of 4-6 years old in which the children are vary active in searching their environement children.

1.2. Research Hypothesis

Due to the research objective, the research hypothesis was formulated as followed: Environmental awareness of the 4-6 years old children was improved by implementing neurosensory instructional approach.

2. Cross Theories Analysis

Learning is an activity which involves central nervous sytem fuctions. Therefore, it is important to undertand how the brain actually fuction in learning. As stated by Myklebust (Gearheart, 1973: 93) that this concept presume that the brain is composed of systems that at times fuction semi-independently, at times in a supplementary manner, and at times in a totally related manner. For example that visual system may function semi-independently from the auditory or the tactile systems, it may function in a coordinates manner with either them or all may function as a total system. As a result of the previous rationale, Myklebust (Gearhaeart, 1973: 76-79), Spears & Wilson, 2000), Jasen (1992). devides learning process into three general categories, as followed: (1) intraneurosensory learning which involves primary one sensory system in the brain system, (2) interneurosensory learning which involvrs more than one brain system, and (3) integrative or multisensory learning that involves all brain systems functioning simultaneously.

Based on the preceding rationale, it is clear that neurosensory consists of various brain functions which are used by human being in learning or doing interactions with their environment. By these interactions, the human being will understand the inter –relationship of the environment phenomenons around them. The brain functions in the form of neurosensory systems can be operated by using ear in the form of auditory ability, eye in the form of visual ability, nose in the form of smelling ability, skin in form of tactile ability and tongue in form of taste. Ability, as well as movement in form of kinesthetic ability.

Neurosensory instruction approach is a kind of instructional approach which is focused in activating sensory systems integratively, either by eye and ear, skin, and tangue, or nose, or by movement. Therefore, neurosesnsory instructional approach is the reflextion of natural process of the brain in learning or in doing activities, as well as doing instructional activities. Neorosensory system can operate by activating frontal lobe for planing activites and controling body movement, parietal lobe for somatis sensetioan related to body image in space, temporal lobe for listening, in which, related through its’ inside structures, hypocampus and amigdala that enable people to learn, to recall their experiences about thing, objects, etc and to control thier emotion. All the brain fuctions in the brain systems bring about multiple intelligences. as shown by following figure

Figure 1. Brain (www. Hiddentalent.org, 2001)

Based on the analysis and synthesis of variuos theories concerning with neurosensory systems as the brain fuctions, child development and muliple intelligences, among them were, Holland (2001), Gardner (1993:.67-68), Piaget (1974) which cited by Papalia & Olds (1986: 420, 1995: 212-224) and Martini Jamaris (2004: 5), Santrock (1996: 338-395), Papalia & Olds (1985: 425-486), Fogarty (1991: 53-62), Drake (119-131), therefore, it can be concluded that the development of multiple intelligences are going side by side with the development of child’s development in the field of phsychosocial, cognitive, language and communication, physic and motoric coordination and visual motoric coordination (Martini Jamaris, 2005: 12). All of those can be seen from the accent of multiple intelligences theories which describes that multiple intelligences talk about ways of human being to be clever, in which, they consist of eight types of intelligence, they are: (1) verbal linguistic intelligence related with, (2) logical mathematical intelligence, (3) visual spatial intelligence, (4) intrapersonal intelligence, (5) interpersonal intelligence, (6) bodily kinesthetic intelligence, (7) musical rythmical intelligence, and (8) naturilst intelligence. Furthermore, based on the brain fuctions which have shown in the prevous figure, it can be concluded that all. type of multiple intelligences are the reflectioan of brains function.

Verbal linguistic is the reflexion of parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe (Holland, 2001, Martini Jamaris, 2014: 46-47). It is because verbal linguistic intelligence is related with words and language both spoken and written. Furthermore, the verbal/linguistic intelligence is also appeared in form of abilities to use words effectively, either verbally or non verbally, which are included, the ability to manipulate syntax and language structure, phonem, or the verbal /sound of language, semantic or the meaning of words, and the practical used of language (Gardner, 1993: 76 -79, Pohl, 2000: 49, Fogarty, 1991: 67). The indications of the existence of verbal/linguistic inteligence of the 4-6 years old children are (1) enjoy speaking, (2) enjoy reading and writing, (3) enjoy listening and (4) and deliver story, enjoy playing with words, etc (Martini Jamaris, 2013: 25-26).

Logical mathematical intelligence is the reflection of frontal lobe and parietal lobe, a well as, temporal lobe (Holland, 2001, Martini Jamaris, 2014: 46-47). Therefore, logical mathematical intelligence is a type of multiple intelligences whcih enable people to do inductive and deductive thinking The existence of the type of inteligence can be seen from the ability of the 4-6 years old children in making categorization, making clasification, making inference and generalization, as weel as, calculating and numeric ability, finding patrens and testing hyphotesis (Gardner, 1993:157-159, Pohl, 2000:49, Fograty, 1991: 67). Furthermore, Martini Jamaris (2013: 28) described that logical mathematical intelligence can be identified by the ability in: (1) classifying objects, events, and people, (2) arranging objects and events based their order / hierarchy (3) making explanation logically and rasionally, (4) remembering numbers up to 10 easily, (5) calculating numbers up to 10 easily, (6) understanding cause and effect relationships, (7) finding pattrens of objects and events, (9) understanding subtraction (- +) proccess up to 10 easily (Martini Jamaris & Edwita, 2014: 1166).

Visual spatial intelligence is the reflection of brain fuctions, especially, temporal lobe, occipital lobe and frontal lobe (Holland, 2001, Martini Jamaris, 2014:46-47). It is because, visual spatial intelligence dealts with the sense of sight and ability to visualize, include to create mental image, into pattren, picture, building design is known by visual spatial intelligence (Gardner, 1993: 174-175, Pohl 2000:46, Fograty 191:67. Glass & Holyoak, 1986: 140). Visual-spatial intelligence development of the children age 4-6 years old children develop along with their ability in integrating visual perception activities with their cognitive process, as well as, the ability to tranfer the two into the form of lines, colors, shapes, sizes, width and the relationship among those aspects, in which, the process involves the visualization ability which express ideas and visual spatials relationship in the form of matrics and grafics (Martini Jamaris, & Edwita 2014: 1166).

Intrapersonal intelligence is a type of multiple intelligences has to do with self-reflection and matacognition awareness of internal state of being which involves some aspects, as followed: (1) awarenes of self feeling, (2) awareness of self strenght and self weakness, (3) self attention, (4) self motivation, (5) self temprament, and (6) self aspiration, as wellas, (7) ability of doing self diciplin, (8) self understanding and (9) self confidanced (Gardner,1993: 237-249, Pohl, 2000:49, Fogarty, 1991:67). Furthemore, intrapersonal inteligence is the reflection of tempral lobe and frontal lobe as well as, parietal lobe (Holland, 2001, Martini Jamaris, 2014:46-47).

Interpersonal intelligence is the reflection of the function of of tempral lobe, frontal lobe. and, parietal lobe. It is because, Interpersonal intelligence refers to person to person relationship and communication. The appearence of this kind of intelligence can be identified by: (1) the ability in initiating communication with others, (2) ability in doing activities cooperatively, (3) liked by others around them, (4) the ability in doing activities in team work (Gardner, 1993: 237-249, Pohl,2000:49, Fograty, 1991:67). Furthermore, interpersonal intelligence invloves the ability in differentiating and percepting various modus, certain objective, motivation and feeling of other persons. This kind of intelligence also involves the ability in interpreting face expression, sound and body movement of others (Martini Jamaris, 2013: 28). Therefore, the persons are able to do interaction effectively with others, such as, to convince others to do something or to lead others toward the intended goal (Martini Jamaris & Edwita, 2014: 1167).

Bodily –kinesthetic intelligence is the reflection of fuction of frontal lobe, temporal lobe, as well as parietal lobe (Holland, 2001, Martini Jamaris, 2014: 46-47. It is because bodily kinethetic dealts with physical movement. According to Seefeldt & Barbaour (1994) as cited by Martini Jamaris (2003: 47) the 4-6 years old children are already able to coordinate their body movement well, which involves gross motor and fine motor movements. Therefore, it can be conluded that the bodily kinesthetic intelligence of the 4-6 years old can be identified by their abilities in: (1) riding tree whell cyles or two whell cyles, (2) runing and sudently stoped, (3) climbing, (4) hoping with one foot and two feet, (5) jumping, (6) standing balancely on one foot, (7) walking on bridge or block balancely, etc. The 4-6 years old children movement in fine motor movement can be identifeid by their abilities in: (1) put on and put off dress; put on and put off dress’ buttons, (2) holding paper while anoher hand writing, (3) folding papers into object shape, (4) cutting thing by using knife or other tools (5) taking small thing by using finger edge, (6) using spond and fork for eating, and the like (Martini Jamaris & Edwita, 2014: 1166).

Music /Rhythmic intelligence is the reflection of the functions of frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe (Holand, 2001, Martini Jamaris, 2014:46-47). Therefore, music/rhythmic involves the ability in recognizing tonal pattren of sounds, rhythmic and beats.) The development of musical-rhythmics intelligence of the 4-6 years old children is the result of development integration in the field of cognitive development, physical development, psychosocial development, language and communication development (Martini Jamaris, 2005: 183). The 4-6 years old children enjoy listening to the music and other form of arts. Therefore, they are able to express their musical- rhythmic intelligence through various activities related to the intelligence expressions.

Musical- rhythmic intelligence of the 4-6 years old children can be identified by their overt behavior, as followed: (1) remember rhythmic and melody easily, (2) able to match movement to the sound of music and melody, (3) enjoy playing music instruments, (4) able to create rhythmic, (5) enjoy listening to the music (Martini Jamaris, 2013:35, Martini Jamaris & Edwita, 2014: 167).

Naturalist intelligence is the reflectioan of brain fuctions, espesially, the fuctions of frontal lobe, ocipital lobe, parietal lobe, and tempral lobe (Holland, 2001, Martini Jamaris, 2014: 46-47). It is because, it relates to the knowing that occurs through encounter natural world which involves appriciation for undertanding of various flora and fauna, recognation of species membership, ability to relate to living organism. the naturalist intelligence of the 4-6 years old children can be identified through their overt behaviors to the environment, such as, (1) enjoy doing environmental concervation, (2) awareness of ecological problems, (3) awareness to natural phenomenas, and (4) enjoy doing natural obseravation (Martini Jamaris, 2013: 36, Martini Jamaris & Edwita, 2014: 1167).

Based on the of sensory instructional approach, in which, it involves various brain fuctions in doing instruction process, therefore, the instructional should be conducted integratively. One of model of holisitc intehrative instruction in the form of webbed model, which represent the thematic approach for integrating subject matter. The thematic approach covers conceptual theme provide rich possibilites for inherent diversities of various diciplines (Fogarty, 1991:54).

3. Research Method

Based on the need in developing environment awarwnees through multiple intelligences holistic integrative instruction for the 4-6 years old children, therefore, the research questions were formulated as followed: (1) how to design and to implement neurosensory instructional approach in the form of multiple intelligences holistic integrative instruction aimed to empower environmental awarenees of 4-6 years old children? (2) After participating in the implementation neurosensory instructional approach in the form of multiple intelligences holistic intehrative instruction, did environmental awarenees of 4-6 years old increase?. Therefore the research methods used in this study was mix method, in the form of action research, especially Martini Jamaris Action Research Model (Martini Jamaris and Edwita, (2014: 1171), The reason to select this resesarch method was because of the research questions which had been formulated previously, in which, the two questions leaded to apply the mix research method, which containted of quantitative research method and qualitative research method, as shown in diagram 1.

Quantitative method used in order to measure the increase or the intensify of the children’s environmental awareness. Consecquently, pre assessment and post assessment were applied before and after the implementation of neurosensory instructional approach in the form of multiple intelligences holistic integrative instruction. Qualitative method was used to assess the progress of environmental awareness of the 4-6 years old children during the implementation of multiple intelligence integrated learning. Therefore, observation guide, interview and documantation were used to record the children’s environmental awareness progress.

4. Sensory Instructional Approach Implementation

Based on the need of the sensory instructional approach which related to multiple intelligences holistic integrative instruction in the form of webbing model, instructional approach had to be conducted in four instructional stage as followed:

5. Multiple Intelligences Holistic Integrative Instructional Design

Based on the analysis result of instructional system (Shambaugh &bMagliaro 2006:40-41, as well as, model of integrated curriculum (Fogarty, 1991:53) and Martini Jamaris (2005:21), the instructional design consists of at least intructional objectives, instructional contents, instructional processes, and instructional evaluation (Martini Jamaris &Edwita, 2014: 1171) which guided the researcher to construct the nourosensories holistic intehrative approach in the form of multiple intelligences holistic integrative instructional design, as followed:

Diagram 3. Neurosensory Instructional Aprroach in the Form of Multiple Intelligences Holisitc Integrative Instructional Design
Diagram 4. Martini Jamaris’ Multiple Intelligences Holisitc Integrative Instructional in the form of Weebing Model

6. Multiple Intelligences Holisitc Integrative Instructional Process

Multiple intelligences holisitc integrative instructional design which was used in empowerning environment awareness of the 4-6 years old children was selected carefully, in order to match with the need of the children. A long with the requirement of the holistic integrative instruction, in which, the researchers adopted Fogarty’s webbed model (191:52-60) and Collins and Hazel (1991) which modified based on the need of instructional design (Martini Jamaris & Edwita, 2014: 172). Therefore, the instructional contents were design in the forms of a theme which developed based on the environment subtances.

Table 1. Weekly Multiple Intelligences Integrated Learning Activities for Improving the 4-6 Years Old Children’s Environment Awareness

Based on the need of the 4-6 years old children, the multiple intelligences instructional theme which used during the learning process and activies was dealing with “ME AND MY ENVIRONMENT and its related issues. The instructional process were divided into eight weeks. Each week consisted of five days, in which, neurosensory instructional approach was used to empower environmental awareness of the children through each type of multiple intelligences of the 15 inclusive group children, as showen in Table 1 and Table 2.

Table 2. Example of Daily Multiple Intelligences Integrated Instructional Activities

7. Measured Instrument Standard of Environmental Awareness

For the need of of multiple intelligences holisitic integrative instructional evaluation, it is important to to construct rating scale aimed to assess the improvement of environmental awareness of the 4-6 years old children. Therefore, the measured standard was developed in the form of rating scale. The rating scale were used before and after instructional process.

Rating Scale 1. Pre and Post Instrument Asseement Specification of Environmental Awareness the 4-6 Years Old Children

Example of the of the rating scale score implementation to assess the environmental awareness of the 4-6 years old children on daily learning process as shown in Table 2, as followed:

1. Verbal language intelligence ” Telling story about school flower garden (average if use 2 simple senteces (4 -5 years old) and 4 simple senteces (above 5 – 6 years old).

2. Logical mathematical intelligence ” Making rationale explanation why people need flowers “(average if express 2 rationale explanation (4-5 years old) and 3 rationale explanation (obove 5 – 6 years old)

3. Visual spatial “Describe shape, color or other related characterics of flower “ (average if describe 2 charactertics (4-5 years old) and 4 chracteristics (above 5 – 6 years old), such as, shape, color, size, aroma or other related characteristics

4. Intrpersonal Intelligence “Doing self discipline” Average if show 2 kinds of behavior related to self diciplin, such as, follow direction and not disturbing others (4-5 years old), and for above 5 – 6 years old, average if show three kinds of behavior related to self diciplin, such as, follow direction, not disturbing others and pay attention and other behavior srelated to self diciplin.

5. Interpersonal Intelligence “Doing observation in a team work”. Aaverage if show 2 kinds of team work behavior, such as, sharing information, sharing tasks or other 2 kinds of related behavior (4-5 years old). Average if show at least 3 kond of related behavior, sharing information, sharing tasks

6. Natralistic Intelligence “ Observing School Flower Garden” Average if show 2 kinds of good observer behaviors, such as, pay attention to the garden, pay attention to the flower (4-5 years old) and for above 5 – 6 years old, average if show 4 kinds of good observer behaviors, such as, pay attention to the garden, pay attention to the flower, pay attention to any thing makes flower grows, pay attention to gardener, or related behaviors

7. Musical/Rhythic Intelligence ” Singing “ My Flower Garden” Average if can follow the simple song accurately (4-5 years old) and for above 5 – 6 years old, average if after listening to the simple song can sing the song indepently

8. Bodily Kinesthetic Intelligence ” Moving balancely in accordance to song music” average if can move balancely in accordance to song music

8. Research Finding

The research finding revealed that the environmental awareness of the 4-6 children were increased after participating the multiple intelligences holisitc integrative instruction. It could be seen from the assement score.

Table 3. Average Pre Assessment Score and Average Post Assessment Score of The 4-6 Years Old Children

The average score of 15 children for pre assessment was 90.40 and the average score of the children for post assessment was 188.53. Therefore, the score was increased 208,55 %, as shown in Table 3.

Based on Table 3, it could be analyzed that all the 4-6 years old children’s environment awareness were increased after participating the holistic integrative instructional process. Detail description concerning with the individual average score improvement could be seen in the following table.

Table 4. Individual Average Score Befora and After Participating Holisitc Integrative Instruction Proceess

Judging from the research result which presented in Table 4, it could be concluded that all of the 4-6 years old childern’ s environment awareness were improve after participating the neurosensory instructional approach which implemented in the form of multiple intelligences holistic integrative instruction. However, in order to have rich information, especially, which type of multiple inteligences gave high contribution to the children’ s environment awareness, therefore, the research results concerning to the need of those information were presented in the following diagram.

Diagram 5. Environment Awareness Improvement Of The 4-6 Years Old In Each Type of Multiple Intelligences

Based on the diagram 5, it can seen that verbal linguistic intelligence was the most effective bridge to be used to improve or empower the environment awareness of the 4-6 yars old children. Through verbal linguistic intelligence, the 4-6 years old children gained average score 17.14 or improve excelently. The following table showed the average gained score by the 15 children for each type of multiple inteligences which were used as the bridge to improve the environment awareness ot the children.

Table 5. Environment Awareness Improvemant of the 4-6 Years Old Children

9. Discussion

Based on the research result, it could be analyzed that the environment awareness of the 4-6 years old children was improved after participating the holistic integrative instructional process. Judging from individual improvement of the 4-6 years old children was inproved, the improvement ranged started from 2.13 up to 10.12. One of the children gained score 10.12 after joint HIIP, it meant that the environement awareness of the child improved excelently. Three children gained score from 6.45 to 6.62 after participating HIIP. It meant that the children’s had well improvement in their environment awareness. Four children gained score 4.45. to 5..50 after HIIP, it mean that their environment awareness improvement were very good. The rest of the children gained score from 2.13 to 3.62. It meant that their improvement in environment awareness were good.

On the other hands, judging from multiple intelligence influence on improvement of the 4-6 years old children’s environment awareness, it could be seen that the research result revealed that verbal linguistic intelligence had the best influence in promoting environment awareness of the 4-6 years old children. It implied that verbal linguistic intelligence was fuction as most effective bridge to improve environment awareness, especially, for the 4-6 years old children.

10. Conclusion

Based on the research findings, it could be concluded that the environment aareness of the early age children, especially the 4-6 years old children were increased after participating the sensory instruction approach, in which, it was applied in the form of multiple intelligences holistic integrative instruction. Eventhough, the participants of the research were limited, because it was a case study. However, the research was conducted about 8 weeks, equal with 40 days and equal with 120 hours. Therefore, time used for studying the improvement of the 4-6 years old childern‘s environment awareness was long enough and the research reflexed that the children’s environment awareness could be incresed if they went through the stimultion aimed to grow their environment awareness.

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