A Suggested Proposal to Implementation Quality Management System ISO-9001 in Egyptian Universities

Hany R. Alalfy, Abo-Hegazy S. R. E.

  Open Access OPEN ACCESS  Peer Reviewed PEER-REVIEWED

A Suggested Proposal to Implementation Quality Management System ISO-9001 in Egyptian Universities

Hany R. Alalfy1,, Abo-Hegazy S. R. E.1, 2

1Deanship of Development and Quality, Hail University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Abstract

The study aimed at identifying the reasons for failing to obtain the ISO-9001 at most of the Egyptian universities and introducing a suggested proposal for the application of quality management system ISO-9001 in Egyptian universities, so avoid mistakes and problems in which these universities have occurred in the past when it tried to apply this system. The study used a descriptive methodology. The study provided a suggested proposal, including: The goal, foundations, requirements and steps of the application of the a suggested proposal, including the implementation mechanisms.

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Cite this article:

  • Alalfy, Hany R., and Abo-Hegazy S. R. E.. "A Suggested Proposal to Implementation Quality Management System ISO-9001 in Egyptian Universities." American Journal of Educational Research 3.4 (2015): 483-489.
  • Alalfy, H. R. , & E., A. S. R. (2015). A Suggested Proposal to Implementation Quality Management System ISO-9001 in Egyptian Universities. American Journal of Educational Research, 3(4), 483-489.
  • Alalfy, Hany R., and Abo-Hegazy S. R. E.. "A Suggested Proposal to Implementation Quality Management System ISO-9001 in Egyptian Universities." American Journal of Educational Research 3, no. 4 (2015): 483-489.

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1. Introduction

We live in the age of information, creativity, innovation and quality, wherein new technological advancements, opportunities and challenges are being faced by us all the time. Universities are also facing these challenges and trying to be the best in their field. One of the mechanisms used by the universities in the face of these challenges, the application of quality management system ISO-9001 [8].

ISO (International Organization for Standardization), established in 1947, is the world's ISO gives us the standards that are the tools to achieve goals; it provides guidance to develop a process and ways to implement it as a framework. ISO not only provides guidance on the role of a governing body, but also encourages organizations to use appropriate standards to underpin governance and quality assurance [24].

ISO-9000 standards provide a framework for quality management in universities. The challenge to the University is to invest in the monitoring of quality in such a way as to improve profitability and effectiveness. Although this quality management system was designed for manufacturing, ISO-9000 standards have also become a popular choice also for educational systems worldwide [8].

Recent times have seen a growing interest from higher educational institutions in implementing ISO-9001. The reasons for this were numerous, including there has been an escalating competition among educational institutions to attract and retain students and, consequently, quality practices are often used as a competitive weapon. In addition, governing bodies are requiring educational institutions to implement processes of continuous improvement so as to promote quality in education. Another reason is that educational institutions are increasingly compelled to make an efficient use of their resources, being held accountable to funding bodies and other stakeholders [8].

Maria, Claudia and Alberto pointed out that the quality management system in spite of its importance is not a management approach easily applied to higher education institutions, especially because the academic culture of these organizations is very different from the industries. Most of the well-known quality management frameworks, such as the ISO, were first developed for industries, not for education institutions [13].

Perhaps that was one of the reasons for the failure of the Egyptian universities to obtain ISO certification in spite of the application of the quality management system.

1.1. Study Problem

The Egyptian universities suffer from deep administrative problems that affect the efficiency and effectiveness of work (such as contradictions in the responsibilities, weak relations among the employees within the sections and departments of the University, the neglecting team work at the dispense of individual and etc [23].

Egyptian Universities tried solving of these problems through the application of some modern methods as a quality management system ISO-9001, but the application met several obstacles led to Universities failure in the application, which led to the aggravation of the situation turned to the impact of these problems to the chronicle crises that the Egyptian universities suffer from it, [1]. To the extent that some researchers to said that the Egyptian universities "are graves where creative minds are buried [21].

In light of the above the main question of the study are crystallized as follows: What is the suggested proposal for applying of a quality management system ISO-9001 at Egyptian universities?

1.2. Aim of the Study

The study aimed to introduce a suggested proposal for the application of quality management system ISO-9001 in Egyptian Universities, so avoid errors and problems in which these universities have occurred in the past when it tried to apply this system.

1.3. Importance of the Study

Is summarized in the following two points:

1. The need of many Egyptian universities to suggested proposal guided to the proper application of the quality management system ISO-9001 after repeated failures.

2. Finding practical solutions to many problems that may hinder the implementation of the quality management system ISO-9001 at Egyptian Universities.

1.4. Research Methodology

The study used a descriptive approach, which is the most suitable approaches to achieve the objectives of the study; it helps in getting facts and information specific and accurate for the current circumstances and events, and beyond that to the analysis, interpretation and access to the conclusions that can contribute to the development of reality

2. Literature Review

2.1. Quality Management System ISO-9001

The ISO-9000 family addresses various aspects of quality management and contains some of the ISO’s best known standards. The standards provide guidance and tools for organizations who want to ensure that their products and services consistently meet customer’s requirements, and that quality is consistently improved. [24].

Standards in the ISO-9000 family include: [24].

•ISO-9001:2008 - Sets out the requirements of a quality management system.

•ISO-9000:2005 - Covers the basic concepts and language.

•ISO-9004:2009 - focuses on how making a quality management system more efficient and effective

•ISO-19011:2011 - sets out guidance on internal and external audits of quality management systems.

In 1987, ISO published the ISO-9001, ISO-9002, and ISO-9003 standards which pointed out the requirements of a quality management system (QMS). These standards were revised in 1994, 2000, and 2008, In 2000, ISO combined ISO standards 9001, 9002, and 9003 into one standard, ISO-9001 [11].

A quality system ISO-9001 is defined as a set of interdependent processes that function harmoniously in an organization, using various resources, to achieve objectives related to quality that was introduced by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) [25].

This standard is based on a number of quality management principles, including a strong customer focus, the motivation and implication of top management, the process approach and continual improvement. Customer focus, Leadership, Involvement of people, Process approach, System approach to management, continual improvement, Factual approach to decision making, mutually beneficial supplier and relationships. Using ISO-9001:2008 helps ensure that customers get consistent, good quality services, which in turn brings many benefits. [24].

The basic aims to application ISO-9001 to gain more benefits like to improve internal processes and procedures of the institution, to the improvement of management, performance and effectiveness and meet the needs of your customers and to achieve the goals set [10]. Hides et al., pointed out that, Meet the demands of a range of stakeholders (e.g. Government, students and local communities) and improved range of services from Higher education sector [17].

ISO Based on the following principles [6].

1. (Say what you do) procedures: the sense of documentation of the University method of quality assurance through specific actions.

2. (Do what you say?) Implementation: Implementation of these processes in accordance with documented procedures.

3. (Record what you did): Administration based on documented facts through: Keep the audit records.

4. (Check the results): make sure of the application requirements by comparing the results which will be through internal audit to make sure that what has been achieved and / or external audit by a third party granting the certificate.

5. (Processing the difference) which is neglected by many universities that getting , the certificate is not enough, if the service is not satisfactory will be difficult to maintain a consistent quality and this leads to a decline in quality and thus reduce customer satisfaction, which reflected negatively on the reputation of the University [15].

ISO-9001 adopts PDCA (Plan – Do – Check – Action) methodology and based on the eight quality management principles which are customer focus, leadership, personnel involvement, process approach, system approach to management, continuous improvement, factual approach to decision making, and mutually beneficial relationships with suppliers Lam, Steve [12].

According to the requirements of ISO 9001, an organization must develop only six documented procedures: (a) control of documents, (b) control of quality records, (c) internal audits, (d) control of non-conformities, (e) corrective action, and (f) preventative action (Figure 1). A quality manual and several records are also required. The development of other procedures, work instructions, and other documents are largely at the discretion of the organization. From the very beginning of the process [5].

2.2. Quality Management System ISO-9001 at Egyptian Universities

The Egyptian universities started the application of quality management system ISO-9001 at the beginning 2010, individual initiatives of some faculty leaders desire to obtain ISO certification and delivering of senior leadership in the universities as evidence of the quality of the faculty and administrative operations but in most cases they fail to get this certificate.

After the two revolutions of 25th of January 2011 and 30th of June 2012 the Egyptian Ministry of Higher Education, started to break free from the governmental control and started to support universities view by project management unit in the ministry, as this unit cooperated with some universities to carry out some projects to develop the performance and improve the service. One of those projects is applying quality system ISO-9001, as provided the fund that the application needed and providing consultants [16].

This unit decided to adopt and implement the Standards of International Organization for Standardization (ISO-9001). Throw implementation numbers of (ISO-9001) projects in Egyptian universities. At that time this Unit prepared a set of guidelines for the implementation of the Standard International Organization for Standardization Standards (ISO-9001:2008) [16].

Fewer numbers of Egyptian Colleges and Centers (in co- operation with this unit) had obtained the ISO-9001:2008 certification like Nursing College and open learning center at Ain Shams University. And the results of obtaining the ISO-9001:2008 were developing the administrative performance ,improving relationships among workers ,improving communications with other colleges and centers inside and outside the University, reduce operating costs and reduce the customers complaints and consider [3].

In January 2015, the Minister of Egyptian Higher Education called all Egyptian Universities speed in completing to develop its administrative system using (ISO-9001 standardization). and overcoming on the frequent failure in application of the QMS in Egyptian Universities [9].

The Universities began the ISO standards were created to establish quality system benchmarks that can be applied and accepted internationally by customers of University services. Increased enrollment, greater need for accountability, stringent finance and most of all to be internationally recognized, drove the education sector, especially universities and colleges began to experiment with this international standard that focus on the quality and reliability of processes that create services.

Quality witnesses at Universities begin to carry out specific measures to achieve it. State that one way organizations seek to ensure quality is through the development of a properly implemented quality management system in all the functional areas.

2.3. Causes of the Egyptian University’s Failure in Application of QMS ISO-9001

Despite the importance of getting the ISO certificate as a proof of the University's ability to meet the requirements of the standard, the Egyptian Universities did not provide requirements for success in obtaining ISO certification because it is either not available or it is not enough to meet the requirements of the specification and the customers under the pressures, the University may resort to apply quality management system ISO-9001 with the lack of adequate preparation.

Many studies have confirmed that the failure to obtain the ISO was the dominant feature of Egyptian universities despite the application of the ISO-9001/2008, Egyptian Universities have faced severe criticism after failing to apply the ISO-9001, there were many reasons for this failure and the most prominent of those reasons that the studies reached were:

Thabet, [23] pointed out that the most significant reasons are “prevailing culture in Egyptian Universities are not compatible with the requirements of the ISO standards, ingredients for success and continuity are not available. Bureaucracy, which prevails the universities, University leadership lacks courage in making decisions related to making the change to create a quality culture and strong tendencies to centralization and lack of awareness of the active role of workers at various levels” [7].

[4] and [23] confirmed that depending on un-objective criteria in the selection of human resources participating in the application of quality management system ISO-9001. Lack of training courses held by the University to train its human resources on how to apply quality management system ISO-9001, [1] indicated that University leadership does not listen to the opinions and suggestions of employees, Determining insufficient time for the application, Differences among teams’ members that apply quality management system ISO-9001 and [19] added that ambiguity of the concept of ISO-9001 quality management system in some academic and administrative leaders, is another reason for failing to apply the ISO system.

The results of the study of [14] and [23] proved that the obstacles of applying the ISO were lack of a clear vision of some University leaders about ISO and its application, Lack of practical plans for the application of ISO mechanisms, Resistance to change by some of the leaders and employees. [29] confirmed the weakness of employees Enthusiasm to apply ISO and excluding the students from the application of quality management system ISO-9001

[20] and [23] added weakness of financial and moral incentives to participants of ISO, poor communication channels between the sections and departments of the University and lack of continuous assessment for the exerted efforts by the University in application of quality system ISO-9001, the study of Yousef [27] emphasized through the interviews with some leaders at Egyptian Universities that expect immediate results, The application of ISO at universities before spreading its culture, The lack of those experienced members who are responsible for the application of ISO methods, [18] and [2] added that the lack of benefit from the experiences of some outstanding universities inside and outside in application of ISO and Shortage of trained human resources for the implementation of quality management system ISO-9001.

3. A Suggested Proposal to Implement a Quality Management System ISO-9001 at Egyptian universities

In this section, the study deals with a proposal for how to implement a quality management system ISO-9001 in Egyptian Universalities, to avoid all the problems which many colleges and universities have involved when applying the system and that led to the failure to obtain ISO certification; therefore suggested proposal parameters are shown through the following elements:

3.1. The Goal of the Suggested Proposal

The suggested proposal is intended to provide assistance and guidance to officials at the Egyptian Universalities of for the proper application of the quality management system ISO-9001.

3.2. The Foundations of the Suggested Proposal

The major foundations of the suggested proposal are as follows:

1. Leadership of the University understands the importance of the application of ISO 9001 quality management system.

2. Proper planning for the application of ISO-9001QMS.

3. Human cadres qualified and trained in the application of ISO-9001QMS.

4. Financial and material resources to facilitate the application of ISO-9001QMS.

5. Work team at the highest level of competence and skill in the application of ISO-9001QMS.

6. Participation of human cadres in University decision-making related to the application of the ISO-9001QMS.

7. Benefiting from the Egyptian minority models that have been able to obtain ISO certification

3.3. The Suggested Proposal Requirements

The suggested proposal requirements include the following:

1. University leadership's commitment to implement a quality management system with conviction and understanding of the feasibility of its application.

2. Spreading the culture of ISO-9001QMS among human resources at the University.

3. The formation of the Quality Management System team ISO-9001 to be entrusted with the application.

4. Providing trained manpower for application ISO-9001.

5. Providing material and financial resources needed to implement quality management system ISO-9001.

6. The existence of a system of incentives paid for cadres to make more effort in the application of the approach.

7. Establish specific criteria for selecting cadres.

8. The activation Cooperation with the Project Management Unit regarding the application of quality management system ISO-9001/2008.

4. Phases of the Application of ISO 9001 Quality Management System

4.1. First Phase: Setup and Preparation

Preparing represent the foundation on which the rest of the application stages, and therefore must be a strong start with the support of senior management of the University, and ending with the full conviction among workers of the importance of the establishment and application of quality management system ISO-9001.


4.1.1. Setting Goals of the Preparation Phase

1. Top management support for the implementation of the International Standard.

2. The formation of the working group in charge of the application.

3. Giving employees the concepts and requirements of the International Standard.

4. Preparation schedule for the application.


4.1.2. Method of Setup and Preparation Phase Application

1. The preparation of the qualifying directed senior management University seminar aims to identify senior management concepts and requirements and the importance of the application of quality management system ISO-9001.

2. The University president's decision to start the application, and announcing to everyone.

3. To appoint the management representative to follow up the application of the system, and is the link between the University and other parties.

4. The formation of the steering committee composed of members of the Board of Directors to support and facilitate the task of the application.

Figure 2. phases of the application of ISO 9001 quality management system

5. The preparation of the application and the timetable for each stage plan.


4.1.3. Provide Training Courses for University Staff in order to:

Awareness of the importance of a working application of ISO-9001 QMS to give workers the system application skills.

4.2. Second Phase: Evaluation

This phase aims to analyze the current quality system to determine the extent of the University and adapted to the requirements of the standard ISO-9001.


4.2.1. Method of Application of the Evaluation Phase

The quality management system of evaluation of the University through the following:

1. Study standard ISO-9001.

2. Determine the application of each item specification requirement.

3. Compared to the requirements of the standard ISO-9001, with the current quality system.

4.3. Third Phase: Documentation

This phase aims to provide evidence on the application of the system, and then provides information useful in the improvement and development operations.


4.3.1. Method of Application Documentation Stage

The University prepares the following documents:

1. Quality Index: a document outlining the University method in the application of quality management system, including policy and quality objectives.

2. Quality Procedures are documents illustrate the steps to implement processes. .

3. Work Instructions: A more detailed documentation of procedures where shows, the detailed steps to implement the action.

4. Quality plans: are all of the documents that describe how to implement a quality management system plans.

5. Quality records: models that provide evidence of what has been implemented.

4.4. Fourth Phase: Running-on Operation

This phase aims to provide an opportunity for employees to apply the University documents, procedures and plans to explore the areas of quality deficiencies and improve, and this coincides with the preparation stage and to review the quality and development of the system.


4.4.1. Method of Application of the Operational Phase

1. The management representative distributes quality system procedures after documenting the various sections of the University.

2. The departments use these measures with a modification or deletion of some of the documents.

3. Clarify how to make a modification or deletion.

4. The management representative chooses a group of employees to be trained in the audit skills.

4.5. Fifth phase: Review

This phase aims to ensure the compatibility of the applicable quality system with a quality management system ISO-9001, and then addresses the weaknesses revealed by the audits and make the immediate corrections.


4.5.1. Method of Application Review Phase

Review is done according to the following steps:

1. Develop a plan for review by the management representative in cooperation with the audit team should include all applicable sections of the system.

2. A review team must be from outside the department in which you review.

3. Review all the documents which the department is reviewed.

4. Field observation of the working methods and locations of operations.

5. Writes at the end of each visit, a report containing the most prominent weaknesses that need to be improved.

6. Follow-up corrective actions.

4.6. Sixth Phase: Obtain ISO Certification

When the department is confident of the capacity and efficiency of the quality system that is seeking a certificate of conformity of the quality system of an accredited agency can.


4.6.1. Method of Application Phase to Obtain ISO Certification

Selecting a donor for accredited certification.

1. Submit a request to the donor supported by all the documents that support the request of the University.

2. A donor to send a team of them to make sure the models and the evidence provided by the University.

4.7. Seventh Phase: Maintenance

This phase aims to maintain the ISO certificate obtained.


4.7.1. Method of Application Phase

System maintenance is one of the two roads either by the University human resources, or by a team from the donor.

Whether to take the first or the second way, it must follow these steps:

1. Review the donor reports.

2. Review internal audit reports.

3. Monitor the implementation of the results of audits.

5. Conclusion

The study analyzed the reality of the application of ISO quality management system in Egyptian universities, and explained the reasons for the failure of those universities in the application of ISO-9001, and presented a suggested proposal on how to implement the quality management system ISO 9001 correctly to avoid the mistakes made by the Egyptian universities previously the proposal included the next elements : The goal of the suggested proposal, The foundations of the suggested proposal, The suggested proposal requirements and Phases of the application of ISO-9001 quality management system.

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