Short Story Text in Project-Based Learning Model on 7th Graders

Dra. Exti Budihastuti

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Short Story Text in Project-Based Learning Model on 7th Graders

Dra. Exti Budihastuti

Ministry of Education and Culture, Language Center, Jakarta, Indonesia

Abstract

Mid-2013 the world of education in Indonesia was preoccupied with curriculum changes. Curriculum 2013 replaced the previous, namely Curriculum 2006 or KTSP (school-based curriculum). In line with the changes, there is also a change in the Indonesian language learning, namely a text-based learning. To enhance the mindset of teachers and students in learning Indonesian, the author tries to outline the project-based learning model with short stories in class VII of Junior High School (SMP). Project-based learning is a learning model that uses project / activity as a learning process to achieve competency of attitudes, knowledge, and skills. The emphasis of the learning lays on learners activity to produce output by applying the skills of researching, analyzing, creating, up to presenting their products based on real-life experience. Meanwhile, the short story is a work of literary prose that tells story. It is categorized as prose because it is not bound by a particular form (free). Judging from the contents which tells story, short story is classyfield into epic category (storytelling). The term of short stories emerges from the point of view of a storybeing told conciseness. This paper aims to provide rocommendation advice to the world of education in Indonesia, especially on Indonesian language and literature learning of class VII.

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Cite this article:

  • Budihastuti, Dra. Exti. "Short Story Text in Project-Based Learning Model on 7th Graders." American Journal of Educational Research 3.2 (2015): 109-115.
  • Budihastuti, D. E. (2015). Short Story Text in Project-Based Learning Model on 7th Graders. American Journal of Educational Research, 3(2), 109-115.
  • Budihastuti, Dra. Exti. "Short Story Text in Project-Based Learning Model on 7th Graders." American Journal of Educational Research 3, no. 2 (2015): 109-115.

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1. Introduction

In the middle of 2013, the world of education in Indonesia was preoccupied with curriculum changes. Curriculum 2013 replaces the previous curriculum, the Curriculum 2006 or KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan) (Education Unit Level Curriculum). According to the editors of the curriculum, there are some fundamental differences; some of the differences are the competence of graduates, learning materials, learning process, evaluation, teachers and educators, and curriculum management.

In line with the views of the Minister M. Nuh, an Indonesian Language lecturer of Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Suhertuti, M.Pd. said that in 2013 curriculum put Bahasa Indonesia as the main key to other subjects and therefore it should be above of other subjects. In a text-based language teaching, Bahasa Indonesia taught not only as a knowledge of language, but rather as a text that bears the function to be a source of self-actualization its users on the social context of academic culture.

Related to the presence of Bahasa Indonesia in language learning, the authors will describe the project-based learning model with short story texts in 7th grade. It aims to enhance the mindset of the teachers and students in carrying learning activities with 2013 Curriculum. Project-based learning is a learning model that uses a project / activity as a learning process to achieve competence in attitudes, knowledge, and skills. The emphasis of leaning is the activities of the learners to produce products by applying the skills of researching, analyzing, creating, until the presenting the product based on the real experience.

Meanwhile the text which tried to be conveyed is in text narratives exposure. Cerpen or cerita pendek (short story) is a new prose that tells something. Short story categorized as prose because it does not bound by a particular form (free). If we see the contents that tell something, short story is also categorized as one of the epics (storytelling). The naming of the short stories arises from the point of view of the brevity of the stories that are told. This type of text is one of the most preferred types of text junior high school students, which also easy to build the context.

Therefore, the author tries to present a short story text in project-based learning model in the 7th graders. The methods used in this paper are literary study and observation, by reading books and Bahasa Indonesia education experts' writings and also carrying observations in junior high school teachers.

This paper aims to give advice in education in Indonesia, especially on a project-based learning model with short story texts in 7th graders.

2. Discussion

2.1. Definition, Types, and Structures of Short Story
2.1.1. The Definition of Short Story

Short story is one of narrative text types. Just like its name 'short story', the story is presented short or at least shorter than a novel or romance. In his book Apresiasi Kesusastraan (Appreciation of Literature), Jakob Sumardjo and Saini K.M said that according to the physical form, the cerpen is a short story. However, there are other types of short stories, but not the short story (cerpen), for example, fables, folklore, or anecdotes.

According to Burhan Nurgiyantoro in his book Teori Pengkajian Fiksi (Theory Assessment Fiction), cerpen (cerita pendek/short stories), as the name suggests, is a short story. However, how the length of the story, there was not a single agreement between the authors and experts. Edgar Allan Poe (Jassin, 1961: 72), a famous American writer says that short story is a complete story read in one sitting, roughly around half to two hours, something that would not be possible for a novel.

Moh. Shoim Anwar, short story writer from East Java, affirms that short story genre has the most sunny opportunities than any other literary work. Short story is not identical to the story that is short and also not a novel abstraction. Anwar insists that, a good short story can shine its existence as an independent entity, intact, and typical. Nowadays, short stories continue to be born along with the product of journalism. However, one to be noted, just like how the characteristic of the literary product by journalism, this short story is quickly to be forgotten together with the loss of a newspaper or magazine sheets (Anwar, 1993).

From the three opinions we can conclude the underlying causes about the definition of short stories; the stories that are presented with a short physical form. Another thing that distinguishes short stories with other text types will be explained in further description.


2.1.2. The Characteristic of Short Story

As mentioned earlier, there are several types of short stories. However, that has the name 'short story' as referred to in this paper are those which have the following characteristics:

Short story according to Sumarjo and Saini (1997: 36) has the following characteristics:

a. the story is short

b. tend to be fiction (fiction)

c. narrative

d. Having a single impression.

Another opinion on the characteristics of short stories submitted by Lubis in GM (1985: 177):

a. Short story should contain the author's interpretation of the concept of life, either directly or indirectly.

b. In a short story, an incident dominated the main storyline.

c. Short story should have a person as the perpetrator or the main character.

d. Short story should have one effect or interesting effects.

Morris in Tarigan (1985: 177) also revealed that the characteristics of the short story are:

a. Brevity, unity, and intensity.

b. The elements include scene, character, and action.

c. The language used should be incisive, suggestive, and alerts.

To be able to understand a short story pretty well, we also need to be able to capture the intrinsic and extrinsic elements in the short story. Intrinsic elements of the short story are:

a. Theme: The idea or the notion which is the principal issue in a short story.

b. Plot: The connection of the story from the beginning to the end of the short story coherently, causing a short story coherent. The plot can be chronical, reverse or back and forth.

c. Characterizations: Characterizations is the characteristics of the characters in the stories.

d. Background or setting: Background place, time setting, and atmosphere setting in a short story.

e. Point of view: the way the author tells of his characters in a short story.

f. Diction: The way the author uses the language or the choice of the words; right, beautiful and easy to understand.

g. Message: moral message that conveyed from the author to the reader through the short story.

After understanding the intrinsic elements, we also need to know the extrinsic elements of the short story. The extrinsic elements that are underlying the short story is an element outside the story, which is relates to life, such as social and religious elements, underlying the author's life so the author told the readers through an article.

By knowing the characteristics of short stories, we can understand better about the meaning of the 'short' story of in writing.


2.1.3. The Structure of Short Stories

Related to the genre of the current texts, the short story has structure, i.e orientation, complication, and resolution.

Figure 1. The Structure of Short Stories

1. Exposition or Introduction

The beginning of the short story contains the introduction of the characters, time and place setting, the prefix into the next stage. Usually, this section has illustrated the type of its narration, using the first-person perspective, second, or third. As for the time and place setting, sometimes it’s stated explicitly or implicitly.

2. Conflict/Climax

In this part the main character dealing with the conflict (conflict). This section is the core of the narrative text; it should exist. If there is no conflict, the conflict must be created. The length of a short story is usually determined on a more or less of the existing conflicts.

3. Resolution

This section is a continuation of climax, which is troubleshooting. The problem must be solved in a creative way. Solving the problem in the short story is entirely the right of the author. Its resolution can be a happy ending or unhappy ending.

These are the following examples of the structure of the short story text.

Table 1. Examples of The Structure of The Short Story Text

2.2. Definition and Characteristics of Project-Based Learning Model
2.2.1. Definition of Project-Based Learning Model

Board of Education Human Resources Development and Education Quality Assurance (Badan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia Pendidikan dan Penjamin Mutu Pendidikan or BPSDMPPMP), Ministry of Education and Culture said that the Project Based Learning (PBL) is a learning method that uses a project/activity as a medium. Learners undertake an exploration, assessment, interpretation, synthesis, and information to produce various forms of learning outcomes. Project Based Learning is a learning method that uses a problem as the first step in collecting and integrating new knowledge based on real activity experience.

Moreover, BPSDMPPMP mentioned that Project-Based Learning to be used on a complex problem which the students needed to do investigation and to understand. Through the PBL, the process of inquiry starts with raising a guiding question and guiding the learners in a collaborative project that integrates various subjects (material) in the curriculum.

1. Characteristics of Project Based Learning Model

The characteristics of project-based learning according to the curriculum of training materials published by BPSDMPK and PMP in 2013 and the Center For Youth Development and Education-Boston (Muliawati, 2010: 10) are:

a. there's any problems or complex challenges posed to the students;

b. the students are designing the resolution process or challenges posed by using the investigation;

c. the students learn and apply the skills and knowledge they have in various contexts when working on the project;

d. the students work in cooperative teams as well as when discuss it with the teacher;

e. the students practice various skills needed for their adult life and career (how to allocate time, become a responsible individual, personal skills, learning through experience);

f. students regularly to reflect on the activities that have been carried out;

g. students' outcome product from the evaluated project.

Just like other learning models, project-based learning model also has its advantages and disadvantages. Here are the advantages and disadvantages of project-based learning model according to BPSDMPPMP.


2.2.2. The Advantages of Project Based Learning

1. Improve the ability of solving problem.

2. Make the learners become more active and managed to solve complex problems.

3. Enhance the collaboration.

4. Encourage the students to develop and practice communication skills.

5. Improve the skills of learners in managing resources.

6. Provide the learning patricipants experiences and practices in organizing the project, and make the allocation of time and other resources such as equipment to complete the task.

7. Provide learning experiences that engage learners complexly and designed to develop according to the real world.

8. Engaging the learners to learn to take the information and demonstrate knowledge they have, and then implemented in the real world.

9. Make fun learning atmosphere, so that both students and the teachers enjoy the learning process.


2.2.3. The Disadvantages of Project Based Learning

1. Requires a lot of time to solve problems.

2. Requires quite a lot expenses.

3. Many instructors who feel comfortable with the traditional system, where the instructor plays a central role in the classroom.

4. A lot of equipment should be provided.

5. Students who have a weakness in the experiment and the collection of information will have a trouble.

6. There is a possibility of a learner who's less active in the group work.

7. When the topic given to each group is different, it is feared learners can not understand the overall topic.

Whatever happens in the teaching and learning activities, both advantages and disadvantages should be able to give a new color in our education.

2.3. The Steps of Project Based Learning Model to Text Short Story Implementation

To understand better about the project-based learning model with short story text, the following described the steps of the project based short story text implementation.

a. Start With the Essential Question (Penentuan Pertanyaan Mendasar).

The learning begins with the essential questions, which are questions that can give assignments to the students in an activity. The assignment's topic in accordance with the students' relevant real world and begins with an in-depth investigation. For example, because the topics of the short story will be an example of betrayal themed short stories, students are given questions about betrayal, such as:

(a) Did you know about betrayal?

(b) Have you betrayed someone?

(c) Have you ever being betrayed by someone?

(d) Can you express the feelings of someone who's been betrayed by his friend?

b. Design a Plan for the Project (Mendesain Perencanaan Proyek)

Planning is done collaboratively between teachers and students. Thus, students are expected to feel "belonging" to the project. The planning is about rules, the choice of activities that can support in answering the essential question by integrating various possible subjects and knowing the tools and materials that can be accessed to assist the completion of the project.

The sample of Project-Based Learning activities preparation by choosing one of type of text, as required competencies in the curriculum, with the following format.

c. Create a Schedule

Teachers and students collaboratively create an activities schedule in completing the project. Activities in this phase include:

1. Create a timeline (time allocation) to complete the project,

2. Make the deadline for the completion of the project,

3. Make the learners to plan a new way,

4. Guide the learners when they make a way not associated with the project, and

5. Require the learners to make an explanation (excuse) on the selection of a way.

Table 2. The Sample of Project-Based Learning Activities Preparation

d. Monitor the Students and the Progress of the Project

The teachers are responsible for monitoring the students' activities during completing the project. Monitoring is done by facilitating tje students in each process. In other words, a teacher plays as a mentor for students' activities. In order for make the monitoring process easier, the teachers are asked to create a rubric that can record all imp

Here's an example of short story text arrangement evaluation sheet:

SHORT STORY PROJECT PROPOSAL ASSESSMENT SHEET

Group name: ..........................................

Instruction:

Give a check on the following column according to the content:

Score 1 = less

Score 2 = average

Score 3 = good

Score 4 = very good

e. Assess the Outcome

Assessment is done to help teachers measure the achievement standard, plays a role in evaluating the progress of each student, gives feedback on the level of understanding has been achieved by students, assist teachers in preparing the next learning strategies.

PROJECT ASSESSMENT SHEET

Group Name: ……………………..

Students Name:1). …………………… 2). …………………… 3). …………………… 4). …………………… 5). ……………………

Project Title: Write a short story about betrayal

f. Evaluate the Experience

At the end of the lesson, the teachers and the students reflect on the activities and results of the project that have been done. The process of reflection is done either individually or in groups.

2.4. Implementation of Project-Based Learning Model with Short Story Text in 7th Grade
2.4.1. Junior High School (7th Graders)

Junior high school is a level over primary school. 7th grade regarded as a continuation of the 6th grade as at the final of primary school level. According to the Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture No. 68 in 2013, one of the basic competencies curriculum of Bahasa Indonesia in 7th grade there is a material consist of composing a short story text, as in the following table.


2.4.2. The Implementation of Project-Based Learning Model with a Short Story Text

In Bahasa Indonesia Wahana Pengetahuan, book by the Ministry of Education and Culture, short story text material presented in Chapter VI. In the first sub-theme, short story "Kupu-Kupu Ibu" encompasses; 1. Short story text modeling 2. Short story preparation as a group, and 3. Short stories preparation independently. So does the sub-theme 2, the learning activities sequence is the same.

Related to the description that has been presented on a project-based learning model, this short story text writing material is suitable with this learning model. First on the short story text material, this material is preferred in 7th graders for literary narrative text. In this material the students are not really required to use language according to the rules, but instead to use a beautiful language. Second, the ages of the 7th graders are in the range 11-13 years need to be build with controversial matters. As in the short story "Hukuman Terbaik" by Dyah Wahyuningsih, the controversial of the main character and his sincerity in accepting the punishment, can be a good message of short story for the students. Third, habituation to work in groups and in that time has been arranged is one of the best ways for students to obtain maximum work.

However, it does not mean this model is the most ideal learning model. The success of teaching and learning activities influenced by many contributing factors, including the presence of teachers, books, and other teaching tools.

3. Finale

Project Based Learning is one of the learning models that can be used by teachers so that automatically the teachers also use a scientific approach in their learning. Basically, all learning models aim is to make teaching and learning activities fun and to create creative learners. Projects which are planned and prepared aim to produce learners, especially in the 7th grade, which is able to work together in a working group and was able to do it in the time planned. In the short story text, the project is done in accordance with the developed text structure, i.e. introduction, climax, and resolution.

There's no ivory that doesn't cracked, the writing of this paper is less than perfect, but the writing hope this exposure can provide more knowledge to the teachers, especially bahasa Indonesia junior school teachers and an equal.

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