Primary Social Science Curriculum Terminal Competencies in Bangladesh Focused by Global Policies

Md. Arifur Rahman, Fahmida Mazid

American Journal of Educational Research

Primary Social Science Curriculum Terminal Competencies in Bangladesh Focused by Global Policies

Md. Arifur Rahman1,, Fahmida Mazid2

1Daily Janakantha, Dhaka, Bangladesh

2International College of Education, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Abstract

Social Science is necessary to acquire knowledge, attitudes, values and skills for being a perfect social being from the early childhood. To meet the challenges of present world primary social science curriculum is needed to consider global policies in education. Among fifty terminal competencies at primary level in Bangladesh, twenty two competencies are related to social science curriculum. This research aims to find out primary social science curriculum terminal competencies in Bangladesh which are focused by global policies. To do this research, a questionnaire was used as a data collection tools. And also document analysis was done. Both analyses indicate this research as a mix method research. Document of global policies and related articles were selected purposively. Respondents to questionnaire were also selected purposively. In Findings, the study reveal that global policies in education are enough focused in written terminal competencies chart but these are not sufficiently included in curriculum which is the hindrance to meet with global challenge in 21st century.

Cite this article:

  • Md. Arifur Rahman, Fahmida Mazid. Primary Social Science Curriculum Terminal Competencies in Bangladesh Focused by Global Policies. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 3, No. 12, 2015, pp 1597-1606. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/3/12/17
  • Rahman, Md. Arifur, and Fahmida Mazid. "Primary Social Science Curriculum Terminal Competencies in Bangladesh Focused by Global Policies." American Journal of Educational Research 3.12 (2015): 1597-1606.
  • Rahman, M. A. , & Mazid, F. (2015). Primary Social Science Curriculum Terminal Competencies in Bangladesh Focused by Global Policies. American Journal of Educational Research, 3(12), 1597-1606.
  • Rahman, Md. Arifur, and Fahmida Mazid. "Primary Social Science Curriculum Terminal Competencies in Bangladesh Focused by Global Policies." American Journal of Educational Research 3, no. 12 (2015): 1597-1606.

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1. Introduction

In a global economy, most countries aim at raising their international competitiveness by offering knowledge-intense products and services, and new manpower profiles. They expand education and its contents and processes on skills, competences by considering global policies [3]. Global policy is dependent on how we understand each of the constituent elements- the ‘global’ ‘education’ and ‘policy’, and the relationships between them. The global policies in education somewhat different, through related, ways; as a ‘condition of the world’, ‘discourse’, ‘project’, ‘scale’, and ‘means of identifying the reach of particular actors’. As a discourse in education policies the global is invoked as a particular imaginary, often tied to ideas like a ‘global knowledge economy’, ‘global village’, ‘global social justice’ and so on [14]. Global education policies are common set of jargon applied in many parts of the world, in locations that are incredibly diverse both culturally and in terms of economic development ([17], p. 5). Previously education policies set up on national setting but now policies are the result of a ‘combination of political forces, social structures, cultural traditions, and economic processes entangled in a matrix of intersecting multi-level, multi-scalar (local, national, regional, and global) sites and spaces’ [19]. Actually to overcome the present global problems and to meet the challenges of 21st century, most of the countries of the world are considering global policies to prepare curriculum [15]. Like other countries, Bangladesh also considers global policies to prepare its curriculum. Social Science curriculum plays a vital role to prepare students for facing and overcoming the future challenges and devour problems. It is social science that enables us to look beyond facts to values, it is that encourages us to aspire to knowledge and ultimately to wisdom [11]. Social Sciences are the study of political, economic, cultural, and environmental aspects of societies in the past, present and future. It should have designed according to emphasis on human resources, caring and sharing society, value based sustainable development, decentralized approach, participatory democracy, and more open approaches to learning. Social Science in the early childhood/primary years is the essential foundation for students to become active, responsible citizens in a diverse, interdependent and democratic society. As a result, primary level students need a complete, effective and proper Social Science Curriculum [15]. During five years primary schooling, each student has to acquire fifty competencies that are called terminal competencies which are acquired in systematic way [10]. In primary education, students acquire twenty two terminal competencies which are related with social science. Are these competencies focused by global policies in education or not, and it is very important question to cope with global demand and met with global challenges. For this reason, researcher got interested to find out the condition of primary social science curriculum terminal competencies focused by global policies.

2. Research Question

1. Are Bangladesh primary level social science curriculum terminal competencies focused by global policies in education?

2. What is the condition of Bangladesh primary level social science curriculum to cover global policies in education?

3. Methodology of the Study

The research work was qualitative and quantitative in nature. Two types of data collection tools were used in the study- Document Analysis and a Questionnaire. Document analysis was used to find out the condition of primary social science curriculum terminal competencies focused by global policies. Purposive sampling technique was used to select global policies. Document sampling was included with- Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948, International Commission on Education (1971-1972), The Convention on the Rights of the Children 1989, World Declaration on Education for All (EFA) 1990 (Jomtien), International Commission on Education for Twenty-First Century 1996, Dakar Framework (World Education Forum 2000), Delhi Declaration (1993), World Summit for Social Development (1995), The Millennium Development Goals 2000 and present primary social science curriculum terminal competencies chart. From selected global policies, those article was included which are related with social science.

A five scale type Likert scale questionnaire was also used to know the condition of primary social science curriculum coping with global policies, needs and issues. Fourteen questions were included in this questionnaire. To collect opinion of respondents, purposively twenty five respondents were selected who were the students of masters of education in social Science Education of Institute of Education and Research, University of Dhaka.

4. EFA (Education for All):

World Conference on Education for All (EFA) held at Jomtien, Thailand in 1990. It helped in remarkable progress in basic education at both formal free and compulsory primary education (FCPE) and literacy and non-formal education (NFE). Recognizing the strategic challenges of realizing EFA goals, government of Bangladesh has adopted a program approach and initiated the Second Primary Education Development Program (PEDP II), 2003-2009 that was expanded to 2010. To bring all components within a common framework, Government also initiated the first national plan of action (NAP-1) and recommended the six EFA goals from where three goals are related with this research such as- 2) Ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to, and complete, free and compulsory primary education of good quality 5) Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality 6) Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills.

5. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

In the general assembly of united nation’s article 217 (A) (111) on 10th December in 1948, a universal declaration of human rights has been declared to establish and protect the human rights. Some articles related with this research are given bellow-

Article 1) All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article 13 (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state. Article13 (2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country. Article 18) Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance. Article 22) Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. Article 25) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing, medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. Article 26 (1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. Article 26 (2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. Article 26 (3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

5.1. International Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)

20 November, 1989 the international convention on the rights of the child was transmitted in the general meeting of united nation. Some articles of this convention related with this research are given bellow-

Article 8) States Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including nationality, name and family relations as recognized by law without unlawful interference. Article 24) States Parties recognize the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation of health. States Parties shall strive to ensure that no child is deprived of his or her right of access to such health care services. Article 28(1) States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that school discipline is administered in a manner consistent with the child's human dignity and in conformity with the present Convention. Article 28 (2) States Parties shall promote and encourage international co-operation in matters relating to education, in particular with a view to contributing to the elimination of ignorance and illiteracy throughout the world and facilitating access to scientific and technical knowledge and modern teaching methods. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries. Article 29) States Parties agree that the education of the child shall be directed to: (a) The development of the child's personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential; (b) The development of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and for the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations; (c) The development of respect for the child's parents, his or her own cultural identity, language and values, for the national values of the country in which the child is living; the country from which he or she may originate, and for civilizations different from his or her own; (d) The preparation of the child for responsible life in a free society, in the spirit of understanding, peace, tolerance, equality of sexes, and friendship among all peoples, ethnic, national and religious groups and persons of indigenous origin; (e) The development of respect for the natural environment.

5.2. International Commission on Education (1971-1972)

Identifying the global educational crisis the UNESCO had given the duty of a research work entitled “The World Educational Crisis: A System Analysis” to Philip H. Coombs in 1968. Three years later, “The International Commission on Education” was formed in 1971, he added by the education minister of France Edgar Faure. This commission formulated a report entitled “Learning to be”. Four fundamental assumptions underlie with this work; 1) International community exists and is reflected in common aspirations, problems, trends, and movement toward one destiny 2) Belied in democracy 3) The aim of development is the complete fulfillment of people4) A comprehensive lifelong education can produce the kind of complete Person the need for whom is increasing in today's society.

5.3. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century:

UNESCO formed a ‘‘International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century”, headed by Jacques Delors. This commission is known as Delors’ Commission. This commission published a report titled “Learning: The Treasure Within” in 1996. This report reflects on education in the 21st century in the global context. This International Commission identified some fields of education according to needs of 21st century such as Education and Development, Education and Science, Education and Citizenship, Education and Culture, Education and Social Cohesion, Education and work. Last four fields of knowledge are directly related to Social Science Education. This commission also indentified the tension that would have been created in 21st century. This tensions are the tension between the global and the local, the tension between the universal and the individual, the tension between tradition and modernity, the tension between long-term and short-term considerations, the tension between, on the one hand, the need for competition, and on the other, the concern for equality of opportunity, the tension between the spiritual and the material and the tension between the extraordinary expansion of knowledge and human beings’ capacity to assimilate it. It recommended four pillars for the education of the future which directly related with social science. These pillars are learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together, and Learning to be.

6. World Declaration on Education for All (1990):

‘‘World Declaration on Education for All’’ held in 5-9 March 1990, Jomtien in Thailand, focuses on the basic needs of universal primary education and eliminate adult illiteracy. “World Declaration on Education for All” of the Jomtien Conference put priorities on the Universal Primary Education for All. Some articles of this conference related this research are - Article I (1) Every person - child, youth and adult - shall be able to benefit from educational opportunities designed to meet their basic learning needs. These needs comprise both essential learning tools and the basic learning content required by human beings to be able to survive, to develop their full capacities, to live and work in dignity, to participate fully in development, to improve the quality of their lives, to make informed decisions, and to continue learning. The scope of basic learning needs and how they should be met varies with individual countries and cultures, and inevitably, changes with the passage of time. Article I (2) The satisfaction of these needs empowers individuals in any society and confers upon them a responsibility to respect and build upon their collective cultural, linguistic and spiritual heritage, to promote the education of others, to further the cause of social justice, to achieve environmental protection, to be tolerant towards social, political and religious systems which differ from their own, ensuring that commonly accepted humanistic values and human rights are upheld, and to work for international peace and solidarity in an interdependent world. Article 6) Learning does not take place in isolation. Societies, therefore, must ensure that all learners receive the nutrition, health care, and general physical and emotional support they need in order to participate actively in and benefit from their education. Knowledge and skills that will enhance the learning environment of children should be integrated into community learning program for adults. The education of children and their parents or other caretakers is mutually supportive and this interaction should be used to create, for all, a learning environment of vibrancy and warmth.

7. Dakar Framework for Action (DFA) (2000):

Dakar education conference was held in Dakar, in the capital of Senegal in 26-28 April, 2000. In this conference a text was adopted entitled “Education for All: Meeting Our Collective Commitment”. In the conference six objectives were defined for the world community from which some are related with this research such as- Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life skills programs; Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls' full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality; Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills.

8. The Delhi Declaration (1993)

In 1993 the leaders of nine high-population developing nations (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan) of the world adopted the Delhi Declaration and Framework For Action; hereby repeat their commitment to pursue with utmost zeal and determination the goals set in 1990 by the World Conference on Education For All. This declaration (1993) recognized, the content and methods of education must be developed to serve the basic learning needs of individuals and societies, to empower them to address their most pressing problems- combating poverty, raising productivity, improving living condition and protecting the environment and to enable them to play their rightful role in building democratic societies and enriching cultural heritage.

9. World Summit for Social Development (1995):

The first world social development Summit was held in March 6-12, 1995 in Copenhagen, among the members of 184 countries. In this conference a declaration was finalized to eradicate poverty from the world. The declarations were about health care, sanitation and food security, raising government development aid and decreasing the loan of poor countries, agreeing among the rich countries for sanctioning of 7% on their total GNP, creating free market and accelerate the economic growth and social development by developing legal framework, foundation of gender equality in women rights, democracy, role of law and inspiring tolerance to immigrants and refugees, developing the international and national cooperation by strengthening the United Nations and other organizations and struggle against illiteracy, Specially enforcing for the women and the girls and development of education for the indigenous people.

10. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs):

In September 2000, meeting at the United Nations Millennium Summit, the world’s leaders agreed to a remarkable document, the Millennium Declaration. It committed the global community to a hard and specific agenda for human development. The Declaration demanded that the world set its sights higher and aim for eight specific goals from which related goals of this research are- 3) Promote gender equality and empower women 5) improve maternal health 6) combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases 7) ensure environmental sustainability and 8) develop a global partnership for development.

11. Social Science Curriculum Related Terminal Competencies

In our country, 50 terminal competencies are declared for the primary education, that have been acquired a student after completing his/her primary level education. From these terminal competencies 22 competencies are directly related to Social Science Curriculum (Poribesh Porichiti Somaj). These terminal competencies are given below-

•  (6) To show respect and tolerance to all irrespective of their nationality, religion, caste and sex.

•  (7) To know about the people of other countries and to create a sense of love and tenderness for them.

•  (8) To gain idea about the basic needs of human beings, and to be aware of developing a nice livelihood.

•  (9) To be aware of one's own rights and also the rights of others.

•  (10) To allow others to express their opinions and to show respect for such opinion.

•  (11) To extend cooperative and friendly behavior with all.

•  (12) To be interested in manual work and to be respectful to people living on manual work.

•  (13) To be aware of one's own duties and responsibilities as a member of the family and to take part in household chores.

•  (14) To be aware of one's own rights, duties and responsibilities as well as those of others through active participation in social and school-based activities.

•  (15) To be aware of democratic norms and as a good citizen to be careful about one's own responsibilities and duties.

•  (16) To take part in nation building activities imbued with a spirit of self-sacrifice.

•  (17) To gain adequate knowledge about the geographical position and features of Bangladesh.

•  (18) To be imbued with a sense of patriotism and nationalism in the spirit of liberation war.

•  (19) To know and be respectful about the national history, heritage, culture and literature.

•  (20) To be active in the development and preservationist of the environment.

•  (21) To develop liberal attitude towards universal brotherhood and the culture of various countries and to develop an appreciation of the spirit of world peace.

•  (22) To develop an attitude to be careful in making appropriate use of personal, family, community and national resources and their conservation.

•  (23) To be informed about the gradually increasing population of the country and to gain awareness of its effect on environment.

•  (35) To be able to use various information from the environment through collection, organization and processing of them.

•  (45) To know the environment through observation and enquiry and to be able to classify different things and events on the basis of the knowledge acquired.

•  (49) To know and follow health rules with a view to ensuring healthful living.

•  (50) To acquire the mentality of living together and to be imbued with the attitude of honesty, sense of justice, duty, discipline and good manner and behave accordingly.

12. Analysis of Questionnaire

1. Primary Social Science Curriculum emphasize on `respect and tolerance’ to all nationality, religion, caste and sex.

Among the respondents, 64% respondents are strongly agreed with this statement while 28% are agreed and 2 % are undecided. Nobody gave their opinion with disagree or strongly disagree. According to most of the respondents opinion, primary social science curriculum emphasize on `respect and tolerance' to all nationality, religion, caste and sex.

Table 1. (Respect and tolerate to all nationality, religion, caste and sex.)

2. Primary Social Science Curriculum emphasizes on other countries people and creates a sense of love and tenderness for universal brotherhood

From all respondents, 56% are agreed with this statement while 12% are strongly agreed. 4% respondents are undecided, 20% are disagreed and 8% are strongly disagreed. Analyzing respondents answer, it is clear that most of them think, primary social science curriculum emphasize on other countries people and create a sense of love and tenderness for universal brotherhood.

Table 2. (Other countries people and creates a sense of love and tenderness)

3. Primary Social Science Curriculum promotes the student’s social and cultural values

Among all respondents, 36% and 52% are respectively agreed and strongly agree with this statement while 8% and 4% are respectively undecided and disagree. There was no one who strongly disagreed with this statement. By considering respondents opinion, it is understand that most of respondents think, Bangladesh primary social Science curriculum promotes student's social and cultural values.

Table 3. (Curriculum promotes the student’s social and cultural values)

4. Primary Social Science Curriculum emphasize on patriotism and nation building activities.

36% and 20% respondents are respectively agreed and strongly agreed from all respondents to this statement while 16%,8% and 20% are respectively undecided, disagreed and strongly disagreed. So it is obvious that in primary social science curriculum, patriotism and nation building activities are included but not sufficient.

Table 4. (Primary Social Science Curriculum emphasize on patriotism and nation building activities)

5. Primary Social Science Curriculum develops the student’s civic sense and democratic norms to be good citizen

Among all respondents, 32% and 40% respondents respectively agree and strongly agree with this statement while 8% are undecided. 16% and 4% are respectively disagreed and strongly disagreed with this statement. Most of the respondents think that primary social science curriculum focus enough to develop student's civic sense and democratic norms to be good citizen.

Table 5. (Primary Social Science Curriculum develops the student’s civic sense and democratic norms to be good citizen)

6. Social Science Curriculum focused on dignity of labor especially manual work.

From all respondents, there is no one who strongly agreed with this statement. Only 20% respondents are agreed with this statement while 4% are undecided about these issues. 52% and 24% respondents are respectively disagreed and strongly disagree with this statement. According to respondents answer, it is clear that primary social science curriculum is not giving enough importance to dignity of labour, especially manual work.

Table 6. (Social Science Curriculum focused on dignity of labor)

7. Primary social science curriculum focus to the awareness of student’s own and others right, owns duties and responsibilities.

Among all respondents, only 8% and 4% are consecutively strongly agreed and agreed while 4% are undecided with this statement. 64% respondents are disagreed with this statement and 20% are strongly disagreed. It is realized that primary social science curriculum don't give sufficient focus to the awareness of student's own and others right, own duties and responsibilities.

Table 7. (Awareness of student’s own and others right, owns duties and responsibilities)

8. Primary Social Science curriculum emphasize on extending cooperative and friendly behavior and mentality of living together

16% and 56% respondents are consecutively strongly disagreed and disagree against this statement while 16% and 12% respondents are respectively agree and strongly agree with this matter. Most of respondents believe that primary social science curriculum is not giving enough emphasize on extending cooperative and friendly behavior and mentality of living together.

Table 8. (Extending cooperative and friendly behavior and mentality of living together)

9. Primary social science curriculum focus on geographical position and features of Bangladesh, making students respectful about the national history, heritage, culture and literature

According to all respondents’ opinion, 28% and 52% respondents are respectively strongly agree and agree with this statement while 4% and16% respondents are consecutively undecided and disagree with this. No one is strongly disagreed with this statement. Primary social science curriculums don't focus enough to geographical position and features of Bangladesh, making students respectful about the national history, heritage, culture and literature.

Table 9. (Geographical position and features of Bangladesh, making students respectful about the national history, heritage, culture and literature)

10. Primary social science curriculum focus on development and preservation of the environment, population problem for environment, know environment through observation and how to use various information for environment safety

From all respondents, 64% respondents are strongly agreed with this statement while 28% and 8% respondents are consecutively agreed and undecided with this statement. No one is disagreed or strongly disagreed with this statement. Most of the respondents believe that Primary social science curriculum focus enough on development and preservation of the environment, population problem for environment, know environment through observation and how to use various information for environment safety.

Table 10. (Development and preservation of the environment)

11. Primary social science curriculum emphasize on health rules with a view to ensuring healthful living

Among all respondents, 40% respondents are strongly agreed with this statement while 44% are agree and 16% are undecided about this statement. There are no one who disagree or strongly disagree with this statement. From all the respondents, most of them believe that Primary social science curriculum giving enough emphasize on health rules with a view to ensuring healthful living.

Table 11. (Health rules with a view to ensuring healthful living)

12. Primary Social Science Curriculum fulfill the present requirements of global needs

From all respondents, 32% and 56% respondents are respectively strongly disagreed and disagreed with this statement while 8% are undecided with this. There are 4% respondents who are agreed with this and no one is strongly agreed with this statement. Most of the respondents opine that Primary Social Science Curriculum don't fulfill the present requirements of global needs.

Table 12. (Fulfill the present requirements of global needs)

13. Current trends and important global issues are included in the curriculum

60% respondents are strongly disagreed with this statement while 36% respondents are disagreed and 4% are undecided. No one is agreed or strongly agreed with this statement. Most of the respondents opined that Current trends and important global issues are not sufficiently included in the curriculum.

Table 13. (Current trends and important global issues are included in the curriculum)

14. Global policies are focused in primary social science curriculum competencies

Among all respondents, 28%, 32% and 24% are respectively strongly agreed, agreed and undecided while 16% are disagreed with this statement. There is no one who strongly disagreed with this. According to respondents it is clear that Global policies are focused but not enough in primary social science curriculum competencies.

Table 14. (Global policies are focused in primary social science curriculum)

13. Analysis of Global Policies with Social Science Curriculum Terminal Competencies

•  (6) To show respect and tolerance to all irrespective of their nationality, religion, caste and sex is the terminal competency which is also focused on Universal Declaration on Human Rights article 26, International Convention on the Rights of the Child’s article 8 and 28, World Declaration on Education for All’s article 2.

•  (7) To know about the people of other countries and to create a sense of love and tenderness for them is the terminal competency which is focused on World Declaration on Education for All’s article 10, World Summit on Social Development's goal and Millennium Development Goals (8).

•  (8) To gain idea about the basic needs of human beings, and to be aware of developing a nice livelihood is the terminal competency which is focused on Education for All’s goal 6, International Convention on the Rights of Child article 29(b) and World Declaration on Education for All article 1 ( 2).

•  (9) To be aware of one's own rights and also the rights of others is the competency which is indicated in Universal Declaration of Human Rights article 18,25, and International Convention on the Rights of Child article 26 (1). It is also focused the theme of equitability of Dakar Framework of Action and related with International Commission on Education for Twenty-First Century's identified field of Education and Citizenship.

•   (10) To allow others to express their opinions and to show respect for such opinion is related to Universal Declaration of Human Rights article 1.

•  (11) To extend cooperative and friendly behavior with all is related with Universal Declaration of Human Rights article 1 and with International Commission on Education for Twenty-First Century's identified field of Education and Social Cohesion.

•  (12) To be interested in manual work and to be respectful to people living on manual work is related with International Commission on Education for Twenty-First Century's identified field of Education and Work.

•  (13) To be aware of one's own duties and responsibilities as a member of the family and to take part in household chores which is related with the development of child's personality that are focused in International Convention on the Rights of the Child's article 29 (a).

•  (14) To be aware of one's own rights, duties and responsibilities as well as those of others through active participation in social and school-based activities which is focused in Universal Declaration of Human Rights article 16, 18, 23 (2), International Convention on Education for Twenty-First Century's identified field of Education and Social Cohesion and The Delhi Declaration.

•  (15) To be aware of democratic norms and as a good citizen to be careful about one's own responsibilities and duties is focused in International Commission on Education's 2nd fundamental assumptions, International Convention on Education for Twenty-First Century's identified field of Education and Citizenship and The Delhi Declaration.

•  (16) To take part in nation building activities imbued with a spirit of self-sacrifice is related with International Convention on Education for Twenty-First Century's identified field of Education and Citizenship and The Delhi Declaration.

•  (17) To gain adequate knowledge about the geographical position and features of Bangladesh is the terminal competency which is related with Universal Declaration of Human Rights article 13 and with The Delhi Declaration.

•  (18) To be imbued with a sense of patriotism and nationalism in the spirit of liberation war which is the terminal competency related with International Convention on Education for Twenty-First Century's identified field of Education and Citizenship.

•  (19) To know and be respectful about the national history, heritage, culture and literature is the terminal competency related with International Convention on the Rights of the Child's article 8 and 29 (c), International Convention on Education for Twenty-First Century's identified field of Education and Culture, World Declaration on Education for All article 1 (2), World Summit for Social Development's goal and the Delhi Declaration.

•  (20) To be active in the development and preservation of the environment is the terminal competency which is focused on International Convention on the Rights of the Child's article 29 (c), World Summit for Social Development's goal, Millennium Development Goals ( 7), goal of the Delhi Declaration.

•  (21) To develop liberal attitude towards universal brotherhood and the culture of various countries and to develop an appreciation of the spirit of world peace is the terminal competency which is focused in Universal Declaration of Human Rights article 1and 26 (2), International Convention on the Rights of the Child's article 28, World Declaration on Education for All's article 1 (2) and Millennium Development Goals (8).

•  (22) To develop an attitude to be careful in making appropriate use of personal, family, community and national resources and their conservation is the terminal competency which is focused in Universal Declaration of Human Rights article 22 and International Convention on the Rights of the Child's article 29 (d).

•  (23) To be informed about the gradually increasing population of the country and to gain awareness of its effect on environment which is related with World Declaration on Education for All's article VI, World Summit for Social Development, The Delhi Declaration and Millennium Development Goals 7.

•  (35) To able to use various information for conservation of environment through collection, organization and processing of them are related with World Declaration on Education for All's article VI, World Summit for Social Development, The Delhi Declaration and Millennium Development Goals 7.

•  (45) To know the environment through observation and enquiry and to be able to classify different things and events on the basis of the knowledge acquired which is related with World Declaration on Education for All's article VI, World Summit for Social Development, The Delhi Declaration and Millennium Development Goals 7.

•  (49) To know and follow health rules with a view to ensuring healthful living is the terminal competency which is focused in Education for All's goal 3, Universal Declaration of Human Rights article 25, International Convention on the Rights of the Child's article 24 and Millennium Development Goals 6.

•  (50) To acquire the mentality of living together and to be imbued with the attitude of honesty, sense of justice, duty, discipline and good manner and behave accordingly which is related with International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century.

14. Findings

1. All terminal competencies of primary social science curriculum of Bangladesh are focused in at least one selected global policies in education. Some terminal competencies are focused more than two global policies in education. It is very positive side for primary social science curriculum though it is not enough sufficient according to most of the respondent's who opined that global policies are focused but not enough in primary social science curriculum competencies. Another factor is found by analyzing respondent’s opinion that present social science curriculum can’t fulfill present global needs because many important global issues are ignored in terminal competencies.

2. The primary knowledge of globalization and global village and also brotherhood for development are focused (World Declaration on Education for All’s article 10, World Summit on Social Development's goal and Millennium Development Goals) in terminal competencies but tension between global and local as one of the main problems (International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century) is not considered in terminal competencies. According to most of the respondents, primary social science curriculum emphasize on other countries people and create a sense of love and tenderness for universal brotherhood which is helpful to increase knowledge of globalization and global village. So, it is obvious, considering the demand of this present era, essential globalization knowledge and brotherhood are included in primary social science curriculum but ignore the negative impact of globalization especially tension between global and local though it is very much important for students to know the both sides of globalization.

3. Showing respect and tolerance to all irrespective of their nationality, religion, caste and sex is the terminal competency of primary social science curriculum which is also focused on Universal Declaration on Human Rights article 26, International Convention on the Rights of the Child’s article 8 and 28, World Declaration on Education for All’s article 2. Primary social science curriculum also emphasize on that issues according to respondents.

4. Acquiring democratic norms and build up democratic society is a terminal competency which is also focused in International Commission on Education's 2nd fundamental assumptions, International Convention on Education for Twenty-First Century's identified field of Education and Citizenship and The Delhi Declaration. Analyzing respondents opinion, this competency is enough focused in social science curriculum which help students to be democratic for being good citizen and build up democratic society.

5. Social and cultural values are very important factor to be a good citizen. It is focused in primary social science curriculum competencies. And according to most of the respondents, this curriculum promotes student's social and cultural values and makes students conscious about political, socio-economic and cultural rights (UDHR 1948).

6. Various human rights and duties (Universal Declaration of Human Rights article 18, 25, and International Convention on the Rights of Child article 26.1) are placed in terminal competencies to make student conscious about their and others rights, duties and responsibilities. Unfortunately though it is alluded in terminal competencies but don’t give sufficient focus in curriculum. According to respondents, it is found that primary social science curriculum don't give sufficient focus to the awareness of student's own and others right, own duties and responsibilities.

7. Patriotism and nation building activities are very important for the development of a country. To be imbued with a sense of patriotism and nationalism in the spirit of liberation war and to take part in nation building activities imbued with a spirit of self-sacrifice are the terminal competencies related with International Convention on Education for Twenty-First Century's identified field of Education and Citizenship and The Delhi Declaration. But it is found that in primary social science curriculum, patriotism and nation building activities are included but not sufficient though it is highly focused in terminal competencies and global policies.

8. To be interested in manual work and to be respectful to people living on manual work is a terminal competency which is related with International Commission on Education for Twenty-First Century's identified field of Education and Work. But it is found counting respondent’s opinion that primary social science curriculum is not giving enough importance to dignity of labor, especially manual work.

9. Primary Social Science Curriculum competencies are focused to national history, heritage, culture and literature which are related with International Convention on the Rights of the Child's article 8 and 29 (c), International Convention on Education for Twenty-First Century's identified field of Education and Culture, World Declaration on Education for All article 1 (2), World Summit for Social Development's goal and the Delhi Declaration. But according to respondents, curriculums don't focus enough to geographical position and features of Bangladesh, making students respectful about the national history, heritage, culture and literature. Another factor is not emphasizing tension between tradition and modernity (International Commission on Education for Twenty-First Century) in terminal competencies.

10. National wealth, social and national resources and development activities of locality (World Summit for Social Development, 1995) are emphasized in the terminal competencies. But in rapid changeable societies, the knowledge of fight against ever increasing rift, cope with changes and competence to do a join of work (International Convention on Education for Twenty-First Century) is not emphasized but it is needed for participate in the development work in future.

11. To be active in the development and preservation of the environment is the terminal competency which is focused on International Convention on the Rights of the Child's article 29 (c), World Summit for Social Development's goal, Millennium Development Goals ( 7), goal of the Delhi Declaration. This terminal competency is reflected in curriculum. Most of the respondents believe that Primary social science curriculum focus enough on development and preservation of the environment, population problem for environment, know environment through observation and how to use various information for environment safety.

12. To know and follow health rules with a view to ensuring healthful living is the terminal competency which is focused in Education for All's goal 3, Universal Declaration of Human Rights article 25, International Convention on the Rights of the Child's article 24 and Millennium Development Goals 6. According to most of the respondents, curriculum give enough emphasize on health rules with a view to ensuring healthful living.

15. Conclusion

Social Science is the study of political, economic, cultural and environmental aspects of societies in the past, present and future. It equips students with the knowledge and understanding of the past necessary for coping with the present and planning for the future. It can play vital role to implement the global policies. In present dynamic world every country tries to develop a curriculum that can fulfill the global needs considering global polices. Primary Social Science Curriculum of Bangladesh also has developed considering the global needs which we can understand by this research but not enough in some cases. Every terminal competencies of primary social science curriculum are focused at least one global policy, some are focused more than two global policies which is very positive side but unfortunately, though global policies and needs are considering in terminal competencies chart, but these are not sufficiently included in curriculum though it is essential to meet with global challenge in 21st century. To make students aware about their right and enable them to face global challenge, primary social science curriculum should more emphasize on child rights, human rights, legal status of children, gender, nutrition, health care, socialization, gender equality, reducing child mortality rates and fighting against disease, epidemics, global tension, norms and social values, social impact of climate change, nationalism and world brotherhood etc and add those skills as terminal competencies. If those are not emphasized properly, we cannot expect our children to be prepared to understand or participate effectively in an increasingly complex world. They need to encounter and reencounter, in a variety of contexts, the knowledge, concepts, skills, and attitudes that will help to form a democratic society and peaceful living world.

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