Study of Academic Achievement among Social Skill Deficient and Non Deficient School Students

Mukesh Devi, M.S Chahar

American Journal of Educational Research

Study of Academic Achievement among Social Skill Deficient and Non Deficient School Students

Mukesh Devi1, 2,, M.S Chahar3

1Department of Education, MD University, Rohtak, Haryana

2Dass College of Education, Kurukshetra, Haryana

3Chhotu Ram College of Education, Rohtak, Haryana

Abstract

Social skills are the skills we use to communicate and interact with each other, both verbally and non-verbally, through gestures, body language and our personal appearance. Academic achievement of school students particularly at adolescent age depends on various factors including the social skills. The present research study was undertaken to assess the effect of social skills on the academic achievement of school students. The effect of social skill on academic achievement for different background factors was studied separately. The sample consists of 320 students from Kurukshetra district of Haryana state in India. The data obtained was analyzed using mean, S.D’s, T-test and ANOVA. The results revealed that academic achievement have significant dependence on social skills of school students. The study has implications for the parents, teachers and policy makers.

Cite this article:

  • Mukesh Devi, M.S Chahar. Study of Academic Achievement among Social Skill Deficient and Non Deficient School Students. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 3, No. 12, 2015, pp 1565-1569. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/3/12/13
  • Devi, Mukesh, and M.S Chahar. "Study of Academic Achievement among Social Skill Deficient and Non Deficient School Students." American Journal of Educational Research 3.12 (2015): 1565-1569.
  • Devi, M. , & Chahar, M. (2015). Study of Academic Achievement among Social Skill Deficient and Non Deficient School Students. American Journal of Educational Research, 3(12), 1565-1569.
  • Devi, Mukesh, and M.S Chahar. "Study of Academic Achievement among Social Skill Deficient and Non Deficient School Students." American Journal of Educational Research 3, no. 12 (2015): 1565-1569.

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At a glance: Figures

1. Introduction

Social skills are a fundamental factor for the formation of relationships, for the quality of social interactions and even for the individual’s mental health [7]. Social skills have a significant role in establishing good relationships with other people, obeying social rules, undertaking responsibility, helping others and enjoying one’s rights. Socialization means becoming a member of the society. As a result of the interaction with the environment, a child develops similar behaviors with the people around him/her [8]. It is easier for individuals who have edequate social skills to establish relationships in different aspects of their lifes (Kabasakal and Çelik, 2010). Social skills are one of the important factors of social and psychological development of a child. Acquiring and developing social skills are one of the important characteristics from the period of childhood. Since the children with high level of social skills have more techniques in solving daily interpersonal problems, they are more successful in their social relationships. The children with social skills find more pleasure in activities they participate and can take their decisions on their own. However, the children who lack adequate social skills might be excluded by their friends [3]. Humans communicate with each other through the skills which are defined as social skills. In addition to maintaining social order, psychological health of the people and establishing healthy relationships with other people depend on their social skills.

Social skills include a variety of verbal and nonverbal behaviors such as using body language in an effective way, initiating, developing and continuing the interpersonal relationships, assertiveness, expressing yourself, interpersonal conflict resolving, controlling the anger, problem solving, decision making, speaking and listening skills.

Bursuck and Asher [2] found no significant differences in social knowledge or rated levels of social skill between low-status high achieving students and their high-status high-achieving counterparts. Mara Welsh, Ross D. Parke [11] (University of California) studied the relation between social and academic competence was examined in a group of school-age children using structural equation modelling to determine the direction of influence between these two domains across time. Results supported the reciprocal model, indicating that academic achievement directly influenced social competence from both first to second and second to third grade, and social competence was reciprocally related to academic achievement from second to third grade. Coie and Krehbiel [4] contend that improvement in academic skills may influence social competence by reducing off-task behaviours, thus resulting in fewer peers responding negatively to these students. Moreover, when students engage in less disruptive behaviour in class, they may receive more positive attention from teachers and peers, which may in turn enhance students’ self‐esteem and social status. In summary, Coie and Krehbiel’s work suggests that a positive relationship occurs between social skills and academic achievement among the general school students. Similarly, Bryan’s [1] research has demonstrated that certain types of social skills interventions, namely those focused on affect and self-perceptions (i.e., attributions and locus of control), have consistently had positive effects on academic achievement. Farooq [6] concluded that family characteristics like socio economic status (SES) are significant predictors for students’ performance at school besides the other school factors, peer factors and student factors. Malecki and Elliott [10] found that social skills were a significant predictor of future academic functioning among elementary students from within the general population. Thomas A. DiPrete, Jennifer L. Jennings [14] analyzed the data from the Early Child Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Cohort, they demonstrate that social and behavioral skills have substantively important effects on academic outcomes from kindergarten through fifth grade. When correlation between social skills and academic performance was tested, only self-control and overall social skills show significant relationship with academic performance.

In the present study, the effect of social skills on the academic achievement of school students is evaluated. The effect of social skills within the various categories based on their background factors was also studied.

2. Objectives of the Study

The main objectives of the study were:

1. To compare the academic achievement of social skills deficient and non deficient school students.

2. To compare the academic achievement of social skill deficient male school student and non deficient male school students.

3. To compare the academic achievement of social skill deficient female school student and non deficient female school students.

4. To compare the academic achievement of social skill deficient urban school student and non deficient urban school students.

5. To compare the academic achievement of social skill deficient rural school student and non deficient rural school students.

6. To compare the academic achievement of social skill deficient government school student and non deficient government school students.

7. To compare the academic achievement of social skill deficient private school student and non deficient private school students.

8. To study the interaction effect between social skills and gender of school students with respect to their academic achievement.

9. To study the interaction effect between social skills and locality of school students with respect to their academic achievement

10. To study the interaction effect between social skills and school management of school students with respect to their academic achievement.

3. Hypotheses

H01 : There is no difference between social skill deficient and non deficient school students on academic achievement.

H02 : There is no difference in academic achievement of social skill deficient male school student and non deficient male school students.

H03 : There is no difference in academic achievement of social skill deficient female school student and non deficient female school students.

H04 : There is no difference in academic achievement of social skill deficient urban school student and non deficient urban school students.

H05 : There is no difference in academic achievement of social skill deficient rural school student and non deficient rural school students.

H06 : There is no difference in academic achievement of social skill deficient government school student and non deficient government school students.

H07 : There is no difference in academic achievement of social skill deficient private school student and non deficient private school students.

H08 : There exists no significant interaction effect between social skills and gender of school students with respect to their academic achievement.

H09 : There exists no significant interaction effect between social skills and locality of school students with respect to their academic achievement

H10 : There exists no significant interaction effect between social skills and school management of school students with respect to their academic achievement.

4. Research Method

Descriptive survey method was used.

5. Sample

The purposive sampling method was used for the present study. The sample included 320 school students (193 male, 127 female) from 10 different schools in Kurukshetra district of Haryana state (India). Out of these eight schools, five were from rural area and other five were from urban areas. The selected students were enrolled in 10th, 11th and 12th grades (age group 15-18 years).

6. Tools Used

Social skills: Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with youngsters (MESSY) is the one of the most frequently researched social skill scale. The initial sample was tested in 1983 with 744 children between 4 and 18 years of age. In the present study adapted Hindi version of MESSY self-rating version was used. Sushma [13] also reported that Hindi adaptation of MESSY have good reliability and response consistency.

Academic Achievement: Academic achievement was measured based on the results of their previous year exams.

7. Statistical Techniques

Mean (M), standard Deviation (SD) and t-ratio were used to compare the social skills in the school students in relation to their gender and locality.

8. Results

8.1. Identification of Social Skill Deficient Students

Based on the score of social skill scale, students were divided between two groups; social skill deficient and non deficient. Students whose total social scale score was more than 180 were considered as social skill deficient. The students, whose social skill score was less than 180, were considered as non deficient students.

8.2. Descriptive Statistics

The descriptive statistics help us to organise large amount of data in a sensible way. Each descriptive statistic reduces lots of data into a simpler summary. In the present study, descriptive statistics applied on the data obtained for all the four scales is shown in Table 1. As clearly visible from the table, minimum and maximum score of school students on the social scale was 80 and 205 respectively. The mean score on social skill scale was 148.13 (SD= 14.13). Table indicates that the minimum academic achievement score of the school students was found to be 49 and maximum value was 94. The mean academic achievement score was found to be 70.92 (SD=11.35).

Table 1. Descriptive statistics of data

8.3. Inferential Statistics

Inferential statistics plays important role in hypothesis testing where it is used to determine if a null hypothesis can be rejected or retained. For the present study, academic achievement is compared for two groups; social skill deficient and non deficient. The mean values, SD and t-ratios are compared in Table 2. Table 3 indicates the T-ratio calculated for both groups (social skill deficient and non deficient) for various subcategories depending upon their background (Male, female, urban, rural, govt & private schools).

Table 2. Mean, SD and T-ratio for compared groups

Table 3. Mean, SD and t-ratio for social skill deficient and normal school students

Table 4 shows the results of ANOVA test for analyzing interaction effect between social skills and background factors (gender, locality and school type) with respect to academic achievement of school students.

Table 4. Summary of ANOVA for Academic Achievement

9. Analysis

Testing of hypothesis H01

It can be seen from Table 2 that Mean academic achievement scores of Social Skill Deficient and non deficient students are 68.13 and 73.70 with standard deviations 10.43 and 11.60 respectively. The ‘t’ value between two groups comes out to be 3.67. It is significant at 0.01 level of significance. The comparison of mean scores further reveals that non deficient school students performs well in academics as compared to social skill deficient students.

Therefore, the hypothesis (H03) that ‘there exists no significant difference between social skills deficient and non deficient school students with respect to their academic achievement’ is rejected.

Testing of hypothesis H02

From Table 3, it can be seen that, the mean academic achievement score of social skill deficient and non deficient male students are 66.42 and 70.62 respectively. The t-ratio between the two groups comes out to be 2.20, which is significant at 0.05 level. The comparison of mean academic scores further reveals that mean academic score of non deficient male school students is higher than the social skill deficient male students.

Therefore, the hypothesis (H02) thatThere is no difference in academic achievement of social skill deficient male school student and non deficient male school students” is rejected.

Testing of hypothesis H03

In case of female students, the mean academic achievement score of social skill deficient and normal students are 69.85 and 76.72 respectively (Table 3). The t-ratio between the two groups comes out to be 3.07, which is significant at 0.05 level. The comparison of mean academic scores of female students indicates that normal female students perform well in academics as compared to social skill deficient female students.

Therefore, the hypothesis (H03) thatThere is no difference in academic achievement of social skill deficient female school student and non deficient female school students” is rejected.

Testing of hypothesis H04

Table 3 indicates that in case of urban students, the mean academic achievement score of social skill deficient and normal students are 67.64 and 76.98 respectively. The t-ratio between the two groups comes out to be 4.33, which is significant at 0.01 level. The comparison of mean academic scores of urban students, further reveals that mean academic score of normal school students is higher than the social skill deficient school students in urban areas.

Therefore, the hypothesis (H04) thatThere is no difference in academic achievement of social skill deficient urban school student and non deficient urban school students” is rejected.

Testing of hypothesis H05

Table 3 shows that, in case of rural students, the mean academic achievement score of social skill deficient and normal students are 68.62 and 70.42 with standard deviations 10.41 and 10.69 respectively. The t-ratio between the two groups comes out to be 0.87, which is not significant.

Therefore, the hypothesis (H05) thatThere is no difference in academic achievement of social skill deficient rural school student and non deficient rural school students” is accepted.

Testing of hypothesis H06

As visible from Table 3, in case of students belonging to government schools, the mean academic achievement score of social skill deficient and normal students are 68.94 and 70.11 respectively. The t-ratio between the two groups comes out to be 0.59, which is not significant.

Therefore, the hypothesis (H06) thatThere is no difference in academic achievement of social skill deficient government school student and non deficient government school students” is accepted.

Testing of hypothesis H07

In case of students from private management schools, the mean academic achievement score of social skill deficient (M= 67.32) is lower than and social skill deficient (M= 77.28). The t-ratio between the two groups comes out to be 4.50, which is significant at 0.01 level (Table 3). The comparison of academic scores of students belonging to rural areas further reveals that mean academic score of normal students is higher than the social skill deficient students.

Therefore, the hypothesis (H07) thatThere is no difference in academic achievement of social skill deficient private school student and non deficient government private school students” is rejected.

Testing of hypothesis H08

The calculated value of F-ratio as indicated in Table 4 for interaction (SS x Gender) is 0.77 (df = 1/208), which is not significant. So it can be said that effect of social skill is independent of gender in relation to academic achievement of school students.

Figure 1. Interaction effect with regard to the academic performance of school students: (a) social skills X gender (b) Social skills x locality (c) Social skills x school management

Therefore, the hypothesis (H08) that ‘there exists no significant interaction effect between social skills and gender of school students with respect to their academic achievement’ is accepted. The results of the same have been interpreted graphically though Figure 1.

Testing of hypothesis H09

The calculated value of F-ratio as indicated in Table 4 for interaction (SS x locality) is 6.44 (df = 1/208), which is significant. It indicates that the effect of social skill is dependent on locality of the schools in relation to ‘academic achievement’ of students.

Therefore, the hypothesis (H09) that ‘there exists no significant interaction effect between social skills and locality of school students with respect to their academic achievement’ is rejected. The result of the same has been interpreted graphically though Figure 1

Testing of hypothesis H10

The value of F-ratio as indicated for interaction (SS x locality) is 8.84 (df = 1/208), which is significant (Table 4). It indicates that the effect of social skill is dependent on the schools management in relation to academic achievement of students.

Therefore, the hypothesis (H10) that ‘there exists no significant interaction effect between social skills and locality of school students with respect to their academic achievement’ is rejected. The result of the same has been interpreted graphically though Figure 1.

10. Conclusion

The effect of social skills on the academic achievement of school students was studied. The social skills were found to play very important role in deciding the academic achievement of the students. Social skill deficient school students were found to possess lower academic performance as compared to non deficient school students. It was also observed that for all categories of students determined by the background factors, the social skill deficient students have lower performance as compared to non deficient students in their exams. Based on these results it may be further concluded that there is a strong need to provide social skills to all categories of students irrespective of their background factors. Further research is needed with a positive note that an intervention of social skills training can be utilized for the enhancing the academic performance of school students.

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