Adjustment of Undergraduate Students in Relation to Their Social Intelligence

Moumita Kundu, Birbal Saha, Bhim Chandra Mondal

American Journal of Educational Research

Adjustment of Undergraduate Students in Relation to Their Social Intelligence

Moumita Kundu1, Birbal Saha1,, Bhim Chandra Mondal2

1Department of Education, Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University, Purulia, WB

2Nikhil Banga Sikshan Mahavidyalaya, Bishnupur, Bankura, WB

Abstract

The present study was focus on adjustment ability among undergraduate students in relation to gender, stream of the study and social intelligence. The sample consists of 300 undergraduate students with 150 boys and 150 girls, which were selected randomly from different colleges under the Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University, Purulia, W.B. Adjustment Inventory and Social Intelligence Inventory are used to collect the data from the students. The study revealed that male and female as well as science and humanities students of under graduate students did not differ significantly with regards to their adjustment ability, however, differ significantly with differently social intelligent persons.

Cite this article:

  • Moumita Kundu, Birbal Saha, Bhim Chandra Mondal. Adjustment of Undergraduate Students in Relation to Their Social Intelligence. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 3, No. 11, 2015, pp 1398-1401. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/3/11/8
  • Kundu, Moumita, Birbal Saha, and Bhim Chandra Mondal. "Adjustment of Undergraduate Students in Relation to Their Social Intelligence." American Journal of Educational Research 3.11 (2015): 1398-1401.
  • Kundu, M. , Saha, B. , & Mondal, B. C. (2015). Adjustment of Undergraduate Students in Relation to Their Social Intelligence. American Journal of Educational Research, 3(11), 1398-1401.
  • Kundu, Moumita, Birbal Saha, and Bhim Chandra Mondal. "Adjustment of Undergraduate Students in Relation to Their Social Intelligence." American Journal of Educational Research 3, no. 11 (2015): 1398-1401.

Import into BibTeX Import into EndNote Import into RefMan Import into RefWorks

1. Introduction

Adjustment is a process of major interest of psychologist who wants to understand a person through his behaviour. The way of adjustment with the external environment at any point of time depends upon interaction between the biological factors and social experiences [1]. Gates et.al [2] describes adjustment as a continual process by which a person varies his behaviour to produce a more harmonious relationship between himself and environment. In order to adjustment adequately, one has to make adjustment with one’s self and then to one’s environment. Thus the Spheres, dimensions or aspect of adjustment may be divided mainly in two categories, personal and environment. Therefore, physical and mental health, emotional adjustment and satisfaction of personal need plays vital role for the overall adjustment.

Social Intelligence is defined as the person's ability to understand and manage other people, and to engage in adaptive social interactions [3]. Cantor and Kihlstrom [4] redefined Social Intelligence as the individual's fund of knowledge about the social world. It is the efficiency of a man to understand other felling and emotions and to react according to the circumstances. It has two key which are distinctly personal and social in nature. Here one is interpersonal and another is intrapersonal. Intrapersonal intelligence is an ability to understand owns emotions and interpersonal intelligence is the makes distinctions among other individuals.

2. Literature Review

Nagra [5] conducted a study to understand the relationship between social intelligence and adjustment in relation gender and type of school. The study was conducted with a sample of 200 secondary school students. The result revealed that neither government and private school students nor boys and girls differ significantly in their Social Intelligence scores as well as adjustment level scores as the values of t-test applied are found to be insignificant.

Saxena and Jain [6] compared the Social Intelligence of undergraduate students in relation to their gender ad stream of study. From their study it was observed that there exists significant difference between male and female undergraduate students on overall Social Intelligence.

Sangeet and Chirag [7] conducted a study to understand the adjustment problems of college students in relation to gender socio-economic status and academic achievement. It is evident from the interpretation of data that college students have satisfactory adjustment but students with low socio economic status have more adjustment problems than college students of high socio economic status. On the other hand, male college students have less adjustment problems than female college students.

Present day social intelligence and adjustment is an important field of research study, because most of the young people lost their adjustment ability from day to day. Adjustment ability is highly depends on social skills which is major component of social intelligence. So, there should be a correlation between adjustment and social intelligence. That is why researchers are conducted a study to observe the relationship social intelligence and adjustment.

3. Objectives of the Study

In order to conduct the study smoothly, following objectives has been framed:

•  To compare the adjustment ability between science and humanities undergraduate students.

•  To compare the adjustment ability between male and female undergraduate students.

•  To compare the adjustment ability among undergraduate students in relation to social intelligence

•  To study the first order interaction effect due to gender and stream of study on adjustment ability

•  To study the first order interaction effect due to gender and social intelligence on adjustment ability

•  To study the first order interaction effect due to social intelligence and stream of study on adjustment ability

•  To study the second order interaction effect due to gender, stream of study and social intelligence on adjustment ability.

4. Null Hypotheses of the Study

•  Ho1: There is no significant difference in adjustment ability between science and humanities students

•  Ho2: There is no significant difference in adjustment ability between male and female students

•  Ho3: There is no significant relationship in adjustment ability between low social intelligent (LSI) and high social intelligent (HSI) students

•  Ho4: There is no significant relationship in adjustment ability between low social intelligent (LSI) and average social intelligent (HSI) students

•  Ho 5: There is no significant relationship in adjustment ability between average social intelligent (LSI) and high social intelligent (HSI) students

•  Ho 6: There is no significant relationship between adjustment ability and social intelligence.

•  Ho7: There is no significant first order interaction effect between gender and stream of study on adjustment ability

•  Ho8: There is no significant first order interaction effect due to due to gender and social intelligence on adjustment ability

•  Ho9: There is no significant first order interaction effect due to due to stream of study and social intelligence on adjustment ability

•  Ho10: There is no significant second order interaction effect due to gender, stream of study and social intelligence on adjustment ability

5. Population

All the undergraduate students from different colleges affiliated to Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University, Purulia, , West Bengal, are the population of this study.

6. Sample and Sampling

The present study is conducted on a sample of 300 students including male, female, Science and humanities stream sections in Purulia districts. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted. The sample consisted with 150 male and 150 female undergraduate students. The sample profile is given in Table 1

7. Tools Used for the Study

Following tools are used for the present study:

i) Adjustment Ability Scale developed by Pramanik et.al [8]

ii) Social Intelligence Inventory developed by Mondal et. al, [9].

8. Procedure

Survey was conducted with the help of above scale to collect primary data and to verify the hypotheses. Participants were invited to complete the scale with a schedule to collect personal information. All subjects were asked to respond to the items and their responses were guaranteed to be confidential.

9. Analysis of the Data

Descriptive statistics

Descriptive statistics help us to simply large amounts of data in a sensible way. Each descriptive statistics reduces lots of data into a simpler summary. Here we present our descriptive data (Table 2) in the form of mean and standard deviation (SD) along with ‘t’ critical ratio for adjustment ability.

Table 2. Showing mean and SD along with t- critical ratio

Inferential statistics

Inferential statistics plays a pivotal role in hypothesis testing where it is used to determine if a null hypothesis can be rejected or retained. For the present study we have constructed a two way (2 2 3) factorial design for the analysis of different variables (Table 3). Table 2 presents the ‘t’ critical ratio which is also used to test different null hypotheses.

Table 3. Summary of Multi ways ANOVA results

10. Results and Discussion

Testing of Ho1

The mean of adjustment scores for science and humanities under graduate students is 249.68 (SD =25.17) and 245.53 (SD = 29.66) respectively. F- value (Table 3) for stream of study is found to be 1.38 which is not significant at 0.01 level. Moreover, ‘t’ value (Table 2) between for science and humanities under graduate students is found to be 1.22 which is also not significant even at 0.05 level. In view of the above Ho1 is accepted. The results corroborates with the findings of Rai and Singh [10]. Students belong to both science and humanities stream may face similar social situation which is handled by them that enhances their social intelligence. That means social intelligence that helps in identifying the social and self awareness, do not directly related with subject matter.

Testing of Ho2

The mean of adjustment scores for male and female under graduate students is 244.15 (SD =31.50) and 249.84 (SD = 24.21) respectively. F- value (Table 3) for gender is found to be 2.74 which is not significant at 0.01 level. Moreover, ‘t’ value (Table 2) between Male and Female under graduate students is found to be 1.75 which is also not significant at 0.01 level of significance. In view of the above Ho2 is accepted. The result is supported by the findings of Singh et.al [11], Nagra [5], Yellaiah [12] and Gehlawat [13] but did not match with the findings of Pramanik et. al [8]. The result indicates that both male and female under graduate students have equal capacities for social adjustment.

Testing of Ho3

The mean of adjustment scores for Low Social Intelligent (LSI) and High Social Intelligent (HSI) under graduate student is found to be 235.55 (SD =29.59) and 262.51 (SD = 22.51) respectively. F- value (Table 3) for Social Intelligence is 20.44 which is significant at 0.01 level. Moreover, ‘t’ value (Table 2) between Low Social Intelligent (LSI) and High Social Intelligent (HSI) under graduate students is 5.93 which is also significant at 0.01 level of significance. In view of the above Ho3 is rejected. So, it may be concluded that social intelligence has a greater impact on the adjustment of the under graduate students.

Testing of Ho4

The mean of adjustment scores for Low Social Intelligent and Average Social Intelligent (ASI) under graduate student is 235.55 (SD =29.59) and 254.10 (SD = 21.89) respectively. F- value (Table 3) for Social Intelligence is 20.44 which is significant at 0.01 level. Moreover, ‘t’ value (Table 2) between Low Social Intelligent and Average Social Intelligent (ASI) under graduate students is 5.42 which is also significant at 0.01 level of significance. In view of the above Ho4 is rejected.

Testing of Ho5

The mean of adjustment scores for Average Social Intelligent (ASI) and High Social Intelligent (HSI) under graduate student is 254.10 (SD = 21.89) and 262.51 (SD = 22.51) respectively. Through ANOVA, F- value (Table 3) for Social Intelligence is found to be 20.44 which is significant at 0.01 level. Moreover, ‘t’ value (Table 2) between Average Social Intelligent (ASI) and High Social Intelligent (HSI) under graduate students is 2.20 which is also significant at 0.05 level of significance. In view of the above Ho5 is rejected.

Testing of Ho6

The calculated ‘r ’value between social intelligence and adjustment ability correlation is found to be 0.49 which indicates moderate correlation exist between two variables. The table value for correlation is given 0.113 and 0.148 at df = 298 at 0.05 and 0.01 level respectively. Thus, it is evident that significant relationship exists between social intelligence and adjustment of U.G. level students. Hence, the Ho6 is rejected.

Testing of H o7

Two independent variables interact if the effect of one of the variables differs depending on the level of the other variable. In this study three independent variables namely gender, stream of study and Social Intelligence are considered. So we have to examine whether there is any interaction is present or not. From Table 3 it is notice that gender and stream of study does not interact (F = 0.01) with each other at 0.01 level of significance. Hence, H o7 is accepted.

Testing of H o8

The interaction between gender and social Intelligence of under graduate students on the adjustment ability is not significant as revealed by F- value which is 1.06 (Table 3). So, Ho8 is accepted.

Testing of H o9

The interaction between stream of study and social Intelligence of under graduate students on the adjustment ability is found to be 0.34 which is insignificant. So, H o9 is accepted.

Testing of H o10

Table 3 indicate that there is no interaction between different independent variable viz. Gender, stream of study and social intelligence on adjustment ability (F = 0.64). So, Ho10 is accepted.

11. Conclusion

Present study indicates that there is a significant relationship between Social Intelligence and Adjustment Ability, and there is no difference between male and female as well as science and humanities under graduate students with regards to their Adjustment Ability. However, Adjustment Ability differ significantly with differently Social Intelligent persons. So we can conclude that Adjustment Ability do not depend on the gender, stream but depends on Social Intelligence.

References

[1]  Shaffer, L.F. (1961). Article in Boring, Longfiled and Welb (Eds.), Foundations of Psychology, New York: John Wiley.
In article      
 
[2]  Gates, A.S, and Jersild, A.T. (1970). Educational Psychology, Macmillan, New York.
In article      
 
[3]  Thorndike, E. L. (1920). Intelligence and its use. Harper’s Magazine, 140, 227-235.
In article      
 
[4]  Cantor, N., and Kihlstrom, J. F. (1987). Personality and social intelligence. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
In article      
 
[5]  Nagra, V. (2014). Social Intelligence and Adjustment of Secondary School Students, PERIPEX- Indian Journal of Research, 3(4), 86-87.
In article      
 
[6]  Saxena, S and Jain, R.K. (2013). Social Intelligence of Undergraduate Students In Relation To Their Gender and Subject Stream , IOSR Journal of Research &Method in Education 1(1), pp. 01-04.
In article      
 
[7]  Sangeeta and Chirag (2012). A Study of Adjustment problems of college students in relation to gender, socio-economic status and academic achievement, International Journal of Behavioral Social and Movement Sciences 1(2), 90-98.
In article      
 
[8]  Pramanik, J, Saha, B. and Mondal, B.C. (2014). Adjustment of Secondary School Students with Respect to Gender and Residence, American Journal of Educational Research, 2014, Vol. 2, No. 12, 1138-1143.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Mondal, B. C., Saha, B. and Kundu, M. (2015). Development and Standardization of Social Intelligence Scale, Indian Journal of Applied Research, in press.
In article      
 
[10]  Rai, R., Singh, M., A (2014). Study of Social Intelligence among College Students in Relation to their Subject Stream in Bijnor District, International Journal of Languages, Education and Social Sciences, Vol. 08, Issue 01, pp. 1-7.
In article      
 
[11]  Singh, T.K., Tripathi, S and Mahato, J. (2014). Health and Adjustment of High School Students, The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 1(4), 9-18.
In article      
 
[12]  Yellaiah (2012). A Study of Adjustment on Academic Achievement on Higher School Students, International Journal of Social Sciences and Interdisciplinary Research, 1(5), 84-94.
In article      
 
[13]  Gehlawat, M. (2011). A Study of Adjustment among High School Students in relation to their Gender, International Referred Research Journal, III (33).
In article      
 
  • CiteULikeCiteULike
  • MendeleyMendeley
  • StumbleUponStumbleUpon
  • Add to DeliciousDelicious
  • FacebookFacebook
  • TwitterTwitter
  • LinkedInLinkedIn