Surveying the Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Meta-cognition on Psychological Capital of High Sc...

Seyyed Mohsen Mohammadi, Ali Taghipour Zahir, Nader Gholi Ghourchian, Parivash Jafari

American Journal of Educational Research

Surveying the Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Meta-cognition on Psychological Capital of High School Teachers in Boushehr Province

Seyyed Mohsen Mohammadi1,, Ali Taghipour Zahir2, Nader Gholi Ghourchian3, Parivash Jafari1

1Educational Administration, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Curricular Planning & Higher Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3Curriculum and Supervision, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to survey the effect of emotional intelligence (EI) and meta-cognition on psychological capital (PC) of high school teachers in Boushehr province. This is a descriptive-surveying research in which 2809 teachers of Bousher province were considered as the study population among which 341 persons were randomly selected as sample based on stratified sampling. Data were gathered via some standard questionnaires including psychological capital (Luthans), Spirituality (Miliman), Emotional Intelligence (Broadway), and Meta-Cognition (Wells). Face and Content-related validity were applied to measure the validity of the questionnaires while applying Cronbach's Alpha showed acceptable reliabilities. Some descriptive and inferential indices such as frequency, mean, SD, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, stepwise regression, ANOVA, and SEM were also applied to analyze the gathered data. Findings showed that emotional intelligence, spirituality, and meta-cognition had a positive effect on psychological capital.

Cite this article:

  • Seyyed Mohsen Mohammadi, Ali Taghipour Zahir, Nader Gholi Ghourchian, Parivash Jafari. Surveying the Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Meta-cognition on Psychological Capital of High School Teachers in Boushehr Province. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 3, No. 10, 2015, pp 1267-1269. http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/3/10/9
  • Mohammadi, Seyyed Mohsen, et al. "Surveying the Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Meta-cognition on Psychological Capital of High School Teachers in Boushehr Province." American Journal of Educational Research 3.10 (2015): 1267-1269.
  • Mohammadi, S. M. , Zahir, A. T. , Ghourchian, N. G. , & Jafari, P. (2015). Surveying the Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Meta-cognition on Psychological Capital of High School Teachers in Boushehr Province. American Journal of Educational Research, 3(10), 1267-1269.
  • Mohammadi, Seyyed Mohsen, Ali Taghipour Zahir, Nader Gholi Ghourchian, and Parivash Jafari. "Surveying the Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Meta-cognition on Psychological Capital of High School Teachers in Boushehr Province." American Journal of Educational Research 3, no. 10 (2015): 1267-1269.

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1. Introduction

Today, PC is known as a base for competitive privilege in organizations. It, relying on positive psychological variables such as being hopeful, optimism, bearing up, and self-efficacy, can cause the value of socio-human capital is promoted in organization [1]. PC is a positive developmental status of psychology consisting of some variables such as commitment, optimism, being hopeful, bearing up. Studies show that whole PC is somehow bigger than its variables [2].

Spirituality in organization is a new phenomenon and too much experts of management and organization have paid their attention about it; therefore, several experts have stated that spirituality is a sustainable source for organizations by which the organizations are assisted while facing any chaotic and turbulent conditions since the organizations need to be stable while activating continuously in different areas [3].

Emerging information era and promotion of the profitability of human communications and organizational strategic situations bring up the EI theory and has found a large number of vivid fans. It is said that those who have EI can control their emotions and the other persons' emotions, too while distinguishing between positive and negative outcomes and using emotional information for thought process and personal actions [4].

Regarding the role of education in the promotion of culture and development of society and the growth of future-makers of any country and considering the role of teachers who can transfer this capital to students, this paper is to raise a question about the effect and relationships among emotional intelligence, spirituality, and meta-cognition on psychological capital

2. Literature Review

EI is said to be a gift, skill, and capability by which a person can show his/her total abilities [4]. Five areas of EI have been defined as following:

•  Recognition of emotions and self-feelings: self-awareness;

•  Management of emotions and self-feelings: self-managerial;

•  Self-motivational;

•  Recognition and perception of emotions and self-feelings: other-awareness

•  Management of relationship with others: other-managerial [4].

Tendency towards knowing and trying for understanding are inseparable traits of human beings; therefore, human mind is always challenging some various questions among which one what knows about knowing and how she/he can have her/his specific status. These kinds of questions cause human go towards a conceptual direction known as meta-cognition in learning psychology.

The term of meta-cognition was firstly stated by Flavell (1976) by which he could describe any body's knowledge about processes and psychological produces with any related items[5]. Successful people are those who plan well, identify specific goals, and direct strategies. The most significant privilege of meta-cognitive knowledge is to make learner able to be aware of his/her learning activities and how to progress in his/her work and finally understand his/her weak and strength points [6].

Today, education is known as one of the socially complex organizations which has a link with economical, cultural, and social growth and gradually, it could be changed into a complex state from a primary state. Effectiveness of education is when talented persons could be changed into healthy, developmental, and balanced ones while supplying needs of human resources of any society in various economical, cultural, and social sections [7].

Regarding the progress of human sciences and experiences along with industrial improvements, tendency of educational systems and organizations has become globally somehow one of the important indicators of society growth is the extension range of duties done and committed by education [8].

3. Methodology

This is a descriptive-surveying research whose qualitatively study population is some scientific documents, reports related to the subject, valid articles whereas 2809 teachers of Bousher province were quantitatively considered as the study population among which 341 persons were randomly selected as sample based on stratified sampling. Data were gathered via some standard questionnaires including psychological capital (Luthans), Spirituality (Miliman), Emotional Intelligence (Broadway), and Meta-Cognition (Wells). Face and Content-related validity were applied to measure the validity of the questionnaires while applying Cronbach's Alpha showed acceptable reliabilities 0.86(PC), 0.83(EI), 0.85(MC), and 0.92(S). Some descriptive and inferential indices such as frequency, mean, SD, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, stepwise regression, ANOVA, and SEM were also applied to analyze the gathered data.

4. Findings

SEM was used to present a causal model of EI, S, and MC on PC. The given model had 7 externally explicit variables which were measured and were respectively known as EI, S, MC, self-efficacy (SF), being hopeful (BH), optimism(OP), and bearing up(BU) and an internally tacit variable known as PC.

Figure 1. Causal Model of relationships among OF, IF, and PC

Table 1. effect regression correlations of EI, S, and MC on PC

According to Beta correlations, EI, S, and MC can predict a significance level for PC while EI has the most effect and S has the least effect on PC. Also, quota shows that the most level of PC is related to EI (See Table 1, Table 2 & Figure 1).

5. Discussion and Conclusions

EI has the most and MC has the least effect on PC. Undoubtedly, EI has been paid much more attention by organizational management and behavior than the other capabilities of PC.

EI in organizations and Human resource development is used to emphasize on the significant skills taken in workplace [9, 10].

EI consists of a set of internal elements such as self-awareness, self-thought, independence, capability, self-actualization, decisiveness and external elements such as inter-individual relationship, easiness in sympathy, and feeling about responsibility [11].

There is a relationship between spirituality indices with PC indices, that is, conceptualizing related to spirituality refers sometimes to hope, endeavor, having a target and Excellency and simultaneously it refers to PC showing these two phenomena (PC&S) have positive directions [12].

Spirituality makes a sense of link with the universe and it can empower PC while MC is a key for cognitive ability letting any person control and rebuild his/her thoughts since it is believed that meta-cognitive strategies are effect on person's self-efficacy. Also, some researches could show there would be several various factors for increasing individuals' self-efficacy among which one of the most important factors is the learning of meta-cognitive skills and strategies. Learning these skills and strategies can improve skill of decision-making, constructive exchanging with others, planning, deeply thinking, and judging, respecting others, peaceful coexisting, self-controlling, and self-assessing for learners [13].

Meta-cognition is a key for cognitive ability which allows individuals control and rebuild themselves and play a crucial role. Among PC indices, being hopeful ha s the most quotas and bearing up has the least one, so it can be stated that being hopeful, self-efficacy, optimism, and bearing up have quota on PC respectively.

6. Recommendations

•  Educational plans and workshops related to EI, S, and MC should be considered for teachers' OJT while making individuals participate in the decision-making procedures and positive exchange can be a good tool for increasing self-esteem among teachers and staffs working in education system;

•  Direct and indirect rewards are also known as good ways for encouraging staffs and increasing EI among them, so a fixed time must be spent for dutiful staffs to raise creativity and innovation elements among them;

•  Managers can entirely promote individuals' tendency towards a spiritual job and therefore, a valuable organization through making the workplace meaningful and developing vision, empowering staff, and paying attention to the enjoyment in workplace, setting up spiritual sessions;

•  Organization must pay attention much more to the staffs' benefits and respect their needs and requests to make them convince that their work is positively evaluated.

Acknowledgement

Authors would like to appreciate those brave teachers who teach "thinking "and not "thought".

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