The Influences of Organizational Culture, Moral Hierarchy Level, and Motivation towards the Teacher’...

Pramudjono

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The Influences of Organizational Culture, Moral Hierarchy Level, and Motivation towards the Teacher’s Commitment

Pramudjono

Lecturer in faculty of teacher training and education at Mulawarman University

Abstract

In the process of improving educational standards, we often neglect the importance of teacher competence. In this case, teacher commitment is a substantial asset of teacher competence. Researchers assume that teacher commitment affects the student performance, in addition the educational quality. This study suggests that teacher’s commitment is affected by school organizational culture, moral hierarchy level, and motivation. Using questionnaire method and path analysis technique that measure 309 high school teachers in Samarinda, this research try to identify correlation between organizational culture, moral hierarchy level, motivation and teacher’s commitment. The results indicates that (1) organizational culture, moral hierarchy level, and motivation has influence on teacher’s commitment; (2) organizational culture has influence on motivation; and (3) level of moral hierarchy has influence on motivation. Moreover, the results suggest that distribution of reward can be employed to improve teacher’s commitment.

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Cite this article:

  • Pramudjono. "The Influences of Organizational Culture, Moral Hierarchy Level, and Motivation towards the Teacher’s Commitment." American Journal of Educational Research 3.1 (2015): 20-24.
  • Pramudjono. (2015). The Influences of Organizational Culture, Moral Hierarchy Level, and Motivation towards the Teacher’s Commitment. American Journal of Educational Research, 3(1), 20-24.
  • Pramudjono. "The Influences of Organizational Culture, Moral Hierarchy Level, and Motivation towards the Teacher’s Commitment." American Journal of Educational Research 3, no. 1 (2015): 20-24.

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1. Introduction

Commitment has becoming important asset to support improvement of school educational standard and furthermore enhancing the educational quality. However, we pay less attention on how to build a strong teacher’s commitment to support this course. Research in 3 PPU locations in Balikpapan and Samarinda, revealed that school as an educational unit are faced with some operational problems, which reflect on poor teacher’s commitment towards the school. The results shown that 20-30% of the teachers are coming late to the school or not present at all, indicating the low level of commitment in serving the communities. Surprisingly, more than 30% of the teachers haven’t fully achieved their competence, particularly in mastering the teaching materials (Edi Rachmad and Pramudjono, 2009), indicating poor teacher’s commitment in content standards and management.

Study about teacher’s commitment remains interesting to be analyzed. Teacher’s commitment is assumed to have impact on the school success rate, aside from the school organizational culture. School as a complex and unique organization requires teachers with high-level of moral hierarchy (post-conventional) and commitment to maintain and ensure the best quality of education, including inputs, process, and outputs. Therefore, enhancing teacher’s commitment is important in development process. Commitment itself is an individual output, but can improve depending on the individual mechanism, whereas individual mechanism is affected by the individual characteristic, group mechanism, and organizational mechanism (Colquitt, et al. 2011). Commitment is defined as an attitude that reflects employee’s loyalty towards organization, in which they express their concern towards the organization success and development progressively. Indicators of commitment are classified into affective, continuant, and normative. And according to Mowdey, Porter, and Steers, organizational commitment is the strength of an employee to identify his involvement as part of the organization, which is denoted by his acceptance on the organizational values and missions, also his readiness and willingness to preserve the membership within the organization (John W Slocum and Don Hellriagel, 2007: 328).

Researchers assume there are three factors affecting teacher’s commitment: organizational culture, moral hierarchy level, and motivation.

Organizational culture is defined as assumptions, values, norms, and beliefs, which are applied as a guideline to think and act within the organization – mutually perceived by the organization members to achieve specified goals. Wood, Wallace, Zeffane, Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn, defined organizational culture as a trusted system and value developed by organization that leads the behaviors of its members. Tosi, Rizzo, and Carroll explain organizational culture as method of thinking, sensing, and reacting based on organization rule and policy. Robbins described organizational culture as a mutual perception of the organization members (Asr Munandar Sunyoto, 2001: 263). Edgar H Schein (1995: 12), explained organizational culture as the basic pattern, approved by the organization to act and solve the problems, to unite and shape the members to be able to adapt the environment. It is important to be passed to new member, as the right way to assess, think, and feel when encountering problems. Luthans and Jonathan (2009: 158) described organizational culture as values and belief that enable members to understand the roles and norms of the organization. George and Jones described that there are two core values of organizational culture, terminal value and instrumental value. Terminal value is a desired goal, a high-value that needs to be achieved by the organization (Hendrawan Supratikno et al., 2006: 33).

Moral can be described as the standard of right and wrong. Rogers and Baron in Muryono Sigit, (2009: 69-71) stated moral as prohibition that decides the right and wrong. According to Tafsir et al., moral is defined as a teaching of moral discourses, sermons, and standards on how people should live and act as a good human being. Moral is a belief – rules and the teaching of right or wrong, good or bad, worthy of unworthy, decent or indecent, which are derived from religions, parent’s advice, and social environment that affect people daily behaviours. Kohlberg emphasized the cognition aspect in observing the moral development. Kohlberg particularly emphasized the structure of thought rather than its content. There are two benefits by associating moral reasoning as a structure rather than content; (1) if moral reasoning is regarded as content then the concept of right and wrong will be associated with the philosophical principles of morality, in this case the moral reasoning is universal. The universality of moral means that all cultures have the same basic concept of morality, for example: love, respect, and independence. (2) If moral reasoning is regarded as content, then people will hardly distinguish reasoning between adult and children. Instead, by assuming the moral reasoning as a structure, will allow identification of the moral development (Setiono). Kohlberg, Duska, and Whelan were not only focus on moral behaviours because observation in that aspect will not help indicating the maturity of people morality. Muryono Sigit (2009: 70) stated that moral hierarchy level is a measurement of people morality based on their moral reasoning; the indicators include pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional.

While, motivation is described as strength or stimulation to act that involves a certain set of skills to achieve specified goals. Luthans and Jonathan (2009: 394), described motivation as a psychological process formed by dissatisfaction, desire, or primary needs which initiates action to achieve certain goals or incentives. It is classified into two types: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is a determinant of motivation, emerged from collections of experience people gained through certain activities or by helping others. Extrinsic motivation is a determinant of motivation, in which the results and external environment becoming a prominent thing in the presence of competition and compensation, or known as incentive plan. For the employees to perform well, required not only high-level set of skills but also reward as a motivator – in accordance to Cary Dessler statement, to relate motivation with reward (incentive). A good commitment emerged from a balance of motivation and skills. In addition, work motivation can be described as set of force to encourage work-related behaviour and performance driver to achieve specified goals. The indicators are responsibility, hard-working, striving attitude to develop themselves, and independence in performing duties. According to Soedirman (1986) and Tarwaka (1991) in Sedarmayanti (2009: 214), employees in the production process are regarded as individual that has identifications such as: (a) nature or character, (b) attitude, behavior, or appearance, (c) needs, (d) desire, (e) aims or goals, (f) habit built by the environment, (g) environment conditions and the employees experience, and these factors affect the level of commitment Moreover, teacher’s work motivation can be defined as a strong feeling of responsibility from the teacher to achieve the school goals – in addition to improve the educational standards. One way of encouragement to enhance motivation is giving a reward; proven able to foster a continuous commitment, also maintain affective and normative commitment.

The substantial base research indicates that teacher’s commitment plays important role in improving the educational quality, but also discovered that the level of commitment to achieve the school goals still considerably low. This can be a basis reasoning to instigate a further study. In this research, the writer has provided a review that describes plausible mechanisms by which organizational culture, moral hierarchy level, and motivation may affect teacher’s commitment. This study will further identify a direct causal link between these subjects. Using a questionnaire method and path analysis technique, this study presents the estimates of a direct effect of organizational culture, moral hierarchy level, and motivation on teacher’s commitment. Five research questions will guide the investigation:

(1) Is the organizational culture affecting teacher’s commitment?

(2) Is moral hierarchy level affecting teacher’s commitment?

(3) Is there any influence of teacher’s work motivation on commitment?

(4) Is organizational culture has influence on work motivation?

(5) Is there any influence of moral hierarchy level on work motivation?

The proposed research hypotheses are as follows:

(1) School organizational culture affects teacher’s commitment

(2) Moral hierarchy level significantly affects teacher’s commitment

(3) Teacher’s work motivation has influence on commitment

(4) School organization culture has influence on teacher’s work motivation

(5) Moral hierarchy level has a direct positive effect on teacher’s work motivation.

2. Method

The population of this study is high school teachers in Samarinda. The sampling employed non-random technique. And due to variations in the number of teachers in each school, the purposive sampling was used to measure sample units in proportions. The identification requires measuring 309 out of 796 samples consist of civil servant teachers. The data was collected using questionnaire and the measurement was defined by rating scale. Because such measurement was used, important to firstly check the validity and reliability of the questionnaire – it was proven that the questionnaire is credible for this research.

This study examines the relationships between variables based on the emerging of causal model, using path analysis. Its phases start with requirements analysis test, using normality test of error estimation with Lilliefors formula and test of regression linearity with Anova formula. In addition, the hypothesis test was conducted using significance testing (t-test).

3. Results and Discussion

Because path analysis was employed for collecting the data, preliminary test of the path analysis requirements should be done, consist of (1) normality test, (2) linearity test and the significance of regression coefficient. Normality test applies Lilliefors formula and error estimation, with the significance level of α = 0.5, indicates all values of Lo is smaller than Ltable value. Thus, Ho is approved, can be concluded that the data sampling in each variable is derived from population with normal distribution, and according to the linearity test all the requirements are fulfilled.

3.1. Hypothesis Test

Table 1 describes the normality test results.

Table 2. Path coefficients of structure model -1

Table 3. Path coefficients of structure model – 2

Table 2 shows that path X1Y have tvalue = 4,225 with the significance of α = 0,000 ≤ 0,05 means that X1Y is very significant, so there is statistically significant path from X1 to Y. While, path X2Y have tvalue = 2,004 with the significance of α = 0,046 ≤ 0,05 means that X2Y is significant, therefore there is a significant path from X2 to Y. And path X3Y have tvalue = 2,330 with the significance of α = 0,020 ≤ 0,05 means that X3Y is significant, so there is also a significant path from X3 to Y.

Therefore, referring to Table 2, the substructure model-1 can be described as image 1.

Image 1. Empirical model of the relationship between variables in substructure model-1 based on path analysis test

Calculation results of the path coefficients of substructure model 2 are described in Table 3.

4. Discussion

Analysis on the theory and observation of the empirical evidence show how organizational culture has effect on teacher’s commitment. Variations of the teacher’s commitment variables are directly affected by variables of organizational culture, and it is indirectly affected by variables of organizational culture through teacher’s work motivation. In other words, a good organizational culture reflects on a good teacher commitment, it will also lead to a good commitment through a good motivation.

Moral hierarchy level is proven to have influence on teacher’s commitment. Variations of the teacher’s commitment variables are directly influenced by variables of moral hierarchy level, and it is indirectly influenced by variables of moral hierarchy level through teacher’s work motivation. Therefore, can be concluded that a high-level of moral hierarchy will lead to a high-level of teacher’s commitment, and it will also result in a high-level of commitment through a high-level of motivation.

Study of the empirical evidence also shows that teacher’s work motivation effects teacher’s commitment. Variations of the teacher’s commitment variables are affected by variables of teacher’s work motivation, in other words a high-level of work motivation will reflect on a good commitment.

The school organizational culture is also proven to have influence on teacher’s work motivation. Variations of the teacher’s work motivation variables are influenced by variables of school organizational culture, in other words a good school organizational culture will lead to a high-level of work motivation.

In addition, Moral hierarchy level was found to affect teacher’s work motivation. Variations of the teacher’s work motivation are influenced by variables of moral hierarchy level, in other words a high-level of moral hierarchy will reflect on a high-level of work motivation.

5. Conclusion and Suggestion

5.1. Conclusion

1. The school organizational culture significantly affects teacher’s commitment. It means that an improvement in the school organizational culture will lead to an improvement on the teacher’s commitment.

2. Moral hierarchy level is proven to have influence on teacher’s commitment. It means that improvement on the moral hierarchy level will lead to an improvement on the teacher’s commitment.

3. Teacher’s work motivation affects their commitment. It means that an improvement on the teacher’s work motivation will also improve their commitment.

4. The school organizational culture has influence on teacher’s work motivation. It means that an improvement in the school organizational culture will lead to an improvement on the teacher’s motivation.

5. Moral hierarchy level is proven to affect teacher’s work motivation. It means that an improvement on the moral hierarchy level will result in improvement on the teacher’s work motivation.

5.2. Suggestion

1. Teacher is an activator and important asset for the school as an educational unit. To encourage high-level of teacher’s commitment, the school principal should instigate an organizational culture conducive to the working environment for the teachers to perform well. A good school environment will support a good interaction between teachers. Therefore, it is mandatory for the school principal to keep motivating teachers to strongly commit to their roles, and also encouraging teachers who haven’t yet fulfilled their duties – for example by creating RPP and evaluation, to help teachers guiding the students attentively and consistently – as well as to admonish teachers who tend to come late or not present.

2. Teaching is a profession that needs conformation and devotion to the rules. The school principal should conduct socialization for the teachers to maintain their commitment in performing their duties.

3. Teachers should be informed how to act based on the school culture, given the motivation and directed so they could work together enthusiastically to achieve the common goals.

4. To fully control teacher’s commitment, the school principal should develop programs, plans, or acting policies of the organizational behaviours regarding commitment. The objective is to spread awareness about commitment by constructing rules and regulations. In other hand, commitment within the school can be measured by providing training, also by monitoring and evaluating the commitment policies.

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