American Journal of Educational Research, 2014 2 (8A),
Received December 15, 2013; Revised March 16, 2014; Accepted June 25, 2014Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing. All Rights Reserved.
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In the year 2000, The European Council in Lisbon set out the aim that all European citizens should be able to participate in the new knowledge society. They defined a number of objectives for education and training systems that encouraged, among other things, rethinking teaching models that have been implemented in the initial education of teachers. The development program includes this essential objective, to "improve the quality of education and training systems". (Council report "Education" European Council "The future objectives of education and training systems." , February 14, 2001). The changes taking place in education and in society in general bring new demands on the teaching profession that make it increasingly complex and demanding. Teachers, among other skills, must learn to work in collaborative environments that make them rethink their teaching function and allow them to help new generations to learn autonomously based on the acquisition of key competencies.
As we discussed in a previous work (Jove, 2011), teacher education lecturers do research, talk and write on how high-quality teaching/learning is to be carried out by future teacher in their classrooms and with their pupils. It is less usually the case that teacher education researchers examine their own teaching methods. As teacher-researchers we should analyse the learning communities that we create and turn them into spaces where we can build knowledge and foster good formative processes. How are teachers able to create situations and spaces in which we can all learn from processes of reflection and action research what we do (Clarke, Egan, Fletcher, Ryan, 2006).
An important reference for thinking about teacher education for the XXI century is the conceptual framework developed by Sharpe & Green (1975). They say that our models of teaching, enacted in our teaching, are more influenced by the models we had as students throughout our school rather than our teacher education. This means that to create new models for the XXI century that we can learn during both initial and continuing training, we need to make our implicit models explicit, deconstruct them so they can be rebuilt to reconstruct teaching and learning and refine our thinking. Our years of experience, reflection and knowledge about it leads us to the question: in the world of education, why are some teaching models so ingrained? Why is it so difficult to modify these models? Why is there so much talk about the need for change and its implementation? Above all why is maintaining that change so difficult? And so how do we articulate training spaces to rebuild these models? In what way can we lead to the desire for improvement and change in us and our students?
For this to occur we believe we need to create genuine learning encounters, encounters that challenge our typical ways of being in the world; our systems of knowledge are disrupted. We are forced into thought. The encounter then operates as a rupture in our habitual modes of being and thus in our habitual subjectivities. It produces a cut, a crack. However this is not the end of the story, for the rupturing encounter also contains a moment of affirmation, the affirmation of a new world, a way of seeing and thinking this world differently. This is the creative moment of the encounter that obliges us to think otherwise. Life, when it is truly lived, is a history of these encounters, which will always necessarily occur beyond representation (O’Sullivan, 2006). We show how these encounters allow future teachers to think about different possibilities for teaching and learning.
|||Clarke, H., B. Egan, L. Fletcher, and C. Ryan. 2006. Creating case studies of practice through appreciative inquiry. Educational Action Research 14, 3: 407-22.|
|||European Commission (2001g): Commission report on the concrete future objectives of education and training systems, COM(2001) 59 of 31 January 2001.|
|||Jové, G. (2011) How do I improve what I am doing as a teacher, teacher educator and action-researcher through reflection? Reflection for action. A Learning walk from Lleida to Winchester and back again. Educational Action Research.19: 261-278.|
|||Sharp R and Green A (1975) Educational and social control. A study in progressive primary education. London: Routledge/Kegan Paul.|
|||O’Sullivan, S. 2006. Art encounters Deleuze and Guattari: Thought beyond representation. London: Palgrave Macmillan.|