The Educational Skills Required for Kindergarten Teachers in Jordan
This study aims to investigate the degree of availability of the general basic educational skills in kindergarten teachers in Jordan from the standpoint of the teachers themselves, and to identify the effect of the teachers’ major and the Kindergarten type (public/private) on the availability of these educational skills. The study sample consisted of (185) teachers from (65) Kindergartens in five Jordanian governorates, namely; Amman, Madaba, Karak, Irbid and Salt. The sample included (40) private kindergartens and (25) public kindergartens selected with simple random sampling. A questionnaire of (58) items was developed, divided into two domains; personal and social skills, and educational skills. The results indicated that all the questionnaire items are educational skills required for kindergarten teachers from the standpoint of the teachers themselves, and that there are no statistically significant differences (α ≤ 0,05) due to kindergarten type, whereas there are statistically significant differences (α ≤ 0,05) due to teachers’ major (educational/otherwise) in favor of the educational majors. The study recommends the need to hold training courses for kindergarten teachers in modern methods of dealing with children, in addition to limiting working in kindergartens to graduates of the educational sciences faculties.
Keywords: teaching skills, kindergarten
American Journal of Educational Research, 2014 2 (3),
Received December 24, 2013; Revised February 27, 2014; Accepted March 12, 2014Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing. All Rights Reserved.
Cite this article:
- Abdul-Haq, Zahria Ibrahim. "The Educational Skills Required for Kindergarten Teachers in Jordan." American Journal of Educational Research 2.3 (2014): 159-166.
- Abdul-Haq, Z. I. (2014). The Educational Skills Required for Kindergarten Teachers in Jordan. American Journal of Educational Research, 2(3), 159-166.
- Abdul-Haq, Zahria Ibrahim. "The Educational Skills Required for Kindergarten Teachers in Jordan." American Journal of Educational Research 2, no. 3 (2014): 159-166.
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1. Background1.1. Introduction
A majority of scientists such as Piaget, Froebel and Monstesiori agree on the positive effects that kindergartens have on children who attend them before going to school. They help prepare children for school and provide the appropriate climate for the development of the child’s thinking, knowledge and imagination in addition to developing his/her personality and satisfying his/her needs. They furthermore oversee his/her physical growth by developing his/her large and small muscles through calculated purposeful exercises and games and developing his/her hand and fingers using skills of holding, cutting, construction and assembly. Kindergartens additionally provide the child with social care through support, guidance and tutorship, and grant him/her self-confidence to speak and express his/her opinion and develop abilities in making choices, participation, cooperation and making decisions [3, 8, 18].
The positive effects of kindergartens on children include enabling them to comprehend the school system and respect other classmates, teachers and eventually the officials and authorities. They also contribute to the development of their linguistic skills through conversation with their teachers and colleagues, imitating sounds, and utilizing common phrases and concepts. Kindergartens additionally nurture and develop the emotional aspects of children’s development by allowing them to express their feelings, trusting them to handle responsibilities and evaluating their work. They also develop the religious aspects and instill the values and foundations of proper behavior in the children by acquainting them with some greetings and pleasantries, and encouraging them to uphold virtues like love, tolerance and honesty while discouraging them from vices such as lying, cursing and abuse .
The potential extent of these positive effects depends on the competence of the kindergarten teachers, and the provision of their required tools .
Kindergarten teachers are considered one of the most important influential groups in society as they deal with children in their formative phase, and spend long periods of time with them, sufficient to deem them as a potential positive or negative influence on the character of children that would be reflected in all the educational and private phases of the life of an individual. The quality of the formative phase remains dependant on the quality of the teachers and the parents’ interest and response to the teachers .
Child care is both a science and an art: a science that establishes theories and facts that kindergarten teachers must adhere to in nurturing the children’s instinctive tendencies, and an art that requires instilling positive tendencies and attitudes in them to enrich them linguistically and intellectually, and developing their memory by organizing the information and facts that they have acquired through research and experimentation to find solutions to their problems. Hence the importance of kindergarten teachers in their ability to provide children with physical comfort and emotional stability for a healthy mental development, and help them to be independent in their actions and to take responsibility for them, in accordance with the Montessori slogan "help me to do it myself" .
It is worth mentioning that the variables of the modern age have developed the objectives of education in kindergartens, imposing new burdens on the kindergarten teacher as her task was no longer limited to child care during the absence of the mother. A kindergarten teacher is now required to possess creative abilities capable of providing an organized educational environment that encourages learning, and allows the child freedom of movement, choice, experimentation and discovery .
In light of the general objectives of teacher preparation programs, teachers are expected to possess various teaching performance skills, as the teaching system consists of four main elements interacting together; planning, curriculum, implementation and evaluation .
An academically and professionally prepared competent teacher can contribute to the success of the educational process. Thus, countries have focused on preparing, qualifying and training teachers before and during service, while practicing education in the past was based on the teacher’s personal experience, talents and desire to teach [7, 19].
The current study gains importance from the following considerations:
- Being one of the first studies that attempt to identify the educational skills required for kindergarten teacher in Jordan (to the best of the researcher’s knowledge).
- This study demonstrates the importance and degree of kindergarten teachers’ possession of educational skills.
- This study benefits kindergarten principals in determining the degree to which their teachers possess the required educational skills.
- The outcomes of this study are beneficial in the development of kindergarten teachers.
- This study is beneficial to the researcher in carrying out other studies that integrate with the current study.1.2. Problem of the Study
With the increased number of kindergartens, a need has arisen for training and qualifying specialized teachers, raising their general cultural level, improving the skills needed to cater to the needs of children, and helping them achieve the demands of growth.
Kindergarten teachers make many decisions in the classroom in accordance with their competence and experiences, thus a lack of competence on their part may lead to them making unsound decisions that could adversely affect the level and objectives of education .
It became clear to the researcher while examining the existing educational competencies studies that – to the best of her knowledge- they did not address the required educational skills for kindergarten teachers in Jordan in particular, despite the importance of these studies and their outcomes in the process of drafting and developing new programs and methods for the development of the educational competencies of kindergarten teachers.
The researcher has also noted, from her own personal experience, familiarity with the educational reality of the kindergarten teachers during her follow-up supervision of students’ field training in kindergartens and direct contact with teachers, that many of the kindergarten teachers do not have a major in education, leading to the problem of the current study in determining the educational skills of the kindergarten teachers in Jordan, and the impact of major and the type of kindergarten in the availability of these skills.
2. Purpose of the Study
This study seeks to achieve the following objectives:
1 - Determining the degree of availability of the general basic educational skills in Kindergarten teachers in Jordan.
2 - Determining whether there are differences in the degree of availability of the educational skills in kindergarten teachers due to their major (educational/non- educational).
3 - Determining whether there are differences in the degree of availability of the educational skills in kindergarten teachers due to the type of kindergarten (public / private).2.1. Questions of the Study
The study attempts to answer the following questions:
1 - What are the educational skills needed for kindergarten teachers from the standpoint of the teachers in Jordan?
2- Is there a statistically significant difference (α≤05,) in the degree of availability of the educational skills in Kindergarten teachers due to major (educational/non-educational)?
3- Is there a statistically significant difference (α≤05,) in the degree of availability of the educational skills in Kindergarten teachers due to the kindergarten type (public/private)?
3. Terms of the Study
- Educational skills: the capabilities and competencies possessed by kindergarten teachers in designing, implementing and evaluating the educational process to achieve a more effective learning .
The researcher defines them as the capabilities and competencies possessed by kindergarten teachers in the fields of personal, social and educational skills.
- Kindergarten: an educational institution specialized in rearing young children aged 4-6 years, characterized by its ability to carry out several activities designed to provide children with educational and social values, the opportunity for self-expression and training on work and life in general through organized playing .
Kindergartens are defined procedurally in this study as the public and private Jordanian kindergartens involved in this study.
- Kindergarten teacher: the person who cares for children in kindergarten and teaches and guides them in an organized manner. The term includes in this study the public and private kindergarten teachers in the study sample.
4. Literature Review
The researcher has examined many of the previous studies related to the subject matter; the following is a review of those studies.
Reference  aimed to identify the competencies of kindergarten teachers in the U.S. state of Georgia. The study sample consisted of (97) kindergarten teachers. A questionnaire was administered to the study sample in addition to holding interviews with them. The results showed that the most important competencies to the teachers were: commitment to the education systems, teamwork with colleagues, the need for the teacher’s strong motivation to work with children and the teacher’s utilization of the educational tools and practical activities.
On a similar note, a study  aimed to determine the availability degree of teaching competencies in lower primary level teachers in the ministry of education’s schools in Irbid first directorate of education. The study sought the views of the teachers themselves in light of variables including academic qualification, years of experience and major. To achieve the goal of the study, a sample consisting of (168) teachers from (30) private schools in Irbid Governorate was selected. The researcher designed the instrument of the study, which included (38) teaching competencies to measure the teachers’ possession of such competencies. The study results showed that the main teaching competencies possessed by teachers were; the effective utilization of the class time, using the method of teaching appropriate to the educational situation, forming evaluation questions in a clear and specific manner and attracting the attention of children and ensuring its continuity. The results of the study indicated no statistically significant differences in the teachers’ possession of teaching competencies attributable to the variables of academic qualification and major, whereas they indicated a statistically significant difference in the degree the teachers’ possession of teaching competencies attributable to years of teaching experience and in favor of teachers with more than (6) years of experience.
Another study that focused on examining the educational competencies of teachers in Jordan is a study , entitled "The training needs of kindergarten teachers in the governorate of Amman from the standpoint of the teachers themselves." In order to identify the training needs of kindergarten teachers in the governorate of Amman the study sample consisted of (206) teachers, and a questionnaire of (34) paragraphs was used. The results of the study showed that the training needs of kindergarten teachers were significant in all areas, most notably the use of teaching aids and activities. The study recommended the need for evaluative studies to determine the training needs of teachers.
There have been many studies that addressed the competencies of Arab kindergarten teachers, including a study that aimed to determine the basic personal performance competencies required for kindergarten teachers, the availability of these competencies in a group of kindergarten teachers and the relation between the number of years of experience, the school district and the educational level and the availability of basic performance competencies. The study , who adopted a descriptive approach in answering the questions of the study. The study instruments included note cards designed in the light of a set of competencies. The researchers administered the note cards to a sample of (66) teachers with an average of two times for every teacher, to ensure and verify the competency. The results were as follows: personal competencies achieved high valuations falling between 82 % - 96 %, which underlines the importance of personal quality competencies in working with children and their implications in the development of the child in the kindergarten. As for the basic performance competencies required for kindergarten teachers, the most notable were: the competency of planning the educational circle, the competency of executing the educational circle, the competency of evaluating educational elements, the competencies of classroom management and interaction with the children, the competency of providing nutritious meals (restaurant), the competencies of storytelling and the competencies of preparing extra-curricular activities which include: motor, office, kitchen and art workshop activities. The results also indicated that all educational competencies ranged between 81 % - 90 % in availability among the study sample, which is a very high percentage. There were statistically significant differences between the scores of the groups of the study sample, in favor of teachers of the group of (11 - 15) years of experience. Finally, no statistically significant differences between kindergarten teachers due to the variables of the school district and educational level were apparent.
Another Arab study of kindergarten education was conducted , entitled “problems facing kindergarten teachers in the Republic of Yemen". The researcher used a descriptive approach in preparing a list of the problems facing kindergarten teachers, that were included in a questionnaire consisting of (52) paragraphs that was distributed to a sample of public and private kindergarten teachers in the Yemen capital consisting of (133) teachers. The study indicated a number of problems facing kindergarten teachers in the Republic of Yemen, namely: problems related to the personality and qualification of the teacher, problems related to the management of the kindergarten, problems related to the curriculum, and problems related to the kindergarten’s facilities and equipment and problems related to children and parents. These problems were found to vary in importance and degree. The results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the arithmetic mean of the responses of the sample attributable to the variable of kindergarten type (public / private). The study recommended the need for a greater interest in the preparation and academic qualification of kindergarten teachers.
Closely related is a study entitled “problems facing kindergartens in the Republic of Yemen . This study conversely aimed to identify the problems of kindergartens in the Republic of Yemen from the standpoint of its employees. It utilized a questionnaire of (64) items for data gathering. The study sample consisted of (270) participants, including (55) principals and deputies and (215) teachers that were selected from the governorates of Ta’izz, Lahij and the capital. The study reached the following results: kindergartens face many problems including the lack of teachers and principals specialized in kindergarten education, the lack of an educational philosophy underpinning education in kindergartens, poor relationship with parents, the lack of the required facilities for kindergartens and the recurrent disagreements between kindergarten teachers and principals.
A number of studies have focused on identifying the basic required competencies of kindergarten teachers, a study  aimed to identify these competencies in kindergartens in the governorates of the Gaza strip according to the principals of these kindergartens. The study investigated four main areas: mental cognitive competencies, emotional competencies, physical competencies and professional competencies. The study sample consisted of (120) kindergarten principals, a percentage of (16.5 %) of the original population of the study (728). The researchers employed the descriptive analytical approach to identify the most important basic competencies, and used the questionnaire as an instrument for data gathering. The study reached the following results: all competencies received high percentages confirming their importance according to the study sample. Physical competencies were ranked first in importance according to kindergarten principals followed by educational competencies in second, while emotional and cognitive competencies came in third and fourth respectively.
Other prominent studies in the field include a study , which sought to determine the educational competencies required for kindergarten teachers in light of the development in curriculum models in the twenty-first century. The study sample consisted of (48) principals and teachers, and a list of educational competencies was prepared numbering (85) competencies that were spread over five major competencies: the competency of planning and organizing activities which included (18) sub-competencies, the competency of connecting ideas and information and utilizing them for education which included (16) sub-competencies, the competency of problem solving and working with others which included (20) sub-competencies, the competency of data collection, organization and analysis which included (16) sub-competencies,, and the competency of data utilization which included (15) sub-competencies. The results of the study indicated the teachers’ urgent need for all the proposed teaching competencies.
Finally, a study  aimed to determine the perceptions of teachers working in programs of early childhood education regarding competencies, their levels and the appropriate roles for early childhood programs. The study sample consisted of (23) teachers from early childhood education programs, and (52) teachers from children special education programs. One of the most important results of the study was that there were no statistically significant differences between the two sets of teachers attributable to the importance of competencies. The study additionally indicated that both groups required training in evaluation competencies, and the need for educational programs for teachers before and during the service.
A general comment on the literature:
Through a general review of the literature on the subject, the following observations can be made:
- According to the previous studies, some of the most important competencies that should be available in kindergarten teacher are as follows:
1 - The effective utilization of the class time and using the method of teaching appropriate to the educational situation .
- The results of the previous studies indicated many problems facing kindergartens, including:
3- The lack of materials required for the implementation of activities, furniture and facilities that are not suitable for the application of the curriculum, a limited time for implementation in addition to the lack of out-door playgrounds [1, 4].
- The results of some of the previous studies indicated that there was no difference in the degree of the teachers’ possession of educational skills due to the variable of kindergarten type .
The current research is unique in its examination of the educational skills required for kindergarten teachers in Jordan, a comprehensive study sample that covers several Jordanian governorates from the north, center and south, as well as addressing the variables of major (educational, non - educational) and kindergarten type (public, private).
5. Method5.1. Study Methodology and Procedures
The researcher employed the descriptive survey method in this study as it fits its very nature. The instrument of the study was duly prepared and validated, in order to ensure its appropriateness to the objectives of the study and the questions that it attempts to answer.5.2. Study Population and Sample
The study population consists of all (1559) public and private kindergartens in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in the year 2011/2012, with (5417) employed teachers and (99000) enrolled children (Ministry of Education, 2011).
The study sample consists of (185) teachers from (65) Kindergartens in five Jordanian governorates, namely; Amman, Madaba, Karak, Irbid and Salt. The sample includes (40) private kindergartens and (25) public kindergartens selected with simple random sampling. Table 1 shows the distribution of the sample according to the variables of major and type of kindergarten.5.3. Data Collection Instrument
The researcher developed a questionnaire based on the review of educational literature and previous studies on the subject, such as the study of [1, 10], in addition to the researcher’s own knowledge on some of the skills required for kindergarten teachers due to her dealings with the practical training of educational sciences students in public kindergartens.
In order to validate the questionnaire, it was presented to a panel of specialized referees consisting of five faculty members specialized in curriculum, teaching methods and child education from the faculty of educational sciences at Isra University, four kindergarten teachers and one supervisor from Amman’s fourth directorate of education. The researcher then implemented the amendments proposed by the referees, which focused on the extent to which the paragraphs matched the dimension they were placed in, and the soundness of the linguistic formulation of the paragraphs. In its final form, the questionnaire included (58) paragraphs, spread over two domains:
First: Personal and social skills: This domain included (27) paragraphs.
Second: Teaching skills: This domain included (31) paragraphs.
In the questionnaire, the teachers would specify their level of agreement over the paragraphs raised in the questionnaire in a five-level Likert scale (strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree). Five points were assigned for (Strongly Agree), four for (agree), three for (neutral), two for (disagree) and one for (strongly disagree). Consequently, any paragraph that scored an evaluation of more than (3) was considered to have a high level of agreement, while any paragraph that scored an evaluation of less than (3) was considered to have a low level of agreement, and any paragraph that scored an evaluation of (3) was considered to have a neutral level of agreement. Thus, the level of teachers’ response to the questionnaire is constricted between (290) as the highest score, and (58) as the lowest score.
The stability of the questionnaire was confirmed by administering it to another sample of teachers outside the study sample. The sample consisted of ten teachers, and the questionnaire was re- administered to the members of this sample after two weeks. The correlation coefficient between the two instances of administration was calculated to have a value of (0.88) according to Pearson correlation coefficient, a percentage that was considered sufficient for the purposes of this study.
6. Results and Discussion6.1. Statistical Treatment
For the analysis of the results of the study sample, the researcher depended on filling the paragraphs of the questionnaire in special tables, and extracting the arithmetic mean and the standard deviation for each table. Analysis of covariance was employed.6.2. Results Related to the First Question and Their Discussion
What are the educational skills needed for kindergarten teachers from the standpoint of the teachers in Jordan?
To answer this question, the arithmetic means and standard deviations were calculated for the teachers’ responses to the questionnaire’s paragraphs. Table 2 shows the results of this question:
Table 2 indicates that the arithmetic means of the questionnaire’s paragraphs regarding personal and social skills required for kindergarten teachers ranged between (3.67) and (4.75). The highest mean was scored by paragraphs (5) "Listening to, and accepting the views of children", (9) "Accustoming children to order" and (20) “The ability to innovate and constantly rejuvenate the educational climate". The lowest mean was scored by paragraph (2) “Integrity of the senses". Overall, the arithmetic mean of all paragraphs was greater (00.3), while the total arithmetic mean of the fist dimension was (4.33).
The arithmetic means of the paragraphs regarding educational skills ranged between (3.17) and (4.75). The highest mean was scored by paragraphs (33) “Familiarity with the methods of accustoming children to the instructions and general rules of activities and their interpretations" and (40) "The ability to involve children in the planning of educational activities and encourage them to take the initiative". The lowest mean was scored by paragraph (56) “Taking into account the individual differences between children during teaching”. The total arithmetic mean of the second dimension was (4.09), while the total arithmetic mean of the questionnaire was (4.22). This indicates that all paragraphs of the questionnaire constitute educational skills required for kindergarten teachers from the standpoint of the teachers themselves.
Consequently, teachers, on the personal and social levels, should maintain a modest and decent physical appearance, possess the physical fitness to enable them to participate with the children in their activities, abide by moral standards and the customs of the society in their actions and words as a role models, listen to and accept the views of the children, be able to communicate with children and manage and control the classroom, monitor the children and evaluate their daily progress, be punctual, exercising self-control and restraint while exhibiting an adequate degree of flexibility, joy and a sense of humor. Teachers should also possess the ability to innovate and constantly rejuvenate the educational climate, solve the problems that they may face in the various educational situations, recognize talents and talented children and identify the capabilities and potentials of the children, in addition to possessing adequate skills in using computers and technology.
The teachers’ responses to the paragraphs of educational skills indicate the need for the teacher to have an adequate understanding of the basic concepts of science, math, language, arts and literature, be knowledgeable in the field and the recent developments in teaching methods and psychology, have the ability to develop the child’s emotional intelligence, accustom children with order in learning corners, in addition to being familiar with the methods of accustoming children to the instructions and general rules of activities and their interpretations.
Table 2. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation for educational skills required for kindergarten teachers
The teacher should also prepare the activities and skills ahead of time and have the ability to select the activities appropriate to the children’s level and age, evaluate the child’s sensory, auditory, optical and linguistic skills and reinforce and encourage desired behavior, and neglect undesired behavior while performing the activities. It is also required of teachers to observe the integration of the different subjects in teaching, utilize educational games and purposeful songs and stories in teaching, continuously innovate and rejuvenate the educational climate, the nature of the activities and the types of the educational tools provided for the children, appreciate the child's efforts in the activity no matter how small or limited and be adequately proficient in using educational devices and tools, and utilizing them to achieve the desired educational goals. Teachers should also motivate to learn through the variation in activities, tools and environmental materials, encourage the children to examine objects in front of them through touching, dismantling and assembling them and have the ability to deal with the common aspects of negative behavior, such as: aggressiveness, not eating the meal, taking tools from the hands of others, constant crying, lying.
This result is consistent with the studies of  regarding effective utilization of the class time and using the method of teaching appropriate to the educational situation, and with study  and  regarding Physical and educational competencies and Teamwork, a strong motivation to work with children and the utilization of various educational tools and activities.6.3. Results Related to the Second Question and Their Discussion
Is there a statistically significant difference (α ≤ 05,) in the degree of availability of the educational skills in Kindergarten teachers due to major (educational/non-educational)?
To answer this question, the arithmetic means and standard deviations were calculated per the variable of major (educational/non-educational). As indicated in Table 3.
Table 3. The arithmetic means and standard deviations of the paragraphs of the questionnaire per the variant of major
Table 3 indicates that there is a difference between the arithmetic means in the variable of major. To determine whether these differences between the means are statistically significant at the significance level (α ≤ 05,), an analysis of covariance was conducted per the variables of the study as indicated in Table 4.
Table 4. Analysis of covariance of the difference of educational skills per the variables of major and kindergarten type
It is notable from Table 4 that the differences in arithmetic means per the major variable have reached the level of statistical significance as the statistical f-value is (3.63), which is statistically significant at (α ≤ 05). Reverting to the table of arithmetic means, Table 2, it is observable that the arithmetic mean for educational majors was higher than that of non-educational majors, indicating statistically significant difference at (α ≤ 05) in teaching skills, attributable to the variable of major (educational/otherwise) in favor of educational majors.
Thus, the availability of teaching skills was higher in teachers with educational majors, indicating that an educational qualification of the kindergarten teachers benefits them in possessing the required teaching skills for kindergartens, while also enabling them to properly plan and set goals for the lesson, and providing them with many of the teaching strategies useful for kindergarten teaching.
From the researcher’s own experience in the programs and plans of the BA courses in universities, it is noticeable that the programs in educational majors are career oriented in their preparation of the students, as the student is taught a wide range of educational courses, including: Measurement and evaluation, educational psychology, the principles of education, managing and organizing the classroom, curricula and teaching methods and computerized education, in addition to many other courses. By studying these courses, the student gains a wide range of teaching competencies that enhance him/her teaching capabilities to surpass those of students of non-educational majors.
This indicates the importance of the kindergarten teacher having an educational major, as the researcher has noted that the majority of kindergarten teachers hold a non-educational degree, which negatively affects the way they deal with children, and the educational competencies that they possess.
This result is inconsistent with the study , and this may be due to the different samples.6.4. Results Related to the Third Question and Their Discussion
Is there a statistically significant difference (α ≤ 05,) in the degree of availability of the educational skills in Kindergarten teachers due to the kindergarten type (public/private)?
To answer this question, the arithmetic means and standard deviations were calculated per the variable of kindergarten type (public/private), as indicated in Table 5.
Table 5. The arithmetic means and standard deviations of the paragraphs of the questionnaire per the variant of kindergarten type
Table 5 indicates that there is a difference between the arithmetic means in the variable of kindergarten types. Reverting to the analysis of covariance in Table 4 reveals that there are no statistically significant differences attributable to kindergarten type (public/private), as the statistical significance value is (0.93), which is statistically insignificant at (α ≤ 05,).
This could be attributable to the fact that teachers of both public and private kindergartens are equally monitored by the schools’ principles, the ministry of education and educational supervisors. This result is consistent with the study .
Based on the results of the current study, the researcher recommends the following:
1- Holding training courses for kindergarten teachers in modern methods of dealing with children, an active utilization of educational tools, games and music in education and other educational skills required for kindergarten teachers.
2- Limiting working in kindergartens to graduates of the educational sciences faculties, especially child education majors, due to their ability to deal with children from a specialized scientific perspective.
3- Conducting additional studies regarding the impact of experience and kindergarten type (public/private) on the educational competencies of kindergarten teachers.
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