Attitude of the Female Teacher-Trainees towards the Existing B.Ed. Syllabus of the University of Bur...

Amal Kumar Chakrabarty, Dr. Santosh Kumar Behera

  Open Access OPEN ACCESS  Peer Reviewed PEER-REVIEWED

Attitude of the Female Teacher-Trainees towards the Existing B.Ed. Syllabus of the University of Burdwan: An Empirical Study

Amal Kumar Chakrabarty1,, Dr. Santosh Kumar Behera2

1Katwa College (B. Ed. Dept.) Katwa, Burdwan, W.B., India

2Department of Education, Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University, Purulia, West Bengal, INDIA

Abstract

Attitude plays an important role in determining the mental inclination of the individuals concerned. In the sphere of teacher education research the attitude constitutes a significant and comprehensive dimension that prompts the researchers to explore their inquisitive outlook on multiple factors pertaining to teacher education program. Considering this perspective the researchers made up their mind to explore the attitude of the secondary female teacher-trainees pursuing their B. Ed. course in the teacher training institutions under The University of Burdwan. The attitude of the female teacher-trainees belonging to Govt. sponsored and private B. Ed. colleges were the target population of the present study. Four of such colleges were selected for attitude survey. An opinionnaire comprising 36 statements were administered to the trainees and their responses were collected. Administering Likert-type scale their opinions were quantified. At last the scores were calculated and t-test was done to know the attitudinal differences between two different types of female teacher-trainees, namely, deputed-fresher, govt.-private etc.

Cite this article:

  • Chakrabarty, Amal Kumar, and Dr. Santosh Kumar Behera. "Attitude of the Female Teacher-Trainees towards the Existing B.Ed. Syllabus of the University of Burdwan: An Empirical Study." American Journal of Educational Research 2.12A (2014): 31-36.
  • Chakrabarty, A. K. , & Behera, D. S. K. (2014). Attitude of the Female Teacher-Trainees towards the Existing B.Ed. Syllabus of the University of Burdwan: An Empirical Study. American Journal of Educational Research, 2(12A), 31-36.
  • Chakrabarty, Amal Kumar, and Dr. Santosh Kumar Behera. "Attitude of the Female Teacher-Trainees towards the Existing B.Ed. Syllabus of the University of Burdwan: An Empirical Study." American Journal of Educational Research 2, no. 12A (2014): 31-36.

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1. Introduction

While education is a process, curriculum is a dynamic representation of the process. While constructing the Teacher Education Curriculum the following factors should be taken into consideration. :

•  Development of fundamental skills and attitudes needed for a beginning teacher

•  Reflection of the fundamental objectives of the entire B.Ed. Programme in the light of the demands on the teacher from social, psychological and other consideration.

•  Using advanced method of teaching which leave greater scope for self study and discussion and improved method of evaluation.

In “Encyclopedia of Educational research” (1941), Walther S. Monroe, Professor Emeritus of Education, University of Illinois, USA, qualifies teacher education as, “The total education experiences which contribute to the preparation of a person but the term is completely employed to designate the programme for courses and other experiences offered by an educational institute for the announced purposes of preparing persons for teaching and other educational service and for contribution to their growth in competency for such service”.

B.Ed. is designated as 1 year Secondary Teacher Education Programme by N.C.T.E.

Which has enshrined the following objectives:

1) To enable the prospective teachers to understand the nature, purpose and philosophy of secondary education.

2) To develop among teachers and understanding of the psychology of the pupils.

3) To enable them to acquire competencies, specific pedagogy, curriculum development, its transaction and evaluation.

4) To enable them to make pedagogical analysis of the subjects they are to teach at the secondary stage.

The University of Burdwan has enunciated the following objectives

•  To restructure the course

•  To include new thrust areas in the course

•  To make the course more professional

2. Eight Core Papers of the B.Ed. Course of the Burdwan University

Paper-I: Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education

Paper-II: Sociological Foundation of Education

Paper-III: Development of Education in India

Paper -IV: Psychology of Learning

Paper-V: Psychology of Instruction

Paper-VI: Guidance and Counseling

Paper-VII: Organization and Management in Education

Paper-VIII: Educational Technology and Evaluation

2.1. Rationale of the Study

Since B.Ed. is a professional course, skills and strategies are more the immediate need than extensive theoretical framework of the curriculum. Thus the trainees, in their mutual perspectives relating in the course differ conspicuously from each other. Again teaching profession being simultaneously dynamic and prosperous in nature has fascinated a large section of the female society to adopt teaching job as their lifetime career. But before accepting teaching profession students have to undergo mandatory B. Ed. Course.

Usually is B.Ed. College can accommodate 100 students, among whom 50 students will belong to deputed category whereas 50 students will be fresher since (i) the deputed pupils possess some school teaching experience, their attitudes towards the B.Ed. course may be different from those of the fresher who enter the course having no or little practical experience regarding actual teaching learning situations.

Again (ii) two types of B.Ed. institutions are at work at the backdrop of teacher training in west Bengal. The first type B.Ed. institutions are govt. and govt. sponsored institutions which are run by financial assistance from the state Govt. The nature of the second type is private or self financing. These B.Ed. colleges are recognized by the NCTE and affiliated to the respective University. There lies considerable difference between them in terms of infrastructure facilities and also mode of imparting quality education to the teacher trainees. Again the female teacher-trainees who form a significant segment of the trainee- students are going to embrace the course with zeal and zest, should also be given due importance with regard to their opinion towards the B.Ed. curriculum. This notion prompted my spirit of enquiry.

Keeping in mind the above mentioned scenario, the investigator felt the urge to undertake a project work with a view to exploring the attitudinal difference between the female trainees pursuing B.Ed. course at the govt./govt. sponsored and the private B.Ed. institution regarding their outlook on the existing pattern of the B.Ed. syllabus of the Burdwan University.

2.2. Statement of the Problem

The Problem under Study is Entitled –

The Attitude of the Female Teacher-Trainees towards the Existing B.Ed. Syllabus of The University of Burdwan: An Empirical Study

2.3. Review of Related Literature

Review of related literature allows the researcher to acquaint himself with current knowledge in te area in which he is going to conduct his research. Before formulating his research problem the investigator went through review of the following related literatures.

1) Student Teachers’ Attitudes towards the Curriculum in the College of Education by Chan Kwok Wai of Hong Kong [1].

This paper proposed an improvement of the qualities of non-graduate teacher by extending the pre-service training course. The author of the paper conducted a survey study of the two categories of student teachers in North Cote College of Education in May, 1981 with an attempt to seek their opinion, interest and need with reference to the curricula in the College of Education.

2) Student Teachers’ Thinking about Knowledge, Learning And Learners In India: Mani Bhasin Kalra and Bharati Baveja, [2].

Prospective teachers enter classrooms that are not very different from those that they have attended as students. During their School Experience Programme (SEP), they often behave like their teachers did. The nature of the beliefs that students bring to teacher education needs to be explored to understand the direction that they may take once the student teachers are placed as regular teachers. The thinking and beliefs of pre-service teachers should be a focus of dialogue in teacher education programmes. Teachers need to reflect on and evaluate their own thinking and beliefs and at times the metaphors they use in their classrooms.

They need to begin to assess their own practice and to reflect upon how these influence their perceptions and decisions within their own classrooms, keeping in view the ‘text book culture’ prevalent in India this paper explores and analyses the thinking of teachers about ‘knowledge’, learning and ‘learners’ and its implications in the Indian scenario.

3) Esl Students’ Attitude towards Texts and Teaching Methods Used In Literature Classes:

Siti Norliana Ghazali Roszainora Setia and Chittra Muthusamy [3].

This paper aims to discuss students’ attitudes towards the texts used in the program, the challenges faced in reading these texts and the type of texts students prefer to read. It also discusses the teaching strategies used in class, their effectiveness as well as the methods favoured by students. The study was carried out in two schools in Kemaman, Terengganu involving 110 Form Five students. Questionnaire and interview were used as the research instrument. Findings suggested that students generally have positive attitudes towards the text selection although they were less enthusiastic about the teachers.

4) A study of the students’ attitudes towards Distance Teacher Education Programme in Pakistan: Aijaz Ahmed Gujjar [4].

The present study was undertaken to measure the attitude of students towards teacher Training programme through Distance Education offered by Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan. It was found that majority of the student appreciated the overall input of the programme though a few eyebrows were raised concerning the assessments of the assignments.

2.4. Delimitation of the Study

The delimitations of the present study are as follows:-

i) The study was limited to two districts namely, Birbhum and Burdwan only.

ii) The investigator took into account the responses of the B.Ed. teacher trainees only. Teacher trainees belonging to M.Ed. or D.Ed categories were kept outside the purview of the present study.

iii) Only Independent variables were taken into consideration.

iv) The number of samples was restricted to 150 only.

2.5. Objectives of the Study

a) To find out the level of attitudinal difference between deputed female govt. B.Ed. and deputed female private B.Ed. students regarding their attitude towards the present B.Ed Curriculum of the Burdwan University.

b) To assess the difference in attitudes between the fresher female govt. B.Ed. students and fresher female private B.Ed. students regarding their attitude towards the present B.Ed. Curriculum of the Burdwan University.

c) To estimate the difference between the deputed female private and fresher female private students regarding their attitudes towards the existing B.Ed Curriulum of the Burdwan University.

d) To enumerate the level of attitudinal difference between govt.-female B. Ed. students. and private female. B.Ed. students towards the presents B.Ed. Curriculum of the Burdwan University.

2.6. Hypotheses of the Study

Keeping parity with the objectives framed by the investigator for his work the following hypotheses have been formulated.

H1 : There is a significant difference between deputed female govt. B.Ed. students and deputed female private. B.Ed. students regarding their attitudes towards the presents B.Ed. curriculum of the Burdwan University.

H2 : There would be significant difference between fresher female govt. B.Ed. students and fresher female private B.Ed. students regarding their attitude towards the present B.Ed. curriculum of the Burdwan University.

H3 : There would be significant difference between deputed female private and fresher female private B.Ed. students regarding their attitudes towards the recent B.Ed. curriculum of the University of Burdwan.

H4 : There would be significant difference between govt. female B.Ed. students and private female B.Ed. students regarding their attitude towards the present B.Ed. curriculum of the Burdwan University.

2.7. Operational Definitions of Terms
2.7.1. Attitude

Attitudes are actually the projection of emotionalized mental state. Attitude is an underlying disposition, which enters along with influences, into the determination of a variety of behaviour towards an object.


2.7.2. B.Ed.

As per NCTE’s specified definition B.Ed. is called Secondary Teacher Education Programme. This is the requisite qualification which is most sought after for teaching at Secondary stage.


2.7.3. Curriculum

Curriculum is the conceptual structure that encompasses the comprehensive activities that go on in the realm of teaching learning possess. It is the blueprint that reflects the total educational activities and experiences.

3. Methodology and Procedure

Research is completely based on observation and description. The researcher makes use of quantitative or numerical measuring devices. In educational research abstract human behavior is quantified by means of a scale.

To construct a research design is the vital initiative of a scientific research after selection of problem and formulation of hypotheses. It is a strategic blueprint based on sampling technique. It includes area of the study, sampling, defining the variables, selecting tools and techniques for collecting data, analyzing the data and lastly reporting the findings.

3.1. Area of the Study

For proper investigation the investigator selected the following govt. sponsored and self financing B.Ed. colleges for collecting samples under the district of Birbhum and Burdwan.

1) Katwa College (B.Ed. Department), Katwa. Burdwan

2) Rabindra Nazrul Smriti B.Ed. Educational Institute, Hetampur, Birbhuum

3) Santiniketan Boniad B.Ed. College, Birbhum

4) Kanachi B.Ed. College, Birbhum

3.2. Samples

A sample forms a small proportion of the population that is selected for experimentation and analysis. For enhancing the accuracy of the sample, all biasness in selection is carefully excluded. Purposive Random Sampling technique was conceived to be the best suited for selection of the sample of the present study.

A total no 150 samples were collected from the above mentioned B.Ed. colleges under various categories of the female teacher-trainees for necessary investigation and analysis of data. The detailed break up of the samples is shown below through tree diagram:

3.3. Characteristics of the Sample

The samples consist of the B.Ed. Students from various govt. sponsored and private B.Ed. Colleges. 75 samples have been gathered from the govt. sponsored B.Ed. College and 75 samples have been taken from the private B.Ed. Colleges.


3.3.1. Variables

Variable is an attribute which is regarded as reflecting or expressing some concepts or constructs. In research there are two types’ variables- Independent variables and dependent variables.

a). Dependent Variable in the present study:

Attitude: Attitude in the present study is one dependent variable which is dependent upon numerous independent variables such as gender, nature of the training institutions, type of the teacher trainees.

b) Independent Variables:

Two independent variables are considered in the present study. They are –

i) Nature of the B.Ed. Institutions (Govt. sponsored, private/self financing)

iii) Type of the teacher trainees: Deputed B.Ed. students and Fresher B.Ed. students


3.3.2. Selection of Research Tools

Selection of research tools is an important factor which greatly facilitates the collection of date through representative samples. The present investigation is primarily an exploration of attitudes. Thus Opinionnaire presented through statements is judiciously selected as a convenient research tools for gathering the opinions at four different dimensions of the B.Ed. syllabus.

3.4. Constructions of Opinionnaire

Opinionnaire, the present research tools in the study was designed after the investigator had made extensive search of relevant related literatures. To study the attitude of the female teacher trainees towards the B.Ed. curriculum the opinionnaire was constructed on the basis of the following four dimensions.

•  Core Papers of the B.Ed. curriculum

•  Method Papers of the B.Ed. course

•  Practice Teaching

•  Sessional Activities

The opinonnaire comprises 36 statements divided under four levels. In the first dimension, namely, ‘Core papers there are 11 positive statements and 7 negative statements, taken together there are 18 statements.

In the second dimension, namely, ‘Method Papers’ there are 5 statements among which 2 are negative and 3 are positive.

In the third dimension, namely, ‘Practice Teaching’ there are 7 statements among which 3 are positive and 4 are negative.

In the fourth dimension, namely, ‘Sessional Activities’ there are 6 statements among which four are positive and 2 are negative.

3.5. Attitude Scale

The attitude scale consists of a number of carefully edited and selected items called statements. These statements are scaled regarding the degree to which they favour, or are opposed to, the question under consideration. In the present investigation 3-point Likert- type of scaling technique is adopted. In this type three responses – “Agree”, “Partially Agree” and “Disagree”– are used for necessary analysis. These are indicated as under:

3.6. Scoring Technique

On the basis of 3-2-1 scale value the scores of individual response sheets are calculated. Inferential Statistics namely, T-test was applied to the raw-scores to measure the level of attitudinal difference between the various categories of teacher-trainees.

T-test was applied to measure the level of attitudinal differences among the following categories.

•  Deputed Female Govt. B.Ed. students and deputed female private. B.Ed. students

•  Fresher Female Govt. and Fresher Female Private B.Ed. students.

•  Deputed Female Private and Fresher Female Private B.Ed. students

•  Govt. female B.Ed. students and private female B. Ed. students

3.7. Standardization of Tools

The tools, i.e. the opinionnaire are standardized using the criteria of reliability, validity and uni-dimensionality. Before administration of the tools to the stipulated no of teacher trainees a pilot study was conducted by the investigation to cheek the relevance and utility of the statements included in the opinionnaire. After necessary pruning and elimination of the redundant statements the standardized opinionnaire was prepared, and verified thoroughly. The opinionnaire comprise 36 standardized statements.

3.8. Collection of Data

The final opinionnaire was administered 150 female teacher trainees of different Govt. sponsored and self-financing teacher training institutions. The investigator collected the date from the selected teacher training institutions personally and introduced himself with the teacher trainees and distributed the opinionnaire among them. After giving necessary instruction the investigator requested them to provide unbiased responses to the space provide against each statement. The answer sheets were collected after completion of answer by the teachers.

4. Analysis & Interpretation

Analysis of data means studying the organized materials in order to discover inherent facts. Analysis involves breaking down existing complex factors into simpler parts together in new arrangements for the purpose of interpretation.

In the present study the analysis of data collected though the opinonnaire to explore the attitude of the teacher trainees towards the B.Ed. curriculum is done. Keeping parity and consistency with the hypotheses the raw scores were grouped under four different levels for the purpose of analysis. T-test was done on the scores of two independent variables of each level. The significance of the T-value of eight different pairs was thoroughly judged for critically analyzing the level of acceptance or rejection of the hypotheses. The findings of the data through the application of inferential statistics and their corresponding interpretations are presented as under.

5. Interpretation of the Results

Analysis Of Hypothesis 1

Interpretation:

The calculated T value is 1.06. The statistical table value of T for df 72 at 0.05 level is 2.00. The calculated value is less than the statistical table value. Thus the obtained T value is insignificant. This signifies that the null hypothesis is to be accepted, whereas, the research hypothesis which assumed that there would be significant attitudinal difference among the Deputed Female Govt. B.Ed. students and Deputed Female Private B.Ed. students should be rejected.

Analysis of Hypothesis 2

Interpretation:

The above table shows the obtained T value to be 2.51. The calculated T value is significant since it is greater than the statistical table value of T i.e. 2.00 for df 74 at 0.05 level. Therefore it can be safely stated that there lies significant attitudinal difference between the Fresher Female Govt. B.Ed. students and Fresher Female Private B.Ed. students towards the present B.Ed curriculum of the Burdwan University. Accordingly it can be stated that the null hypothesis is rejected and the research hypothesis is retained.

Analysis of Hypothesis 3

Interpretation:

From the table we get the calculated T value to be 0.14. The statistical table values of T for df 74 at 0.05 level is 2.00. Thus the obtained T value is much less than the statistical table value of T. So the present T value is not significant. Accordingly we can say that the original hypothesis is rejected and the null hypothesis is accepted. There fore we can conclude that there is no significant attitudinal difference among the Deputed Female Private B.Ed. students and the Fresher Female Private B.Ed. students towards the existing B.Ed. curriculum of the Burdwan University

Analysis of Hypothesis 4

Interpretation:

The calculated T value of table 8 is 0.42. The value of T for df 148 at 0.05 level is 1.98. Thus the obtained T value is less than the statistical table value of T. So the obtained T value is not significant. Thus the null hypothesis is accepted and the original research hypothesis is rejected. There fore we may conclude that there lies no significant difference in attitudes among the Govt. Female and Private Female B.Ed. students towards the B.Ed. curriculum of the Burdwan University.

6. Conclusion

The present study was undertaken by the investigator to measure the level of difference in attitude among various categories of female teacher- trainees towards the present B.Ed. curriculum of the University of Burdwan. After extension survey work the obtained data was systematically categories under various heads. To know the attitudinal difference between two mutually contrary groups of female B.Ed. trainees, a quantitative measuring drive was adopted on the basis of 3-2-1 Likert type of Attitude Scale. The attitudinal difference was then measured by administering inferential statistics on the raw scores of the various types B.Ed. students. The level of significance of attitudinal difference was judged on the basis of paired T-tests. The original hypotheses anticipated that there would be significant attitudinal difference among the following categories of female teacher-trainees-

•  Deputed Female Govt. and Deputed Female Private B.Ed. students.

•  Fresher-Female Govt. & Fresher Female Private B.Ed. students.

•  Deputed Female Private and Fresher Female Private B. Ed. students.

•  Govt. Female and Private Female B.Ed. students

But, after determining the level of significance it was found that significant attitudinal difference exists only in case of this pair of secondary teacher-trainees viz. Fresher Female Govt. and Fresher Female Private B.Ed. students.

Accordingly hypothesis (2) is accepted and retained. The hypothesis (1), hypothesis (3), and hypothesis (4), which anticipated that there would exist significant attitudinal difference among the various categories of female B.Ed. students as mentioned in respective hypotheses, were rejected and in these cases the null hypotheses are accepted.

The investigators study was a rigorous initiative and was conducted consistently keeping in mind the untiring effort associated with purpose of research work.

7. Further Study

i) The work can be administered on M.Ed and D.Ed. teacher trainees only.

ii) An analytical study may be taken for separate microanalysis of each dimension of the curriculum in details.

iii) The study conducted by increasing the sample and including more districts in the territory of West Bengal.

Abbreviations

NCTE – National Council for Teacher Education.

B.Ed- Bachelor of Education.

M.Ed- Master of Education

D.Ed- Diploma in Education

G- Govt./Govt. Sponsored

P- Private

Fm- Female

Fr.- Fresher

D- Deputed

T.S.- Total Sample.

References

[1]  Chan Kwok Wai, Student Teachers’ Attitudes towards the Curriculum in the College of Education, Hong Kong- CUHK Education Journal, Vol. 11. No. 2, 1983.
In article      
 
[2]  Mani Bhasin Kalra and Bharati Baveja, Student Teachers’ Thinking about Knowledge, Learning And Learners In India, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India.
In article      
 
[3]  Siti Norliana Ghazali Roszainora Setia and Chittra Muthusamy, Esl Students’ Attitude towards Texts and Teaching Methods Used In Literature Classes, Academy of Language Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
In article      
 
[4]  Aijaz Ahmed Gujjar, A study of the students’ attitudes towards Distance Teacher Education Programme in Pakistan, Turikish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE) October, Vol: 8 No. 4 Article 12, 2007.
In article      
 
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