Figure 12. Distribution of the stresses and strains of Von Mises in the spine for a posterior load of 15 kg. (A) the nucleus pulposus, (b) the intervertebral disk, (c) the cortical bone, (d) the cancellous bone (e) anterior longitudinal ligament (f) posterior longitudinal ligament

From

The Effects Induced by a Backpack Eccentric Load on the Spine of Children

Samir Zahaf, Bensamine Mansouri, Abderrahmane Belarbi, Zitouni Azari

Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2016, 4(1), 6-22 doi:10.12691/bse-4-1-2