Evaluation of the Activity of Crude Alkaloids Extracts of Zingiber officinale Roscoe., Thymus vulgaris L. and Acacia arabica L. as Coagulant Agent in Lab Mice
1Department of Biology, College of Science, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq
2College of Pharmacy, Al-Mustansyria University, baghdad, Iraq
3Biotechnology research center, Al.Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq
As Alkaloids known for their pharmaceutical importance; this research included the extraction of crude alkaloids of three plants (Zingiberofficinale Roscoe, Thymus vulgaris L. and Acaciaarabica L.) and evaluate their activity as coagulant agent by using three degraded concentrations of each plant extract and tested them on lab mice through the observation of the variations in bleeding time(BT), clotting time(CT), platelet, red blood cells(RBC), packed cell volume(PCV), white blood cells (WBC) and hemoglobin counts(Hb) with Calcium count (Ca) in blood. The results revealed differences in the percentage of alkaloids in the plants under the study; Zingiber was the higher one followed by Thymus and Acacia respectively.Zingiberwas also the most effective plant as coagulant factor than other two plants as it decreased both BT and CT and increased platelets, RBC, PCV, WBC and Ca count. more than what T. vulgaris and A. arabica affected on blood characters mentioned before.
At a glance: Figures
Keywords: alkaloids, coagulant agent, bleeding time, clotting time, platelets, blood cells, packed cell volume, white blood cells, hemoglobin and calcium counts
Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 2013 1 (2),
Received June 14, 2013; Revised November 13, 2013; Accepted November 15, 2013Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing. All Rights Reserved.
Cite this article:
- Raaof, AyyadWajeeh, et al. "Evaluation of the Activity of Crude Alkaloids Extracts of Zingiber officinale Roscoe., Thymus vulgaris L. and Acacia arabica L. as Coagulant Agent in Lab Mice." Biomedicine and Biotechnology 1.2 (2013): 11-16.
- Raaof, A. , Al-Naqqash, Z. A. , Jawad, A. M. , & Muhsan, S. M. (2013). Evaluation of the Activity of Crude Alkaloids Extracts of Zingiber officinale Roscoe., Thymus vulgaris L. and Acacia arabica L. as Coagulant Agent in Lab Mice. Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 1(2), 11-16.
- Raaof, AyyadWajeeh, Zahraa Abdul-Elah Al-Naqqash, Abdul-Latif M. Jawad, and Salah M. Muhsan. "Evaluation of the Activity of Crude Alkaloids Extracts of Zingiber officinale Roscoe., Thymus vulgaris L. and Acacia arabica L. as Coagulant Agent in Lab Mice." Biomedicine and Biotechnology 1, no. 2 (2013): 11-16.
|Import into BibTeX||Import into EndNote||Import into RefMan||Import into RefWorks|
Alkaloids rank among the most efficient and therapeutically significant plant substances . 5,500 alkaloids were known and they comprise the largest single class of secondary plant substances which contain one or more Nitrogen atoms, usually in combination as part of a cyclic structure . They are usually organic bases and form salts with acids and when soluble gives alkaline solutions. Pure, isolated plant alkaloids and their synthetic derivatives are used as basic medicinal agents for their analgesic, anti spasmodiac and bactericidal effects . There are at least five different components involved: blood vessels, platelets, plasma coagulation factors, their inhibitors and fibrinolytic system (Lewis and Bain, 2006; Baklaja et al., 2008); disorders of this system are the leading immediate cause of mortality and morbidity in the modern society. The most prominent of them is thrombosis; the intravascular formation of clots that obstruct blood flow in the vessels (Davies, 2000).
During the last twenty years, the hemostasis system was a subject of intense interest in this field; reviews are available that describe these theoretical studies of blood coagulation and platelet-dependent hemostasis and thrombosis (Ataullakhanov and Panteleev, 2005; Panteleev et al., 2007; Xu et al., 2011 and Xu et al., 2012).
Platelets are small fragments of cytoplasm derived from megakaryocytes. On average 1.5- 3.5µm in diameter but may be larger in some disease states. They do not contain a nucleus and are bounded by a typical lipid bilayer membrane. Beneath the outer membrane lies the marginal band of microtubules, which maintain the shape of the platelet and depolymerize when aggregation begins (Ruggeri, 1997; Nurden, 1999).
Calcium is the most common mineral in the body and one of the most important. The body needs it to build and fix bones and teeth, help blood clot, and help the heart to work. Almost all of the calcium in the body is stored in bone. So Aim of the study are detecting the presence of alkaloids in Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Thymus vulgaris L. and Acacia arabica L. by extracting them specifically, and determine the yield of alkaloids in each plants under the study. Also check coagulant properties of the extracts and which plant has higher coagulant effect.
2. Materials and Methods2.1. Collection of Plant Samples
Plant samples included ZingiberofficinaleRoscoe. Dryrhizomes (e.g. Figure 1), dry leaves of Thymus vulgaris L. (e.g. Figure 2) and dry gum of Acacia arabicaL. (e.g. Figure 3) were brought from the local herbarium market in Baghdad city, then rhizomes, dry gum and also the leaves were grinded in an electric mill so to get their powder in forms that easily deal with in the extraction steps; these powdery samples stored in dry and clean conditions until use.
2.1.1. Preparation of Crude Alkaloids Extract
The extract was prepared according to the method of . A quantity of 100g plant powder was homogenized in electrical blender with 350 ml of (4:1) ethanol: D.W. then filtered through muslin. Then through a filter paper in Bouknner funnel, after that it has been acidified by drops of (2% sulphuric acid) until the pH became between 1 and 2, then the solution was extracted with chloroform 3 times in the separating funnel until we got two layers; the upper one was neglected and the lower one was used. Drops of concentrated ammonium hydroxide were added to this layer until the PH became between 9 and 10. Then the solution was again extracted in the separation funnel with (1:3) chloroform: methanol twice and one time with chloroform alone. After that the solution was separated into two layers; the upper layer (solvent) was neglected and the lower layer was evaporated in a rotary evaporator at 40°C for (1-2) hours then dried in the oven until it turned into powder and kept in refrigerator until use.
2.1.2. Preparation of Different Concentrations of Plant Extracts
Alkaloid extracts were prepared by dissolving certain weight of each plant extract according to the concentration in Distilled Water. Different concentrations (1, 5 and 10) mg / ml of plant extracts were prepared according to the following equation:
2.1.3. Alkaloid Indicators
18.104.22.168. Mayer reagent
This reagent  was used for the detection of alkaloids. The stock solution (1) was prepared by dissolving 13.5g HgCl2 in 60 ml H2O, stock solution (2) was prepared by dissolving 5g KI in 10 ml water, then combined with stock (1) and (2) and diluted with H2O up to 100 ml, then 1-2 ml of Mayer reagent were added to 5 ml of alcohol extract. A creamy or white precipitate indicates the presence of alkaloids.
22.214.171.124.Tannic acid Reagent
This acid was used to precipitate alkaloids . 1% tannic acid was prepared, and then 1-2 ml of reagent was added to 5ml of the extract. The white turbidity was appeared indicating the presence of alkaloids.2.2. Hematological Test in vivo
In this study 30 male lab mice from Balb c. breed were used; their average weight was (28 ± 2) gm; they were divided into 10 groups kept in clean lab cages (3 mice in each cage) in the animal house of the Biotechnology Research Center in Al- Nahrain University under optimal conditions of light and ventilation; fed on standard food and adequate amount of water. The groups were labeled with the plant name, its active group i.e. (alkaloids) and the degraded concentrations (1, 5, and 10) mg\ml of alkaloid extract.
2.2.1. Clotting Time Measurement in vitro
Blood was drawn into a capillary tube. The time of appearance of the drop of the blood on the cut tail was noted. The capillary glass tube is then kept between the palms of both hands for 30 second to keep it at body temperature. After 30 second the tube was taken out and small portion Table 3.Font Sizes for Papers. of the capillary tube was broken at regular intervals of 10 seconds, until a thread of clotted blood appears between the two pieces of capillary glass tube. The time interval between the appearance of the drop of the blood and the thread of the blood clot was the clotting time of the blood sample of the mouse expressed in minutes [8, 9].
2.2.2. Bleeding Time Measurement in vivo
Mouse tail was cut with a scalpel 1-2 cm proximal from the end and bleeding time was calculated from the time of starting of bleeding till bleeding stopped. Spots were made with the bleeding tail on a blotting paper every 15 seconds till bleeding stopped and bleeding time was calculated accordingly. Or the time taken between the appearances of blood to the cessation of bleeding is taken as the bleeding time expressed in minutes [8, 9].
2.2.3. Blood Characters Count
Red blood cells (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC) were counted with haemocytometers. Packed cell volume (PCV) was determined using the microhaematocrit method. Haemoglobin (Hb) concentration was measured by the cyanmethaemoglobin method . Platelets count was measured by putting the blood samples of the mice under the test in anticoagulant tubes and measured them in automated platelet count device; this method was recommended because it is more accurate than the classic manual methods .2.3. Statistical Analysis
The Statistical Analysis System  was used to study the effect of different factors in the study parameters. The significant differences between the means in this study were determined by using Least Significant Difference (LSD) test.
3. Results and Discussion
The dry rhizomes of Z.officinaleRoscoe., dry leaves of T. vulgaris L. and dry exudates (gum) of A. arabica L. were extracted for detection of alkaloids. The yield of extraction was determined in Table 1.
The relative proportion between the amounts of plant used for extraction and the crude products was variable depending on several factors such as methods of extraction, solvent used in extraction process, and the plant parts or species . Results in Table 1 showed that alkaloids extract yielded form Z. officinale was higher than that obtained by  who mentioned that alkaloids percentage was (1.46%) while  reported that no alkaloids in the crude extraction of Z. officinale were detected. These differences could be due to place of sampling (i.e. different herbarium markets in which they differ in the means of preserving the samples). In this study as far as in our knowledge, in the crude extraction of T. vulgaris most researchers emphasized on terpens and phenol extracts only without reporting the amount or percentage of alkaloids in the plant.  and  both mentioned the presence of alkaloids in leaves of A. arabica while  reported negative results of alkaloids.
Hemostasis which is the arrest of blood loss from severed blood vessels and the maintenance of the blood fluidity involves coagulation and fibrinolysis. A wound or cut on blood vessels causes vasoconstriction and thrombin activation which is then accompanied adhesion and platelet activation, fibrin formation from circulating fibrinogen and coagulation inactivation mechanism . The present study was carried out to determine the potentials of Z. officinale dry rhizomes, T. vulgaris dry leaves and Acacia arabica dry gum on the hemostatic mechanism, with primary interest on how it affects bleeding time, clotting time and platelets count. Bleeding time evaluates the vascular and platelet responses with hemostasis [19, 20], whereas the clotting time measures the intrinsic clotting factors (I, II, V, VIII, IX, X, XI and XII). Clotting time test is a qualitative measurements of factors involved in the intrinsic pathway . Therefor the deficiency in these factors will affect the results. After the intra gastric administration of the mice under the test with three concentrations (1, 5, 10 mg/ml) of Z. officinale crude alkaloid extract for 7 days continuously. Results of the bleeding time (BT), clotting time (CT), platelets count, Red blood cells (RBC), White blood cells (WBC), Packed cell volume (PCV) and Ca concent tests showed variations compared with the control group as the extract decreases the bleeding time and clotting time while increases the platelets count, Red blood cells (RBC), White blood cells (WBC), Packed cell volume (PCV) and Ca concent at significant difference of (P<0.05). This agreed with  who mentioned that there is an inverse relationship between bleeding time and platelets count.
Bleeding time is affected by many factors including vasoconstrictive effect of blood vessels, the formation of hemostatic plug and platelet activity. In general, anticoagulants and aspirin have been reported to increase BT in animals and humans while coagulants have opposite effect .
In Table 2 and (e.g. Figure 4, Figure 5) the results showed that both (1mg/ml) and (5mg\ml) of crude alkaloid extract decreased the BT to (1.18) compared with control (1.88) and also decreased the CT to (2.10) and (2.30) respectively compared with control (2.52) while the third concentration of the extract (10 mg/ml) was the most effective because it decreased the BT to (0.94) and the CT to (1.23) compared with the control value mentioned above. However  who used crude extract of fresh rhizomes juice of Z. officinale to investigate BT and CT on Albino Wister rats reported an increase in BT compared to control and mentioned that CT didn´t changed due to the extract. These differences might be due to plant part used and also the type of lab animals.
Table 2. Z. officinalecrude alkaloids extract effect on the tested blood characters by using different concentrations
Cessation of bleeding indicates the formation of hemostatic plugs, which are in turn dependent on an adequate number of platelets and on the ability of the platelets to adhere to the sub endothelium and to form aggregates . The platelets count also significantly changed but adversely with BT and CT, the normal value (control) was (359) while the platelets count of the concentrations (1mg/ml; 5mg/ml; 10mg/ml) was (1393*109/L) (728*109/L) (1563*109/L) respectively.
As mentioned above (1 mg/ml) concentration was more efficient than (5 mg/ml) this might happened due to negative response to the extract that has been given to the mice under investigation which might increases the blood fluidity rather than decreasing it . In general for the three parameters (10 mg/ml) of crude alkaloid extract of Z. officinale was the most effective concentration.
Results in Table 3 and (e.g. Figure 6, Figure 7) crude alkaloids extract of T. vulgaris dry leaves also revealed significant differences at (p> 0.05). The concentration (1mg/ml) and (10 mg/ml) decreased the BT to (1.65) and (1.28) respectively compared with the control (1.88) and also decreased the CT to (2.12) and (1.68) respectively compared with control (2.52) while the BT of the (5 mg/ml) concentration was (1.02) and CT was (1.27), The results recorded in this study are in consonance with the reports of  on the haemostatic activities of the leaf extract of Aspiliaafricana which arrested bleeding from fresh wounds by reducing both bleeding and clotting times. While the platelets count of the experiment concentrations (1mg/ml) and (10 mg/ml) increased significantly to (668*109/L) and (836*109/L) respectively compared with control. However the platelets count of the concentration (5 mg/ml) was higher than the other concentrations which was (1296*109/L) compared with control. In general for the three parameters (5 mg/ml) of crude alkaloid extract of T. vulgaris was the most effective concentration.
Table 3. T. vulgaris crude alkaloids extract effect on the tested blood characters by using different concentrations
T. vulgaris generally showed decrease in both BT and CT while platelets count increased significantly; but it has not been studied separately before just as a component of mixture of different plants extracts for hemostatic activity evaluation for example the Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) in which T. vulgaris represents one of its component; ABS was found to be effective in shortening the duration of bleeding and decreasing the amount of bleeding [28, Dig Liver Dis, 42: 196-199. 2010.">29].
In Table 4 and(e.g. Figure 8, Figure 9) results for crude alkaloid extract of A. arabica showed significant differences at (p > 0.05). The concentrations (1 mg/ml), (5 mg/ml) and (10 mg/ml) decreased the BT compared with control to (1.34), (1.27) and (1.20) respectively; as well as decreased the CT compared with control to (2.24), (2.04) and (1.39) respectively. These results obtained in this work reflecting that there was an increase in one or more of the clotting factors involved in the intrinsic pathway. Plasma fibrinogen which was not measured in this study has been known to facilitate the rate of fibrin polymer formation which ultimately leads to more effective clot formation  while  showed marked effect of gum A. arabic on the coagulation system of rats that it prolongs the BT and CT. In this study platelets count increased significantly compared with the control to (868*109/L), (981*109/L) and (1196*109/L) respectively. In general for the three parameters (10 mg/ml) of crude alkaloid extract of A. arabica was the most effective concentration.
Table 4. A. arabica crude alkaloids extract effect on the tested blood characters by using different concentrations
The results of the effects of crude alkaloid extract of Z.officinale, T. vulgaris and A. arabica on haematological indices of PCV, Hb, RBC, WBC and Ca count are shown in Table 2, Table 3, and Table 4) Consumption of the different concentration of the extracts caused significant increases in the PCV, Hb, RBC, WBC count, with Ca count in blood. showing the most significant responses to the Clotting time, that is, the RBC and Hb count, PCV,WBC and Ca increased by about35.5, 37.5, 29.4, 43.75 and 12.84 % for Z. officinale crude alkaloids extractrespectively, while for T. vulgaris the RBC and Hb count, PCV,WBC and Ca increased by about 31.5, 30.6, 21.3, 11.9 and 6.29 % respectively. Also forA. Arabica the blood indices increased by about 35, 37.7, 29.6, 42.18 and 5.99% respectively.
Crude alkaloids activity of the three plants under study revealed that crude alkaloids of Z.officinaledry rhizomes was the most effective as the yield percentage was higher than crude alkaloids of T. vulgaris dry leaves and A.arabica dry gum respectively as well as it was efficient at the concentration 1mg/ml while the efficient concentration for T. vulgaris was 5 mg/ml and for A. arabica was 10 mg/ml which confirms the results obtained in this study as alkaloids yield percentage of each plant under the study was compatible with their most effective concentrations. This makes crude alkaloids extract of Z. officinaledry rhizomes is the best plant product therapeutically and commercially.
|||Okwu, D.E. Phytochemicals, “Vitamins and Mineral contents of two Nigeria Medicinal plants”. Int. J.Mol. Med. Adv. Sci. 1(4): 375-381. 2005.|
|||Harborne, J.B. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of plant Analysis.Chapman and Hall, London. 1973.|
|||Stary, F. The Nat rural Guide to Medicinal Herbs, and Plants. Tiger Books International, London. 1998.pp. 12-16.|
|||Harborne, J.B.Phytochemical methods.Chapman and Hall. New York 2nd ed.1984. Pp: 288.|
|||Jones, W.P. and Kinghorn, A.D. Extraction of plant secondary metabolites. In: Methods in biotechnology, natural products isolation. Sarker, S.D., Latif, Z., and Gray, A.I. (eds.). Vol: 20, 2nd ed., Humana press, Inc., Totowa, New Jersey.2006.|
|||Al-Salami, O.M. Effect of Convolvulus arvensis extracts on the biological performance of Schizaphisgraminum.Ph.D. Thesis, College of Science/Babylon University. (In Arabic).1998.|
|||Spehaat, M. H.K.. Study of the biological effects of ZingiberofficinaleRosco. extracts against some micro-organisms and thrombase.MS.c. thesis, College of Science, Baghdad University. Iraq. 2008.|
|||Shrivastava, B.K. and N.L. Das. A Manual of Practical Physiology. Scientific Book Company Patna. 2nd edition.1987.Pp.75-93.|
|||Dacie, V.; Sir John and M.S. Lewis. Practical Haematology, ELBS. 8th edition; 297-349.1995.|
|||Garcia-Mazano A, Gonzalez-Llave J, Lemini C, et al. Standardization of rat blood clotting tests with reagent used for humans. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 2001; 44: 153-155.|
|||Harrison, P.; H. Segal; C. Briggs; M. Murphy and S. Machin. Impact of Immunological platelet counting(by the platelet/RBC ratio) on Haematological Practice. Cytometry part B (Clinical cytometry) 67B: 1-5.2005.|
|||SAS. (2004). Statistical Analysis System, User's Guide. Statistical. Version 7th ed. SAS. Inst. Inc. Cary. N.C. USA.|
|||Henning, S.H.; A.Glick; D. Greenhalh; D. Morgan and S. Ysuopa. "Catechin content of 18 teas and a green tea extracts supplements correlates with the antioxidant capacity nutrition and cancer", Cancer Biol. Ther.,45:266-235. 2003.|
|||Akintobi, O.A.; C.C. Onoh; J.O. Ogele; A.A. Idowu; O.V. Ojo and I.O. Okonko." Antimicrobial Activity of Zingiber Officinale (Ginger) Extract against Some Selected Pathogenic Bacteria". Nat Sci;11;1 (7-15) (ISSN: 1545- 0740). 2013.|
|||Saini, M.L.; R. Saini; S. Roy and A. Kumar. "Comparative pharmacognostical and antimicrobial studies of acacia species (Mimosaceae)". Journal of Medicinal Plants Research; Vol. 2(12): 378-386. 2008.|
|||Jigam, A.A.; H.O. Akanya; B.E.N. Dauda and J.O. Okogun."Polygalloyltannin isolated from the roots of Acacia nilotica Del. (Leguminoseae) is effective against Plasmodium berghei in mice". J. Med. Plants Res., 4(12): 1169-1175. 2010.|
|||Raghavendra, M.P.; S. Satish and K.A. Raveesha. “In vitro evaluation of anti-bacterial spectrum and phytochemical analysis of Acacia nilotica”. Journal of Agricultural Technology 2(1): 77-88. 2006.|
|||Rang, H.; P.M. Dale and J.M. Ritter. Pharmacology. 4th edition Churchill Livingstone, UK, pp. 589-600, 340-348.1999.|
|||Dapper, D.V.; P.N. Achinike and M.D. Gwotmut. “The effects of Aloevera [gel] on clotting time, prothrombin time and plasma fibrinogen concentration in albino Wistar rats”. Port Harcourt Medical Journal, 2(1):56-60. 2007.|
|||Weremfo, A.; M.B. Adinortey and A.N.M. Pappoe. “Haemostatic Effect of the Stem Juice of Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) in Guinea Pigs”. Advances in Biological Research. 5 (4): 190-192. 2011.|
|||Ochei, J. and A. Kolhatkar. Medical Laboratory Science. Theory and Practice. Tata Mcgraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited: New Delhi. 2nd Edition, pp. 331-349. 2000.|
|||De Caterina, R.; M. Lanza; G. Manca; G.B. Strata; S. Maffei and L. Salvatore. "Bleeding Time and Bleeding: An analysis of the relationship of the bleeding time test with parameters of surgical bleeding". Blood; 84: 3363-70. 1994.|
|||Hadi, A.A.; M.A. Elderbi and A.H. Mohamed. “Effect of Gum Arabic on Coagulation System of Albino Rats”. International Journal of Pharm. Tech. Research. Vol.2, No.3, pp 1762-1766.2010.|
|||Prasad, S.S.; S. Kumar; K. Patel; C. Dumater; S.K.Vajpeyee and V.H. Bhavsar. “To Investigate the Action of Ginger-Juice Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (Zingiberaceae) on Blood Coagulation Process”. International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR)Vol 3 No 7 July 2012.|
|||Rodgers, R.P. and J. Levin. “A critical reappraisal of the bleeding time”. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis. 16:1-20. 1990.|
|||Zokian, S. A. Y. “Study of biological efficiency of water and ethanolic extracts of local Equisetum arvense L.” ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies.3(4): 377-384. August 2005.|
|In article||CrossRef PubMed|
|||Okoli, C.O.; P.A. Akah and A.S. Okoli. “Potentials of leaves of Aspilia Africana (Compositae) in wound care; an experimental evaluation”. BMC Complementary and Alternative Med. 7:24:10.1186/1472. 2007.|
|||Cipil, H.S.; A. Kosar; A. Kaya; B. Uz; I.C. Haznedaroglu; H. Goker; O. Ozdemir; M. Koroglu; S. Kirazli and H.C. “Firat. In vivo hemostatic effect of the medicinal plant extract Ankaferd Blood Stopper in rats pretreated with warfarin”. ClinAppl Thromb Hemost. 15: 270-276. 2009.|
|||Kurt, M.; M. Akdogan; I.K. Onal; M. Kekilli; M. Arhan; A. Shorbagi; S. Aksu; O.K. Kurt and I.C. "Haznedaroglu. Endoscopic topical application of Ankaferd blood stopper for neoplastic gastrointestinal bleeding: A retrospective analysis". Dig Liver Dis, 42: 196-199. 2010.|
|In article||CrossRef PubMed|
|||Guyton, A.C. and J.C. Hall. Textbook of Medical Physiology.10th ed. W. B. Saunders Company Philadelphia. 2000. Pp. 200-2015.|
|In article||CrossRef PubMed|