## A New Approximation Method for the Systems of Nonlinear Fredholm Integral Equations

**Salih Yalçınbaş**^{1,}, **Kübra Erdem**^{1}

^{1}Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey

### Abstract

In this paper, we present a new approximate method for solving systems of nonlinear Fredholm integral equation. This method is based on, first, differentiating both sides of integral equations n times and then substituting the Taylor series the unknown functions in the resulting equation and later, transforming to a matrix equation. By merging these results, a new system which corresponds to a system of linear algebraic equations is obtained. The solution of this system yields the Taylor coefficients of the solution function. Numerical results and comparisons with the exact solution are included to demostrate the validity and applicability of the technique.

### At a glance: Figures

**Keywords:** nonlinear Fredholm systems, Taylor polynomials and series

*Applied Mathematics and Physics*, 2014 2 (2),
pp 40-48.

DOI: 10.12691/amp-2-2-3

Received February 17, 2014; Revised February 23, 2014; Accepted February 28, 2014

**Copyright**© 2013 Science and Education Publishing. All Rights Reserved.

### Cite this article:

- Yalçınbaş, Salih, and Kübra Erdem. "A New Approximation Method for the Systems of Nonlinear Fredholm Integral Equations."
*Applied Mathematics and Physics*2.2 (2014): 40-48.

- Yalçınbaş, S. , & Erdem, K. (2014). A New Approximation Method for the Systems of Nonlinear Fredholm Integral Equations.
*Applied Mathematics and Physics*,*2*(2), 40-48.

- Yalçınbaş, Salih, and Kübra Erdem. "A New Approximation Method for the Systems of Nonlinear Fredholm Integral Equations."
*Applied Mathematics and Physics*2, no. 2 (2014): 40-48.

Import into BibTeX | Import into EndNote | Import into RefMan | Import into RefWorks |

### 1. Introduction

We are concerned with the systems of s nonlinear integral equations systems of Fredholm type in the form

(1a) |

where *a*_{mj}(*x*)(*m*,*j*=1,2,…,*s*),*f*_{m}(*x*),*K*_{mj}(*x*,*t*) are functions having nth derivatives on an interval *a*≤*x*, *c*≤*b*; and the solutions is expresed in the form

(2) |

which is a Taylor polynomial of degree *N* at *x*=*c*, where *y*_{m}^{(}^{n}^{)}(*c*),*n*=0,1,…,*N* are the coefficients to be determined.

The literatures of systems of nonlinear integral equation contain few numerical method. So, many different methods have been used to approximate the solution of the integral equation system. On the grounds that few of these equations can be solved explicitly, it is often necessary to resort to numerical techniques which are appropriate combinations of numerical integration and interpolation ^{[1, 2]}. Furthermore, there are also expansion methods for integral equations such as El-gendi’s, Wolfe’s and Galerkin methods ^{[3]}. Conversely, the solution of integral equations system which occurs in physics ^{[4]}, biology ^{[5]} and engineering ^{[6, 7]} is based on numerical integration methods such as Euler-Chebyshev ^{[8]} and Runge-Kutta ^{[9]} methods, and also in a recent research, the first-order linear Fredholm integral equations system is solved by using rationalized Haar functions method ^{[10]} and by Galerkin methods with hybrid functions ^{[11]}.

Additionally, application of HPM (Homotopy Perturbation Method) and ADM (Adomian Decompositon Method) in nonlinear problems has been undertaken by scientists and engineers. In this paper, we consider Taylor method for solving nonlinear systems of Fredholm equations. This method has been presented by Kanwal and Liu ^{[12]} and then it has been extended by Sezer to Volterra integral equations ^{[13]} and to differential equations ^{[14]}. Similar approach has been used to solve linear Volterra-Fredholm integro-differential equations has been applied by Yalçınbaş and Sezer ^{[15]}, nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm integral equations by Yalçınbaş ^{[16]}, high-order linear differential equation system by ^{[17, 18]} and nonlinear systems of volterra integral equations by Yalçınbaş and Erdem ^{[21]}. Thus, the presented method which is an expansion method has been proposed to obtain approximate solution and also analytical solution of systems of higher-order nonlinear integral equations.

### 2. Fundamental Relations and Solution Method

Let us first write the Eq. (1a) in the form

(1b) |

so that

Here the expression *E*_{m}(*x*) and *I*_{m}(*x*), respectively, are called as the first part and second part (or integral part) of equation (1b). To obtain the solution of the given problem in the form of expression (2) we first differentiate equation (1a) equations *n *times with respect to *x* to obtain

(3) |

and then analyse the expressions *E*_{m}(*x*) and *I*_{m}(*x*).

**2.1. Matrix Representation for the First Part**

The expression *E*_{m}^{(}^{n}^{)}(*x*) can be more clearly written as

(4) |

Using the Leibnitz’s rule (dealing with differentation of product of functions), simplifying *x=c* into the resulting relation, we have

(5) |

Here the *N*+1 unknown coefficients *y*_{j}^{(0)}(*c*),*y*_{j}^{(1)}(*c*),…,*y*_{j}^{(}^{N}^{)}(*c*);(*j*=1,2,…,*s*) are Taylor coefficients to be determined and ; , respectively, denote the values of the *i*th derivatives of the functions at .

We now write the matrix form of expression (5) as

(6) |

where

and

the elements of which are defined by

(7) |

The values (W_{nm})_{ij},(n,m=1,2,…1s;i,j=0,1,2,…,N) are defined by

(8) |

Note in Eq. (8) that for

and for and , , where and are integers. In this case, in Eq. (8), for

Hence, the matrix **W** becomes, clearly,

(9) |

**2.2. Matrix Representation for the Integral Part**

The expression can be more clearly written as

(10) |

or

First, we put *x=c* in relation (10), thereby in expression (11), become

(11) |

Thereby in expression (11) and then substitute the Taylor expansion of *Y*_{1}*(t),Y*_{2}*(t),**…**,Y*_{s}*(t)* at *t=c*, i.e.

(12) |

in the resulting relation. Thus, expression (10) become

(13) |

where

The quantities [*Y*_{j}(*t*)]^{(}^{k}^{)} (*k*=0,1,2,…) can be found from the relation

(14) |

where .

Note that the relation (14) can be obtained from the generalised Leibnitz’s rule (dealing with differentiation of products of p-functions)

If we take *n,k*=0,1,2,…,*N*, then equation (13) becomes a system of equation which is a system of *s*(*N*+1) nonlinear equations for the *s*(*N*+1) unknowns *y*_{1}^{(0)},*y*_{1}^{(1)},…,*y*_{1}^{(}^{N}^{)}, *y*_{2}^{(0)},*y*_{2}^{(1)},…,*y*_{2}^{(}^{N}^{)},. . ., *y*_{s}^{(0)},*y*_{s}^{(1)},…,y_{s}^{(}^{N}^{)}, where *j*=0,1,…,*s*. These can be solved numerically by standard methods.

In this situation matrix representation for the integral part can be put in a matrix form as

(15) |

where the matrices , , and are defined by

The matrices **T**_{nk},(*n*,*k*=1,2,…,*s*) are defined by

**2.3. Fundamental Matrix Equatios**

Substituting the matrix forms (6) and (15) in expression of Eq. (3) at the point *x*=*c* we get the matrix form of Eq. (3) as

(16) |

which is a fundemental equation for the ingeral equations system (1a).

Also, if some equations are linear in the system of (1a), the **T** matrix transforms matrix and matrix for respectively linear part of the system and the nonlinear part of the system.

Similarly, the **W **matrix transforms matrix and matrix for respectively linear part of the system and the nonlinear part of the system.

So (16) becomes

(17) |

From this nonlinear system, the unknown Taylor coefficients are determined and substituted in (2); thus we get the Taylor series solution

(18) |

### 3. Accuracy of Solution

We can easily check the accuracy of the solution obtained in the fom (18) as follows. Since the truncated Taylor series (18) or the corresponding polynomial expansion is an approximate solution of Eqs. (1a) and (1b), when the solution are substituted Eqs. (1a) and (1b), resulting equation must be satisfied approximately; that is, for .

or

If max(10^{-k}_{ri})=10^{-k} (*k* is any positive integer) is prescribed, then the truncation limit *N* is increased until the difference at each of the points *x*_{r} becomes smaller than the prescribed10^{-k}.

On the other hand, the error function can be estimated by

### 4. Numerical Illustrations

In this section we consider four examples of systems of Fredholm type to illustrate the use of presented method.

**Example 1.** Let us first consider the nonlinear Fredholm equation system ^{[20]} with two unknown

(19) |

and approximate the solution *y*_{m}(*x*) by the Taylor polynomial

where *a*=0,*b*=1,*c*=0,*N*=3.

Then, we obtain the matrices , , and as

Using the matrices **W**, **F**, **T**_{1} and **T**_{2 }we find coefficients *y*_{m}^{(}^{n}^{)}(0)are uniquely determined as

By substituting the obtained coefficients in (18) the solution of (19) becomes

which are the exact solutions.

**Example 2.** Consider the nonlinear Fredholm equation system:

(20) |

where

and approximate the solution *y*_{m}(*x*) by the Taylor polynomial

where *a*=0,*b*=1,*c*=0,*N*=6.

Then, we obtain the matrices **W**, **F**, **T**_{1} and **T**_{2 }as

By substituting the obtained coefficients in (17), we find the unknown coefficients *y*_{m}^{(}^{n}^{)}(0) as

We get the aproximate solution of problem (20) for *c*=0,*N*=6 as

**Example 3.** Consider the system of linear Fredholm integral equations

(21) |

Following the previous procedures, we find the unknown coefficients as

We get the aproximate solution of problem (21) for *c*=0, *N*=6 as

Now let us find the solution of problem (21) taking *c*=0; *N*=6,8,10,12,14. The comparison of the solutions given above with exact solutions *y*_{1}(*x*)=*e*^{2}^{x},*y*_{2}(*x*)=*e*^{-}^{x} of the problem is given below in Table 1, Table 2 and Figure 1, Figure 4.

#### Table 1. Comparing the solutions of *y*_{1} and *y*_{2} which has been found for *N*=6,8,10,12,14 at Example 3

**Figure 1.**Comparison of the error analysis of

*y*

_{1}for

*N*=6,8,10,12,14

**Figure 2.**Comparison of the error analysis of

*y*

_{2}for 6,8,10,12,14

**Example 4.** Our last example is the nonlinear Fredholm equation system

(22) |

where

Applying the previous procedures, we get the aproximate solution of problem (22) for *c*=0,*N*=6,8,10. The comparison of the solutions (for *c*=0,*N*=6,8,10) with exact solutions *y*_{1}(*x*)=e^{x}^{2}, *y*_{2}(*x*)=e^{-}^{x }*cos x* of the problem is given in Table 3, Table 4 and Figure 3, Figure 4.

#### Table 4. Comparison of the error analysis of *y*_{1} and *y*_{2} which has been found for *N*=6,8,10 at Example 4

**Figure 3**

**.**Comparison of the error analysis of

*y*

_{1}for

*N*=6,8,10

**Figure 4.**Comparison of the error analysis of

*y*

_{2}for

*N*=6,8,10.

### 5. Conclusions

In this paper a new approximate method is used to solve nonlinear systems of Fredholm integral equations. We described the method, used in four test problems, and compared the results with their exact solutions in order to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the method. The method can be developed and applied to another high-order linear and nonlinear integro- differential equation systems with variable coefficients.

### References

[1] | C.T.H. Baker, A perspective on the numerical treatment of Volterra equations, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 125, 217-249, 2000. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[2] | P. Linz, Analytical and numerical methods for Volterra equations, SIAM, Philadelphia, PA, 1985. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[3] | L.M. Delves, J.L. Mohamed, Computational methods for integral equations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[4] | F. Bloom, Asymptotic bounds for solutions to a system of damped integrodifferential equations of electromagnetic theory, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 73, 524-542, 1980. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[5] | K. Holmaker, Global asymptotic stability for a stationary solution of a system of integro-differential equations describing the formation of liver zones, SIAM J. Math. Anal. 24, (1) 116-128, 1993. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[6] | M.A. Abdou, Fredholm–Volterra integral equation of the first kind and contact problem, Appl. Math. Comput. 125, 177-193, 2002. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[7] | L.K. Forbes, S. Crozier and D.M. Doddrell, Calculating current densities and fields produced by shielded magnetic resonance imaging probes, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 57, 2, 401-425, 1997. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[8] | P.J. Houwen, B.P.Sommeijer, Euler–Chebyshev methods for integro-differential equations, Appl. Numer. Math. 24, 203-218, 1997. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[9] | W.H. Enright and M. Hu, Continuous Runge-Kutta methods for neutral Volterra integro-differential equations with delay, Appl. Numer. Math. 24, 175-190, 1997. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[10] | K. Maleknejad, F. Mirzae and S. Abbasbandy, Solving linear integro-differential equations system by using rationalized Haar functions method, Appl. Math. Comput. 155, 317-328, 2004. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[11] | K. Maleknejad and K. M. Tavassoli, Solving linear integro-differential equation system by Galerkin methods with hybrid functions, Appl. Math. Comput. 159, 603-612, 2004. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[12] | R. P. Kanwall and K. C. Liu, A Taylor expansion approach for solving integral equations, Int. J. Math. Educ. Sci. Technol., 20, 3, 411-414, 1989. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[13] | M. Sezer, Taylor polynomial solutions of volterra integral equations, Int. J. Math. Educ. Sci. Technol., 25, 5, 625-633, 1994. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[14] | M. Sezer, A method for the approximate solution of the second-order linear differential equations in terms of Taylor polynomials, Int. J. Math. Educ. Sci. Technol., 27, 6, 821- 834, 1996. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[15] | S. Yalçınbaş and M. Sezer, The approximate solution of high-order linear Volterra Fredholm integro-differential equations in terms of Taylor polynomials, Appl. Math. Comput., 112, 291-308, 2000. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[16] | S. Yalçınbaş, Taylor polynomial solutions of nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm integral equations, Appl. Math. Comput., 127, 195-206, 2002. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[17] | S. Yalçınbaş, A. Şahiner, M. Demirbaş, B. Altınay and S. Kocakuş, The approximate solution of high-order linear differential equation systems with variable coefficients in terms of Taylor polynomials, The third international conference ‘‘Tools for mathematical modelling’’, Saint Petersburg, 18-23 June 2001, 8, 175-188, 2001. | ||

In article | |||

[18] | Yalçınbaş and F. Yeniçerioğlu, The approximate solutions of high-order linear differential equation systems with variable coefficients, Far East Journal of Dynamical Systems, 6, 2, 139-157, 2004. | ||

In article | |||

[19] | A. Akyüz-Daşçıoğlu and M. Sezer, Chebyshev polynomial solutions of systems of higher-order linear Fredholh-Volterra integro-differential equations, J. Franklin Institute 342, 688-701, 2005. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[20] | E. Yusufoğlu (Agadjavov), A homotopy perturbation algorithm to solve a system of Fredholm–Volterra type integral equations, Mathematical and Computer Modelling 47, 1099-1107, 2008. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||

[21] | S. Yalçınbaş and K. Erdem, Approximate solutions of nonlinear Volterra integral equation systems, International Journal of Modern Physics B, 24, 32, 6235-6258, 2010. | ||

In article | CrossRef | ||